Northern British Columbia

Alliford Bay WWII Defences | Fort Babine | Barrett Point Battery | Bear Lake Post
Black River Post | Chatham Barracks | Fort Connolly | Dease Lake House | Fort Drew
Fairview Point Battery | Finlay River Post | S. Fraser's Fort | Fort Fraser | Fraser Lake Post
Fort George | Gitlaxdzok Indian Fort | Fort Glenora | Glenora Post | Fort Graham
Fort Halkett | Hazelton Post | Hudson's Hope Post | Fort Kilmaurs | Kitwanga Indian Fort
Klondike Gold Rush NWMP Posts | Liard Post | Little Bear Lake Post | Lower Post
Fort McDame | McDame Creek Post | Fort McLeod | McLeod Lake Post | Masset Post
Fort Mumford | Nass River Post | Fort Nelson | Pine Fort | Pine Creek Post
Prince Rupert Defences | Queen Charlotte Is. Radar Stations | Rocky Mountain Fort
Rocky Mountain Portage Fort | Fort St. James | Fort St. John | Fort Simpson
Stony Creek Post | Stuart Lake Post | Telegraph Creek Post | Teslin Post | Toad River Post
Trout Lake Fort | Fort Ware

Southern British Columbia - page 1 | Vancouver Island - page 2

FUR TRADE FORTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

Last Update: 06/NOVEMBER/2010
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2010 American Forts Network

Fort George (Park)
(1807 - 1911), Prince George FORT WIKI
Originally a North West Co. post, then a Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin in 1887). The town was formally established in 1909. On the site of the original post is the Fraser - Fort George Regional Museum - Exploration Place (admission fee) at 20th Ave. and Gorse Street.

Stony Creek Post
(1891), near Vanderhoof ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Fort Fraser
(Beaumont Provincial Park)
(1806 - 1915), Fort Fraser FORT WIKI
Originally a North West Co. fur trade post known as Simon Fraser's Fort. Became a Hudson's Bay Co. post in 1822. Also known as Fraser Lake Post. The original site of the fort is 4 km to the west in Beaumont Provincial Park. In 1911 the post was relocated to nearby Nadleh before it was closed.

Fort St. James (National Historic Site)
(1806 - 1952), Fort St. James FORT WIKI
Originally a North West Co. post known as Stuart Lake Post, then renamed as a Hudson's Bay Co. post beginning in 1822 (HBC records cover 1820 - 1902). The current structure is a reconstruction of the fourth post, from 1896. It also features five restored buildings that date between 1884 and 1889, including the Men's House, Officers' Dwelling, and General Warehouse. This was the headquarters of the HBC's New Caledonia District in 1822. Admission fee.

Fort Babine
(1822 - 1871/1923), Fort Babine
A Hudson's Bay Co. post that was originally located in Old Fort (aka Fort Kilmaurs) located 35 miles southeast, at the "Y" of Babine Lake (east of Smither's Landing), until moved in 1836 to its present location.
(thanks to Andy Korsos for providing info)

Fort Connolly
(1826 - unknown), near Bear Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on the Bear River.

Little Bear Lake Post
(1879 - 1891), near Bear Lake ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Hazelton Post
(1890 - 1939), Hazelton
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Kitwanga Indian Fort
(Gitwangak Battle Hill National Historic Site)
(unknown dates), Kitwanga
A Tsimshian palisade from the late 1600's. It was destroyed in the early 1800's by other tribes.

Gitlaxdzok Indian Fort
(Kitselas Canyon National Historic Site)
(unknown dates), Kitselas
A Tsimshian palisaded village on the Skeena River from the 19th-century.


¤ COAST ARTILLERY DEFENCES, PRINCE RUPERT HARBOUR
Harbour Defence of Prince Rupert - FORT WIKI

¤ Barrett Point Battery
(1939 - 1946), Kaien Island
Three 6-inch MK12 guns on MK7 mounts were temporarily emplaced here until 1944, when three 6-inch MK24 guns, two on MK6 mounts and one on a MK5 mount, were emplaced. A 6-pounder Hotchkiss gun was also here, as well as two 40mm Bofors AA guns and two searchlight positions. The battery observation post, plotting room, and magazines still exist, but overgrown with vegetation. At least one searchlight structure still exists, located on the water side of the railroad in front of the battery site. The ruins of the Fire Command post still exist, located on the landward side of the railroad.

¤ Casey Point Battery
(1944 - 1946), Kaien Island
A 6-pounder MK1 twin AMTB battery. Two 25-pounder field-mount guns were also located here, as well as one searchlight position. Emplacement still exists. The anti-submarine net and boom defence was emplaced here and across the sound to Emerson Point on Digby Island.

¤ Fairview Point Battery
(1942 - 1945), Kaien Island
Two American-made 8-inch M1888 M1 guns on M1918 barbette carriages, which were mounted on M1918 M1 rail cars, on a spur of the CN rail line. Gun position no longer exists. Independent fire-control stations for this battery were located on the west side of Digby Island and on Mount Hayes (ruins).

¤ Frederick Point Battery
(1939 - 1946), Digby Island
Two 12-pounder MK1 quick-firing guns on MK1 mounts. Two searchlight positions were nearby. The emplacements and magazines still exist.

¤ Tobey Point Battery
(1942 - 1945), Digby Island
Four 3.7-inch AA guns were located here. No longer exists.

¤ Dundas Point Battery
(1939 - 1945), Digby Island
A 75mm AMTB battery, with two searchlight positions, to protect the secondary boom defence across Venn Passage. No longer exists.

¤ Varney Island Battery
(1942 - 1944), Varney Island
A 75mm AMTB battery to protect the boom defence across Venn Passage. No longer exists.

¤ Pillsbury Cove Battery
(1942 - 1945),
Four 3.7-inch AA guns were located here. No longer exists.

¤ Seal Cove Battery
(1942 - 1945), Prince Rupert
Four 3.7-inch AA guns were located here to protect the RCAF Seaplane Base. The battery position no longer exists, however the ramp and hangar for the seaplanes still exist, as well as several ammunition magazines.


¤ NOTES: The AA battery on Annette Island, Alaska, was manned by Canadian troops, and was commanded by the Prince Rupert Defence Command. The Naval signal station was located on East Kinahan Island. An anti-submarine magnetic loop indicator station was located on Ridley Island. The Boom Defence Depot was located near Chatham Barracks, the Royal Canadian Navy barracks, near where the present-day cruise ship terminal is located. Chatham Barracks is now the Royal Canadian Legion hall. Twelve mobile 40mm Bofors AA guns were located around the docks. The Federal Building (present-day city hall) was used as the command centre by the Canadian military. Most war-time construction was dismantled soon after the war. The U.S. Army's HQ-Administration Building on First Avenue West near the waterfront docks became an apartment complex after the war (burned down in November 2004). A munitions dump was located behind the city courthouse (site now a sunken garden, two tunnels still extant). A U.S. Army military hospital was built at Miller Bay. Nearby Port Edward was also used by the U.S. Army as an ammunition storage and supply staging area. Twenty ammo magazines were located on Watson Island. A pulp mill is now on the site there.

The Canadian Army operated Armored Train #1 (July 1942 - September 1943) along 80 miles of the Canadian National rail line from the train's base at Terrace to Prince Rupert. It consisted of six modified cars with the engine in the center, two 75mm and four 40mm Bofors AA guns mounted on open flatcars, and two mounted AA searchlights, along with a full company of infantry support troops.

Special thanks to David Morgan and Robert Zink of the Coast Defense Study Group for providing info on the Coast Artillery Defences of British Columbia.


Fort Simpson
(1831 - 1866/1926), Port Simpson
A Hudson's Bay Company stockaded post. Originally located near the mouth of the Nass River (aka Nass River Post), it was relocated south in 1834 to the Tsimpsean Peninsula, north of Prince Rupert near Lax Kw'alaams.

Masset Post
(1890 - 1897), Masset, Graham Island
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Alliford Bay WWII Defences
(1942 - 1945), Alliford Bay, Moresby Island
A two-gun 75mm AMTB battery and an AA battery to protect the military seaplane base.

Queen Charlotte Islands Radar Stations
(1942 - 1945), various locations
No. 1 Coast Watch Unit RCAF was established in 1942 on the uninhabited west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands to provide visual surveillance. In 1943 when radar coverage permitted, the coast watchers were withdrawn. 1 CWU had eight detachments (each with a "woodsman", two radio operators and a man with "some cooking and camping ability") located (north to south) at Frederick Island, Hippa Island, Kindakun Island, Marble Island, Hibben Island, Tasoo Harbour, Barry Harbour, and Big Bay.

In 1942 construction of a chain of radar stations for surveillance of the Pacific Coast began, implementing the Chain Home Low early warning radars. By November 1943 it was in place. Initially the stations were called "Radio Detachments" and in 1943 the title "Radio Unit" was adopted. The term "RADAR" was not adopted by Canadians until late 1943. The chain ceased operations with the war's end in mid 1945. The RCAF radar sites in the Queen Charlotte Islands were located on Langara Island at Cape Knox, Marble Island in Cartwright Sound (Skidegate Channel), and at Cape St. James on Kunghit Island (now part of South Moresby Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve).

Fort St. John
(1793 - 1823, 1858 - 1923/1950's), Fort St. John FORT WIKI
A North West Co. fur trade post, originally named Rocky Mountain Fort, located on the south bank of the confluence of the Pine and Peace Rivers. It was the oldest white settlement on the BC mainland. It was abandoned in 1805. The NWC then built Pine Fort nearby on the Pine River in 1806. The Hudson's Bay Co. took over and rebuilt the post in 1822, now renamed Fort St. John, then later moved the post to Hudson's Hope after Indians killed the traders here in 1823. Fort St. John was re-established in 1858 on the south bank of the Peace River, then relocated upstream on the north bank in 1873 (today's Old Fort area) (HBC records end in 1910). Re-established as a retail operation in 1925 at Fish Creek. Of interest in town is the North Peace Museum, at 9323 100th Street (admission fee).

Hudson's Hope Post
(1805 - 1825, 1865 - 1954), Hudson's Hope
Originally located here was a North West Co. trading post known as Rocky Mountain Portage Fort. The Hudson's Bay Co. moved Fort St. John here in 1823, but then closed it in 1825. The post was not re-established until 1865. The name "Hudson's Hope" first appears in 1868. The post was moved to its present site in 1899 (HBC records cover 1895 - 1907). A replica of the latter post is at the Hudson's Hope Museum, which was the former HBC store built in 1942. It has a log church, trapper's cabin and other buildings.

Fort McLeod (National Historic Site)
(1805 - 1911), McLeod Lake FORT WIKI
A North West Co. fur trade post, originally known as Trout Lake Fort. Renamed and relocated by the HBC in 1822. Also known as McLeod Lake Post. Several structures from the 1920's and 1940's still remain.

Fort Graham
(1890 - 1922), Fort Graham
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located near the north end of Williston Lake. Also known as Bear Lake Post.

Fort Ware
(1824), Fort Ware
A Hudson's Bay Co. trade post. Also known as Finlay River Post. The present community was relocated in the 1960's due to the flooding of Lake Williston.

Fort Nelson
(1805 - 1902), Fort Nelson
A North West Company fur trade post, then a Hudson's Bay Co. post in 1822 (HBC records begin in 1871). Of interest in town is the Fort Nelson Heritage Museum operated by the Fort Nelson Historical Society.

Toad River Post
(1867 - 1889 ?), Toad River
A Hudson's Bay Co. post. The town was abandoned by 1890.

Black River Post
(1890 - 1898),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Fort Halkett
(Smith River Falls Provincial Park)
(1829 - 1875), near Smith River
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records end in 1865) originally on the Liard River near the Fort Nelson River. Relocated west in 1832 to the mouth of the Smith River.

Liard Post
(1876 - 1911), Lower Post
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin in 1890), also later known as Lower Post to distinguish it from Upper Liard (settled 1954) in Yukon Territory.

Fort Drew
(1850 ? - unknown), near Good Hope Lake ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located south of Lower Post.

McDame Creek Post
(1875 - 1943), McDame Post
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records cover 1877 - 1923) located on McDame's Creek at its confluence with the Dease River, near Good Hope Lake, established during the Cassiar region gold rush. Also known as Fort McDame. The town, formerly named Sylvester's Landing, was abandoned by 1960.

Dease Lake House
(1837 - 1838 or 1839, 1898 - 1904), near Dease Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. fur trade post built by Robert Campbell, located about 50km north of the Tanzilla River. Abandoned after only a year or so of use. Later re-established during the region's gold rush period. Ruins of the second post still exist.

Telegraph Creek Post
(1897 - 1909), Telegraph Creek
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin in 1897) originally located nearby at Glenora Landing during the region's gold rush. Also known as Glenora Post and Fort Glenora. The historic main building (built 1898) is now a lodge and restaurant (Riversong Lodge, Cafe and General Store) since 1977. Gold was discovered on the Stikine River in the 1860's. A telegraph line was connected in 1866.

Fort Mumford ?
(1799 - unknown), near Glenora ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. (?) post on the Stikine River.

Teslin Post
(1898 - 1901), Teslin Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the southern end of the lake, according to the HBC Archives post map. Re-established in 1903 at Teslin, Yukon Territory (see also).
NOTE: The NWMP Teslin Post (1906) was in Yukon Territory.

Pine Creek Post
(1904 - 1905), near Atlin
A NWMP post. The former gold-mining community was later named Discovery. Located 8.7 km east of town along Discovery Road.

Klondike Gold Rush NWMP Posts
(Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site)
(1898 - 1899), near Bennett
North West Mounted Police tent camps were located at Lindeman (1898), Bennett, White Pass (1898), Log Cabin, and Chilkoot Pass. These posts were established during the later stages of the Klondike gold rush to control the flow of people and materiél over the border. The NWMP first arrived in the Yukon Territory in 1895. NWMP detachments arrived at Chilkoot Pass in February 1898, just days before the U.S. Army arrived in Skagway, and confirmed this area for Canada when the international boundary was still undetermined. The Chilkoot Pass detachment transferred to Lindeman in July 1898, then left from there in November 1898. The White Pass detachment transferred to Log Cabin. The park is administered by the Yukon National Historic Sites Division of Parks Canada.


NEED MORE INFO:
Towns: Hyland Post in Spatsizi Plateau Wilderness Park.

Southern British Columbia - page 1 | Vancouver Island - page 2

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