Canadian Forts

MANITOBA

Fort Alexander | Ash House | Fort Assiniboine | Assiniboine House | Bad Lake Posts
Bad Throat Post | Fort Bas de la Rivière | Beaver Creek House (1) | Beaver Creek Post (2)
Berens River Posts | Big Falls Post | Big Point Post | Bird Mountain House | Blood River Post
Bloodvein River Post | Brandon House | Colvile Landing Post | Fort Dauphin (1)
Fort Dauphin (2) | Deloraine Post | Dog Head Post | Dog Lake Post | Doubtful Post
Fort Douglas | Duck Bay House | Camp Dufferin | Fort Dufferin | Eagle Nest Post
Fort Ellice | Fairford Post | Fidler's Fort | Fisher River Post | Flee Island Entrenchments
Fort de la Fourche aux Roseaux | Fort la Fourche des Assiniboines | Lower Fort Garry
Upper Fort Garry | Fort Gibraltar | Grand Rapids Posts (1) | P. Grant's Fort
R. Grant's Fort | Grassy Narrows Post | Great Falls Posts | Hair Hills Post | Camp Hughes
Jackhead Post | Lac du Bonnet Post | Lake Manitoba Post (2) | Latour's House
Little Grand Rapids Post | Long Lake Post | Fort Louisa | Lower Red Deer River Post
Macdonnell's House | Mainwaring River Post | Manitoba House | Manitoba Lake House (1)
Manitou Post | Marlborough House | Fort Maurepas (1) | Fort Maurepas (2)
Fort Montagne à la Bosse | Morden Post | Morris Post | Oak Point Post | Pakwa Lake Post
Pembina Mountain Post | Pembina River House | Pigeon River Post | Pine Fort
Pine Creek Post | Fort des Pinettes | Pointe au Foutre House | Poplar Point Post
Portage la Prairie Posts | Red River House | Fort la Reine | Fort Richmond
Riding Mountain Post | Rivière aux Morts Posts | Rivière la Coquille Post
Rivière la Souris Post | Fort Rouge | St. Ambroise Entrenchments | St. Norbert Barrier
Sand Hills Post | Sasaginnigak Lake Post | Camp Sewell | Shell River Post | Shoal Lake Posts
Shoal River Post | Somerset House | Swan River Posts | Tilberry House | Fort des Trembles
Turtle Mountain Post | Waterhen River Post | West Lynne Post | Whitemud River Posts
Winnipegosis Post | Fort Whyte | Fort William | Winnipeg House | Winnipeg Lake Post

Northern Manitoba - page 2

MANITOBA HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Last Update: 06/NOVEMBER/2010
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2010 American Forts Network

Berens River Posts
(1813 - 1940), Berens River
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin 1815) located at the mouth of the Berens River at Lake Winnipeg. Relocated in 1824.

A North West Co. post was also located nearby (date ?).

Pigeon River Post
(1812 - unknown), Pigeon River
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the mouth of the Pigeon River at Lake Winnipeg.

Pakwa Lake Post
(unknown dates), Pakwa Lake
A North West Co. post located along the North Etomami River.

Long Lake Post
(unknown dates),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Berens River.

Grand Rapids Posts (1)
(1816 - 1942), Little Grand Rapids
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the "grand rapids" of the Berens River. Also (or later) known as Little Grand Rapids Post.

A North West Co. post was located nearby (date ?).

Great Falls Posts
(1802 - 1816), Fishing Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the "great falls" of the Berens River, close to the Ontario border. Also known as Big Falls Post.

A North West Co. post was located nearby (date ?).

Blood River Post
(1794 - 1795), Bloodvein
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the mouth of the Bloodvein River at Lake Winnipeg. Also known as Bloodvein River Post.

Sasaginnigak Lake Post
(Atikaki Provincial Wilderness Park)
(1812 - unknown), Sasaginnigak Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located near the Bloodvein River.

Bad Lake Posts (2)
(Atikaki Provincial Wilderness Park)
(1805 - 1806), Knox Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located near the Ontario border, probably on the Gammon River. Apparently relocated from the 1792 post on the Ontario side of the border (see also).

An independent British trade post was also located here (date ?).

Winnipeg Lake Post
(1796 - 1797), near Hollow Water ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post. Also known as Mainwaring River Post (according to HBC Archives).

Bad Throat Post
(1888 - 1893), near Manigotagen ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on Lake Winnipeg.

Turtle Lake Post
(1801 - 1802, 1889), near Bissett ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post near the Ontario border.

Eagle Nest Post
(Whiteshell Provincial Park)
(1859 - 1872), Eagle Nest Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Winnipeg River near the Ontario border.

Lac du Bonnet Post
(1807 - 1808), Lac du Bonnet
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Fort Maurepas (2)
(1737 - 1760 ?), near Fort Alexander
This French trade fort was located on the north bank of the Winnipeg River, within the present-day Fort Alexander Indian Reserve. It was probably abandoned from 1739 - 1742. It had burned down in 1747, was rebuilt in 1748, and burned down again in 1763, although it was probably already abandoned by then.
(additional info courtesy of Andy Korsos)

Fort Bas-de-la-Rivière
(1792 - 1821), Fort Alexander
A North West Co. post, also known as Winnipeg House, originally located at Otter Point. Rebuilt in 1807. Taken over by the HBC in 1822 and renamed Fort Alexander (see below).

An XY Company post was also briefly located here in 1800, abandoned before the following winter.

Fort Alexander
(1793 - 1801 ?, 1822 - 1860/1940), Fort Alexander
Built by the Hudson's Bay Co. to counter the North West Co.'s Fort Bas-de-la-Rivière that was nearby (HBC records begin 1795). Originally located upriver at and known as Pointe au Foutre House (on the north bank). Palisaded for defence in 1796. Relocated downstream in 1798 closer to the NWC post. Probably abandoned in 1801.

The HBC returned in 1822 and took over the NWC's Fort Bas-de-la-Rivière, which was renamed. Probably rebuilt in 1857. It was garrisoned by the Canadian Militia in 1870 during the Red River Rebellion, possibly renamed Fort Louisa. A model of the 1857 fort is at the Sakeeng Museum in nearby Pine Falls.

Red River House
(1812 - 1813), near Selkirk
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the mouth of the Red River delta at Lake Winnipeg. Also known as Fort William.

Fort Maurepas (1)
(1734 - 1737), near Selkirk
A French post located on the west bank of the Red River about six miles north of town.

Rivière-aux-Morts Posts
(1803 - unknown), near Selkirk
A North West Co. post located on the Red River north of Selkirk at Netley Creek.

A Hudson's Bay Co. post was located here in 1816.

Colvile Landing Post
(1882 - 1883), near East Selkirk
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Lower Fort Garry (National Historic Site)
(1826 - 1911), near Selkirk
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Red River just south of town. Rebuilt in 1831 (HBC records begin 1854). British troops were garrisoned here in 1846 - 1848 (the "Oregon Crisis") to counter possible American expansion from the south. The stone-built Southwest Bastion was built during this time. The fort was garrisoned by the Canadian Militia (Québec Rifles) in 1870 - 1871 during the Red River Rebellion. The North West Mounted Police were garrisoned here in the winter of 1873-74 (October-June) for training prior to assembling at Fort Duffering for the journey west into present-day Saskatchewan and Alberta. The "Stone Fort Treaty" (aka Indian Treaty No. 1) was signed here in August 1871. From 1913-1962 the fort was leased to the Motor Country Club. The Hudson’s Bay Company donated the complex and its associated land to Parks Canada in 1951, and since then (1965-1982) many of its structures have been restored and interpreted to the 1850-1860 period. This is the oldest stone-walled fur post remaining in the province. Extant structures include the Men's House and the Big House. Admission fee.

Peter Fidler's Fort
(1817 - unknown), near Winnipeg
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Fort Gibraltar
(The Forks National Historic Site)
(Forts Rouge, Garry, and Gibraltar National Historic Site)
(1807 - 1826), Winnipeg
A North West Co. post. Rebuilt in 1810, and again in 1817 after destroyed by HBC-allied Red River settlers in March 1816. Taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821 and renamed Fort Garry. Destroyed by a flood in 1826, then relocated to Selkirk (see above). A reconstruction was built in 1978 on the actual site in the St. Boniface community.
See also Battle of Seven Oaks (NHS) (June 1816) from Canadian Register of Historic Places

First located here in the vicinity was the French military supply depot Fort Rouge (aka Fort la Fourche des Assiniboines) (1737 - 1749, 1752 - 1753), probably located at South Point Park. See also La Vérendrye Manitoba Heritage Council historic marker

Fort Douglas
(1812 - 1826), Winnipeg
This was the first and main site of the Red River Colony, the first permanent white settlement in the province, sponsored by the Hudson's Bay Company. Located just downriver (north) from the NWC's Fort Gibraltar. Attacked by Métis/Nor'westers in the fall/winter of 1814. Destroyed by a flood in 1826. See also The Lord Selkirk Settlement at Red River from the Manitoba Historical Society
(see also NORTH DAKOTA page)

Upper Fort Garry
(The Forks National Historic Site)
(1836 - 1882), Winnipeg
The Hudson's Bay Co. decided in 1835 that a post at the "Forks" should be rebuilt as this was still a major trading location. British troops were garrisoned here in 1846 - 1848 (the "Oregon Crisis") to counter possible American expansion from the south. The civilian settlement was nearly destroyed by a flood in 1852. The fort was expanded in 1854, when the Governor's Gate was constructed. Today this gate is all that remains of the fort after it was dismantled in the early 1880's. In 1870 the post briefly became the first headquarters for the newly created District of Assiniboia, Northwest Territories, but the Métis under Louis Riel captured it during the 1870 Red River Rebellion as their headquarters for the "Provisional Government of Manitoba", and afterward it was garrisoned by the Canadian Militia (Québec Rifles) until 1871. This rebellion led to the admittance of Manitoba as a province of Canada in July 1870. The city of Winnipeg later grew around the fort, and many historic buildings' foundations were built upon the fort's original stones. Most structures were demolished by 1880, but the Governor's House remained in use until 1883. The last four houses were sold at auction in 1888. The original site has recently been preserved as a future provincial heritage park. See also Troops at Upper Fort Garry || History of the HBC's Winnipeg Store from HBC Heritage
See also A Short Pictorial History on Upper Fort Garry from Lincoln Park Gallery
See also Silver Heights Manitoba Heritage Council historic marker

St. Norbert Barrier
(St. Norbert Provincial Heritage Park)
(1869 - 1870), Winnipeg
The Métis erected a strong barrier here near the Red River ferry to prevent Federal government officials and the Canadian Militia from advancing from the south towards the "Forks" and Upper Fort Garry. Several houses from the original settlement of St. Norbert have been preserved in the provincial park, located on the La Salle River at the southern limits of the city. The nearby municipal Le Barrière Park also commemorates the event.

Fort Whyte
(1888), Winnipeg
A former townsite that developed in reference to barricades erected during an armed, yet bloodless, conflict in 1888 between employees of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, led by William Whyte, and workers of a rival railroad wanting a right-of-way through this section of the city, about six miles southwest of the city centre. The Canadian Supreme Court ruled in favor of the rival company, ending the CPR's monopoly.

Fort Richmond
(unknown dates), Winnipeg
A neighborhood in central Winnipeg. Origin of name unknown.

Scratching River Posts
(1801 ?), Morris
Both the North West Co. and the XY Company had trade posts here. The Morris River was originally known as the Scratching River. The town was not settled until 1874. See also Town of Morris Manitoba Heritage Council historic marker.

Fort de la Fourche aux Roseaux
(1734 - unknown), near Letellier ?
A French fort located on the Red River, possibly at the mouth of the Roseau River.

Fort Dufferin (National Historic Site)
(1872 - 1875), Emerson
Originally established and named Camp Dufferin by the Royal Engineers of the British North America Boundary Commission as its headquarters camp, located on the west bank of the Red River. During 1873 it became a North West Mounted Police command post and winter staging area prior to the "Great March" west into present-day Saskatchewan in the summer of 1874. Last used as barracks during the winter of 1874-75. The buildings were later used to house immigrant Mennonite settlers until they could move onto their homesteads in the nearby West Reserve. In the mid 1880's it was used as a quarantine station for livestock imported through the customs station. Some buildings and gravesites still remain. The site is now a memorial to the NWMP. A memorial cairn was erected by the Historic Sites and Monument Board of Canada in 1949. In 1995 the RCMP dedicated a statue to commemorate the NWMP's trek west, located in front of the Tourist Information Building on Highway 75. The town was settled in 1874. See also Emerson Historical Tour from Manitoba Historical Society || PHOTOS from Town of Dufferin

The Canadian Militia had posted a garrison here at the border in 1870 - 1871 during the Red River Rebellion, and also during the Fenian raid of October 1871.

West Lynne Post
(1876 - 1889), Emerson
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the west bank of the Red River, just north of the international border. The town, originally named North Pembina, became part of Emerson in 1883. See also Pembina - Emerson Area Manitoba Heritage Council historic marker

Morden Post
(1887 - 1900), Morden
A Hudson's Bay Co. post. The town was first settled in 1882.

Pembina River House
(1800 - 1805 ?), near Windygates and Maida, North Dakota
Also called Pembina Mountain Post and Hair Hills Post. It was established by the North West Company as a fur trade post, but it became known for its vegetable gardens. The post was relocated each season, which fluctuated around the later established U.S. - Canada border. (see also NORTH DAKOTA page)

Manitou Post
(1891), Manitou
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Oak Point Post
(1862 - 1863), Oak Point
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on Lake Manitoba.

St. Ambroise Dakota Entrenchments (Provincial Heritage Site)
(1864), near St. Ambroise
Remnants of a fortified Dakota (Sioux) Indian refugee camp from the Sioux Uprising in Minnesota. It provided protection against the Red Lake Chippewan Indians.

Flee Island Dakota Entrenchments (Provincial Heritage Site)
(1864), near High Bluff
Remnants of a fortified Dakota (Sioux) Indian refugee camp from the Sioux Uprising in Minnesota, located on Flee Island. It provided protection against the Red Lake Chippewan Indians. Historic marker located north of town, just west of the junction of Roads 526 and 227.

Poplar Point Post
(1900 - 1911), Poplar Point
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Fort la Reine
(Canadian Register Of Historic Places)
(1737 - 1753), Portage la Prairie
A French trade post, relocated in 1739. A memorial cairn is located on the Assiniboine River southwest of the town limits, below the dam for the Portage Diversion Canal, near the junction of Highway 1 and the Yellowquill Trail. A modern reconstruction of the fort is located at the Fort la Reine Museum and Pioneer Village (admission fee), located just east of town at the junction of Highways 1A and 26.

Portage la Prairie Posts
(1794 - unknown), Portage la Prairie
A North West Co. post.

A Hudson's Bay Co. post was also located nearby (HBC records cover 1833 - 1891).

Fort des Trembles
(1767 - unknown), near Portage la Prairie
An independent British trade post located on the Assiniboine River west of town.

Pine Fort
(1785 - 1794, 1807 - 1811), near Lavenham
A North West Co. trading post on the Assiniboine River. Also known as Fort des Pinettes. Provincial historic marker located at the Kiche Manitou Campground in Spruce Woods Provincial Park.

An independent British trade post was earlier located here in 1768.

Peter Grant's Fort
(1785 ? - unknown), near Treesbank
A North West Co. post on the Assiniboine River, a few miles above (west of) its confluence with the Souris River.

Also here, or the same post, was Robert Grant's Fort (1786 ?).

Brandon House
(1793 - 1832), near Treesbank
A stockaded Hudson's Bay Co. trading post, located on the north bank of the Assiniboine River a few miles above its confluence with the Souris River. Relocated in 1818 and again in 1826. Replaced by Fort Ellice.

Fort Souris
(1793 - unknown), near Treesbank
An XY Company post on the south bank of the Souris River.

Rivière-la-Souris Post
(1793 - unknown), near Treesbank
A North West Co. trading post located on the north bank of the Assiniboine River, about three miles upriver from Brandon House. Also known as John Macdonnell's House, Assiniboine House, and Fort Assiniboine. Relocated in 1805 to the south bank of the river.

Camp Hughes (Provincial Heritage Site)
(1909 - 1934/1992), near Carberry
Originally known as Camp Sewell, a summer military training camp located nine miles west of town. The camp became a year round training facility in 1915. Renamed in 1916 in honour of Major General John Hughes, GOC, the camp had all the amenities - freight sheds were built for hay and oats, a telephone system, a hospital, two theatres, a jewelry store, a barber shop, two cafes, and two banks. Also in 1916 a trench system was dug at the camp to teach trench warfare, which accurately replicated the scale and living arangements of the trenches in Europe. By the time the training school relocated to Brandon and Winnipeg in 1917, when Camp Hughes reverted back to a summer training camp, 30,000 troops had trained here. Many of the soldiers who trained here later distinguished themselves at the battle of Vimy Ridge in April 1917. Camp Hughes remained open after WWI, but finally closed in 1934 after the newly constructed Camp Shilo opened nearby. Some of the buildings from Camp Hughes were moved to Shilo, while others were dismantled and the material used in the construction of new buildings at Shilo. Except for occasional use as a training area during World War II for troops from Camp Shilo, the former camp sat unused. See also History of CFB Shilo from CFB Shilo. Of interest at CFB Shilo is the National Artillery Museum of Canada (admission fee).

In 1961 the site was reactivated as a remote transmitter station for the main communications centre at CFB Shilo. An underground communications bunker was constructed at the former camp, and was staffed by the Manitoba Signal Troop, who were later redesignated 731 Signals Squadron. By the end of the Cold War in 1991, the bunker's usefulness had passed. In 1992 the bunker was closed and sealed up, and was finally demolished in 2000. All that remains of Camp Hughes and the Transmitter Site today are the outlines of the old World War I trench system, roadways, a cemetery, and some old building foundations. The cemetery is still maintained by CFB Shilo.

Turtle Mountain Post
(Turtle Mountain Provincial Park)
(1846 - unknown), near Boissevain
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located near the source of the Pembina River.

Deloraine Post
(1891 - 1908), Deloraine
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Ash House
(1795 - unknown), near Hartney
A North West Co. post on the Souris River.

The Hudson's Bay Co. later built Sand Hills Post here in 1857.

Fort Montagne à la Bosse
(1790 - 1821), near Virden
A North West Co. stockaded post with several cabins. Located on the south side of the Assiniboine River east of Gopher Creek, about two miles north of Routledge.
(additional info courtesy of Andy Korsos)

Manitoba Lake House (1)
(1815 - 1819), near Langruth
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on Lake Manitoba at Big Point. Also known as Big Point Post.

Whitemud River Posts
(1799 - unknown), near Neepawa ?
A North West Co. post and an XY Company post were both located here at the same time.

Shoal Lake Posts
(1875 - 1886), Shoal Lake
A NWMP patrol post and barracks. Became the Qu'Appelle District HQ in 1878. A replica of the barracks was built in 1984 at Lakeview Park, now the Police and Pioneer Museum.

A Hudson's Bay Co. post was later located here in 1889 - 1912.

Beaver Creek House (1)
(1817 - 1824), near St. Lazare
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the west bank of the Assiniboine River about two km upstream from Beaver Creek. It was a subpost of Brandon House.

Nearby was the North West Co.'s Beaver Creek Post (2) (1819 - 1821).

Fort Ellice
(1831 - 1890), near St. Lazare
A Hudson's Bay Co. supply post at the mouth of Beaver Creek (HBC records end 1889). Relocated one mile east in 1862.

A portion of the NWMP was quartered here in the winter of 1873-74, and later briefly established a patrol post here in 1875, replaced by Shoal Lake Post.

Shell River Post
(Asessippi Provincial Park)
(1800 - unknown, 1889), near Shellmouth
A Hudson's Bay Co. post at the mouth of the Shell River on the Assiniboine River (HBC records cover 1889 only). The Shellmouth Dam was completed in 1972, resulting in the impoundment of the Assiniboine River at Lake of the Prairies.

An independent British (or NWC ?) trade post (Rivière la Coquille Post) was previously located here in 1794 - 1795.

Riding Mountain Post
(Riding Mountain National Park)
(1869 - 1895), near Elphinstone
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Fort Dauphin (2) (Museum)
(1797 - 1831), Dauphin
A replica of a palisaded North West Co. post located at 140 Jackson Street. Located here are a trapper's cabin, trading post, blacksmith shop, two log cabins, storehouse, and church. Admission fee. Original site of the post was on the south bank of the Valley River about 4 km from Dauphin Lake. It was abandoned in 1821.

An independent British trade post may have been located on the north shore of the lake in 1767.

The Hudson's Bay Co. had built a competing post in 1817 just 60 yards from the NWC post, which continued on the name (HBC records cover 1795 - 1821). The present town was incorporated in 1898.
(additional info courtesy of Andy Korsos)

Manitoba House
(1797 - unknown), near Kinosota
A North West Co. post located near the outlet of Ebb and Flow Lake at "The Narrows" of Lake Manitoba. Also known as Doubtful Post. Taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1821.

Lake Manitoba Post (2)
(1856 - 1912), near Reykjavik
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at "The Narrows" of Lake Manitoba, at the present Highway 68 crossing.

Dog Lake Post
(unknown dates), near Vogar
A North West Co. post.

Latour's House
(1796 - unknown), near Fairford
A North West Co. post located at the portage to Lake St. Martin.

Fairford Post
(1871 - 1913), Fairford
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Grassy Narrows Post
(Hecla-Grindstone Provincial Park)
(1871 - 1876), near Riverton
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Grindstone Peninsula near the "Narrows" of Lake Winnipeg, across from the western end of Hecla Island (formerly known as Mickly Island). The four immigrant Icelandic settlements in the area north of Boundary Creek (Gimli, Riverton, Hecla, and Sandy Bar) were part of the "Republic of New Iceland" from 1875 - 1881, nominally a self-governing colony within the North West Territories.

Dog Head Post
(1878 - 1895), near Pine Dock
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the "Narrows" of Lake Winnipeg.

Fisher River Post
(1889 - 1904), Fisher River
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Jackhead Post
(unknown dates), Jackhead
A North West Co. post on Lake Winnipeg.

Fort Dauphin (1)
(1741 - 1759), Winnipegosis
A French fort located at the mouth of the Mossy River at Lake Winnipegosis. Attacked by Indians in 1743 and rebuilt on a new site further upriver.

Winnipegosis Post
(1901 - 1912), Winnipegosis
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Waterhen River Post
(1891 - 1913), near Rock Ridge
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Pine Creek Post
(1890 - 1913), Camperville
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the mouth of the Pine River.

Duck Bay House
(1859 - unknown), Duck Bay
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Bird Mountain House
(1800 - unknown), near Benito
A North West Co. post located on the Swan River at the Saskatchewan border, just west of the HBC's Somerset House.

Somerset House
(1794 - 1796), near Benito
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Swan River near the Saskatchewan border. Also known as Tilberry House and Marlborough House.

Swan River Posts
(1787 - 1824), Swan River
A North West Co. post.

The Hudson's Bay Co. built a post here in 1790.

Shoal River Post
(1853 - 1915), Swan Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on the Shoal River near the north shore of Swan Lake, shown on an 1888 NWMP map.

Lower Red Deer River Post
(1797 - unknown), Red Deer Lake
A North West Co. post located at the outlet of the Red Deer River into Red Deer Lake.


NEED MORE INFO: Fort Richmond in Winnipeg.
Towns: Duck Lake Post.

Northern Manitoba - page 2

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