Amherst Island Blockhouse |
Baie de Quinté Post |
Bonne Chere River Post |
Bridge Island Blockhouse
Burritts' Rapids Blockhouse | Bytown Commissariat House | Fort Cataraqui | Cathcart Redoubt
Cedar Island Tower | Cornwall Blockhouse | Fort Frederick | Fort Frontenac | Gananoque Blockhouse
La Galette Trading Post | Fort Henry | Joachim Post | Fort Kenté | Kingston Blockhouses
Kingston Mills Blockhouse | Lac d'Orignal Post | Market Battery | Matawashka Post | Merrickville Blockhouse
Missisagua Point Battery | Murney's Point Blockhouse | Murney Tower | Fort Needless
Newboro Blockhouse | Post des Outaouais | Péré's Post | Camp Petawawa | Pointe au Baril Shipyard
Point Frederick Blockhouse | Point Iroquois Blockhouses | Raisin River Blockhouse | Shoal Tower
Snake Island Blockhouse | Fort Stewart | Stockade Barracks | Tête de Pont Barracks | Tomississippi Post
Trout Lake Post (4) | Upper Narrows Blockhouse | Victoria Tower | Fort Wellington | Windmill Point Lookout
Southern Ontario (West) - page 1 | Northern Ontario (East) - page 3
Northern Ontario (West) - page 4
Baie de Quinté Post
(1720 - unknown), Carrying Place
A French trade post.
See also Carrying Place of the Bay of Quinte (National Historic Site) historic marker and Canadian Register of Historic Places
(1812 - unknown), Carrying Place
A reconstruction of a log blockhouse.
Amherst Island Blockhouse
(1839 - unknown), Amherst Island
A blockhouse was once located here.
¤ KINGSTON HARBOUR DEFENCES
Kingston Fortifications National Historic Site from the Canadian Register of Historic Places
Forts of Eastern Lake Ontario by Pete Payette
Frontenac (National Historic Site)
(1673 - present)
A French log fort originally called Fort Cataraqui. It was renamed and rebuilt with stone in 1675. The French had three outer earthwork batteries in 1755 - 1758. They were abandoned to the British. The British captured and destroyed the fort in August 1758, using one of the French outerworks as a three-gun seige battery, and also building an additional two-gun seige battery. The British enlarged and rebuilt the fort in 1783. It was renamed Tête de Pont Barracks in 1789. The current post was originally built from 1819 - 1824. The Officers' quarters (1827), enlisted men's barracks (1827), mess hall / barracks (1847), and the Commissariat Storehouse (1820) are still extant, as well as several modern buildings. The foundation ruins of the original French fortress have been partially excavated at Ontario Street and Place d'Armes, and also in the center garden of the new compound. The new post was renamed again in 1939 back to the original French name. It is now home to the Canadian Land Force Command and Staff College, since 1947. See also Historic marker
Fort Henry (National Historic Site)
(1812 - 1891)
The second fort was built on the site of the first (a wooden blockhouse) during 1832-37. Two small Martello towers were built on either side of flanking ditches in 1846. The British left in 1870, and the fort was manned by the Canadian Militia to 1891, as the Canadian School of Gunnery. It was later abandoned and became a museum in 1938 after restoration. During World War I it was used as a camp for political prisoners, and during World War II it was used as a POW camp for Germans. This is the largest masonry fort in Canada west of Québec City. Restored to its 1860's appearance. Admission fee. See also Historic marker #1 || Historic marker #2
¤ Kingston Blockhouses
(1812 - 1815)
Six blockhouses were built along a palisaded line on the western side of the original settlement. They still existed until about 1900. Blockhouse #1 was located at Gore and Ontario Streets; #2 at Wellington and West Streets; #3 (with battery) at West and Sydenham Streets; #4 (with battery) at Princess and Clergy Streets; #5 (with battery) near Sydenham and North Streets; and a small blockhouse was located at West and Ontario Streets. Two gun batteries were also located along the palisade at Sydenham and William Streets; and at Sydenham and Ordnance Streets. Barracks were located behind the battery at Sydenham and William Streets; and also at Artillery Park, located at Barrack and Bagot Streets. The last British units left the Artillery Park Barracks in 1871. On Snake Island, about seven miles southwest, was Snake Island Blockhouse (1813 - 1815) and a one-gun battery. A Martello Tower was later planned for this location, but it was never built. See also Kingston Militia Garrison 1837-38 historic marker
¤ Market Battery
(1820's ? - 1840's ?)
A large gun battery that defended the harbour against the Americans. It was demolished in 1885. It was located at Princess and Ontario Streets, near the City Hall. It was replaced by the Shoal Martello Tower.
¤ Missisagua Point Battery
(1812 - unknown)
A large gun battery that defended the harbour against the Americans, located at the end of Gore Street.
¤ Murney Martello Tower (National Historic Site)
(1846 - 1890)
Located on King Street, along the waterfront in MacDonald Park. Used primarily as a barracks after 1849, it was not fully armed until 1862. Operated as a museum since 1925 by the Kingston Historical Society. Admission fee. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places entry #2 || Historic marker
Murney's Point Blockhouse, a wooden blockhouse with an earthwork battery, was located here in 1812.
¤ Fort Frederick
(Point Frederick Buildings National Historic Site)
(Royal Military College of Canada)
(1813 - 1870/present)
Located on the grounds of the Canadian Royal Military College, established in 1876, the equivalent of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY. The Royal Military College Museum is in the Martello Tower (1846). The previous fort (a wooden blockhouse with a stone battery) was demolished in 1846, a portion of the stone battery foundation is still visible. The Kingston Royal Naval Dockyard was here on Navy Bay from 1792 - 1852. The Provincial Marine Naval Depot was first established here in 1789. The Point Frederick Blockhouse was built in 1791 for its protection. The RMC Commandant's Residence was the former Royal Navy Hospital, built in 1814. Other historic buildings/structures at Point Frederick include the lunette/guardhouse (1846), magazine (1846), and the "Stone Frigate" (1820), the Royal Navy's storehouse and barracks.
¤ Kingston Martello Towers
(National Historic Site) ?
(1845 - 1870 ? or 1890 ?)
Masonry gun towers constructed between 1845 and 1848. Four Martello towers were built in Kingston; the Murney and Fort Frederick towers (listed separately above), plus Victoria Tower (aka Shoal Tower) in Flora MacDonald Marina; and Cathcart Redoubt (aka Cedar Island Tower) near Fort Henry. These two towers are not accessible to the general public. The four Kingston towers represent the pinnacle of Martello tower design in North America, before the advent of rifled artillery made them obsolete.
¤ NOTES: Kingston defences originally planned were six forts and five Martello towers in 1829. Due to budget constraints, only Fort Henry and two of the original towers were built (Murney and Cedar Island). Two other towers were later added to the original plan (Shoal and Fort Frederick).
(1677 - unknown), near Codes Corner ?
A French trade post located on the Cataraqui River.
¤¤ Rideau Canal Defences
Rideau Canal National Historic Site from Parks Canada
Friends of the Rideau
Rideau Canal History by Ken Watson
¤¤ Kingston Mills Blockhouse
(1832 - 1870 ?), Codes Corner
One of four blockhouses built to protect the Rideau Canal, a military waterway intended as an alternative to the St. Lawrence River in case of American attack. The blockhouse was restored in 1967. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places
¤¤ Newboro Blockhouse
(1832 - 1870 ?), Newboro
One of the four blockhouses that were built on the Rideau Canal. It was rebuilt in 1888, extensively modifying the structure. It has been renovated and restored to its original appearance. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places
¤¤ Upper Narrows Blockhouse
(1832 - 1870 ?), near Newboro
One of the four blockhouses built to protect the Rideau Canal. It was restored in 1968. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places
¤¤ Merrickville Blockhouse (National Historic Site)
(1832 - 1870 ?), Merrickville
The largest of four blockhouses that were located on the Rideau Canal. Garrisoned by the militia in 1837 - 1838. It was restored in 1965 as a museum. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places entry #2 || Historic marker #1 || Historic marker #2
¤¤ Burritts' Rapids Blockhouse
(1832), Burritts Rapids
A blockhouse was started here, but construction was halted. The stone first story was capped by a wooden roof in 1836. A two-story frame structure replaced the original in 1915.
¤¤ Bytown Commissariat House
(1827 - 1927), Ottawa
It was built and used by the Royal Engineers as a warehouse and depot during the construction of the Rideau Canal. There was a large fort planned for the Bytown (Ottawa) end of the Rideau Canal, but it was never built. After 1856 the building was used for military storage. It now houses the Bytown Museum (since 1952). The Royal Engineers' Office was located opposite the canal from the Commissariat House. It was similar in construction, and was dismantled in 1928. The foundation is still visible near the locks. Barracks and a hospital for the canal workers and soldiers were located on Barracks Hill until 1859, now the location of the Canadian Parliament complex. Bytown was renamed Ottawa in 1855. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places
See also Rideau Canal Ottawa Lockstations by Ken Watson
¤¤ NOTES: There were 12 other "defensible" stone lockstations built along the canal from 1838 - 1842. Most still exist. Ownership of the canal was transferred from the British Ordnance Department to the Province of Upper Canada in 1856.
(1813 - 1815), Gananoque
A blockhouse with an octagonal log parapet with five guns. It was abandoned after the war and sold to a private landowner.
Bridge Island Blockhouse
(1814 - 1815), near Mallorytown Landing
A blockhouse with two guns, with a one-gun circular battery. A marker is located at Mallorytown Landing. This island was a stopping-over place between Brockville and Gananoque.
Pointe au Baril Shipyard
(1758 - 1759), near Maitland
A French fortified shipyard established after the fall and capture of Fort Frontenac in August 1758 to the British. The small yard was protected by earthworks and a palisade. Two small ships were launched here in 1759, but the site was abandoned along with Fort La Présentation (New York) in August 1759, the garrison and supplies being moved to Fort Lévis on Chimney Island (see also NEW YORK page 9). Located about 5.5 miles upstream (southwest) from Ogdensburg, NY.
La Galette Trading Post
(1682 ? - unknown), Prescott
A small French trading post. Abandoned and reoccupied several times. This name was often applied to Fort La Présentation across the St. Lawrence River in Ogdensburg, New York.
(National Historic Site)
(1813 - 1869/1923), Prescott
The fort was originally an earthworks fort, with a shore battery by the river, in 1813 - 1815. The second fort (1837) was built on the ruins of the first fort. There are three original structures surrounded by earthworks, palisade, and dry moat. There is a stone blockhouse, and restored Officers' quarters and latrine. After 1869 the fort was used as a provincial military depot and intermittant militia training camp. Admission fee. In August 2011 a preserved 1817 British gunboat (possibly the H.M.S. Radcliff) was transferred here from St. Lawrence National Park at Mallorytown Landing, where it had been displayed since 1967, and a new visitors centre was built to display the vessel, opened in May 2012. See also History of Fort Wellington by Robert B. Stewart || Fort Wellington in the War of 1812 by Robert Henderson
Historic marker #1 || Historic marker #2
Nearby at 356 East Street is the Stockade Barracks (1810 - 1818), originally the fortified dwelling of Col. Edward Jessup. It was also used as the garrison hospital for Fort Wellington after 1814. It is the oldest standing original military structure in Ontario. It was operated as a historic-themed restaurant and museum from 1990 to 2001 (present status ??).
Nearby on Windmill Point is the Battle of the Windmill NHS (November 1838). The stone windmill was then used as a military lookout until 1840 (Windmill Point Lookout), and was later rebuilt as a lighthouse in 1874, in use until 1975. Admission fee.
Point Iroquois Blockhouses
(1812 - 1815), near Iroquois
Two redoubts with blockhouses, and a detached river battery, were started here, but were never finished before the War of 1812 ended. In 1812 the first British fort on the point had not been completed, or named. A second fort was built on the riverbank in 1814, but U.S. troops did not attack, so the fort was nicknamed "Fort Needless".
The town of Iroquois was the largest residential and business community along the St. Lawrence River to be entirely relocated during construction of the St. Lawrence Deep Waterway during the early 1950's. Its original location was across the Galop Canal from Iroquois Point, a headland famous in legend and history as a camping ground of the Iroquois. The point's proximity to the Canadian-U.S. mid-river boundary line caused it to be selected as the Canadian terminus of the international dam built to control water levels for the waterway. A new canal, cut through the headland to avoid the dam, turned Iroquois Point into a small island. The relocated town of Iroquois is north of the original site. United Empire Loyalists settled the place in 1776. The post office, established in 1789, was called Matilda after the township. In 1856 the post office name was changed to Iroquois.
Nearby, east of Morrisburg, is the Battle of Chrysler's Farm NHS historic marker (November 1813).
A blockhouse / barracks with a four-gun shore battery which was never finished. Located near French Point.
Raisin River Blockhouse
(1813 - 1815), Lancaster
A blockhouse and two-gun battery protected the road and bridge crossing the river. It was accidently burned down after the war.
Lac d'Orignal Post
(1842 - unknown), L'Orignal
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on the Ottawa River (Rivière des Outaouais).
Post des Outaouais
(1613 - unknown), Ottawa
An early French trade post on the Ottawa River (Rivière des Outaouais).
Bonne Chere River Post
(1825 - unknown), near Castleford
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the mouth of the Bonnechere River.
(1827 - unknown), near Matawatchan ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on the Madawaska River.
(1827 - unknown), near Cloyne ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the headwaters of the Mississippi River, also near the headwaters of the Skootamatta River.
(unknown dates), Fort Stewart
No data. Located in northern Hastings County.
(Canadian Forces Base Petawawa)
(1905 - present), near Petawawa
Founded in 1905, the base was created by the Department of Militia and Defence upon the purchase of 22,430 acres (90.8 km2) of mostly agricultural property from local residents. The Royal Canadian Horse and Garrison Artillery from Kingston were the first to train here during the summer of 1905. In 1906 the Royal Canadian Engineers constructed huts, stables and installed water and gas systems. By 1907 combined training and tactical exercises were conducted by various other units such as the Royal Canadian Dragoons, the Royal Canadian Regiment, and units from the Medical and Ordnance Corps. The first military aircraft flight in Canada took place at Petawawa on July 31, 1909 when J.A.D. McCurdy and F.W. Baldwin flew the "Silver Dart" in the presence of military observers. From December 1914 to May 1916 the camp was used as an internment camp for 750 German and Austrian POWs. At the same time the Canada Car and Foundry Company had developed three inch shells and were being tested at the camp by Russian artillery. From May 1916 to 1918, over 10,700 Canadian troops were trained here before being sent overseas.
During World War II, three training centres (two artillery and one engineering) were established. In September 1942 about 12,500 troops were stationed on the base. The peak load was reached during 1943 when approximately 20,000 troops were undergoing training at one time. Petawawa was also the site of Internment Camp No. 33; located at Centre Lake it held 645 civilian internees. There were 28 different nationalities, the majority being Germans.
In 1947 the training of militia and regular units of the Canadian Army resumed. Upon being given the status of a permanent camp, it was officially designated "Camp Petawawa" in May 1951. The unification of the Canadian Forces resulted in Camp Petawawa being renamed Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Petawawa in 1968.
(1851 - unknown), near Rolphton
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Ottawa River at the Des Joachims Rapids.
Trout Lake Post (4)
(Algonquin Provincial Park)
(1837 - unknown), Trout Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.
ALSO OF INTEREST: Located just west of Ottawa at Carp is the Diefenbunker - Central Emergency Government Headquarters (NHS), built in 1959-61 to protect high-level government and military leaders during the Cold War. Decomissioned in 1994, now open to the public as the Canadian Cold War Museum. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places
NEED MORE INFO:
Towns / Villages: Fort Stewart in northern Hastings County.
Southern Ontario (West) - page 1 | Northern Ontario (East) - page 3 | Northern Ontario (West) - page 4
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
Updates @ NorthAmericanForts.com