Camp Anniston (1) |
Camp Anniston (2) |
Fort Armstrong |
Fort Bluff | Bridgeport Defenses | Chickasaw Battery | Fort Chinnabee | Chinnaby's Fort
Camp Coffee | Fort Confederación | Decatur Fort | Fort Deposit (b) | Camp Falkner
Florence Earthworks | Camp Forse | Gainesville Arsenal | Camp Gravelly Springs
Gunter's Landing Camp | Fort Hampton | Fort (Redoubt) Harker | Fort Hawkins
Fort Henderson (2) | Huntsville Fort | Indian Fort | Indian Palisade (b) | Fort Jonesborough
Lashley's Fort | Fort Leslie | Leslie's Post/Station | Fort Likens | Fort Lovell | Camp McClellan
Fort McClellan | Fort (Redoubt) Mitchel (2) | Camp Monte Sano | Camp Morgan
Fort Morrow | Moundville | Fort at Muscle Shoals | Fort Payne | Sand Fort (2) | Camp Shipp
Stevenson Defenses | Fort Stevenson | Fort Strother | Fort J.E.B. Stuart
Sulphur Branch Trestle Fort | Camp Taylor | Fort Tombécbe | Fort Tombigbee (1)
Camp Wheeler | Fort Williams | Camp Winn | Fort York
Southern Alabama - page 1 | Mobile Bay area - page 2
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALABAMA - HISTORY
(1735 - 1799), Epes
Built as a supply depot and trading post by the French. Ceded to the British in 1761 and renamed Fort York. Abandoned in 1768. The Spanish took control in 1783 and renamed it Fort Confederación. The Americans took control in 1795 and renamed it Fort Tombigbee (1), a corruption of the original French name, and held it until 1799 when the international boundary was moved south to the 31st parallel (see Fort Stephens on page 1). The site was used as a CSA lookout post during the Civil War. Earthworks still exist on White Bluff.
Gainesville CSA Arsenal and Ordnance Depot
A CSA Arsenal and/or Ordnance Depot was located in the city. Undetermined location. It may have moved to Tuscalooosa in 1862 or 1863.
Moundville (Archaeological Park)
(Mound State Monument)
(1250 - 1500), Moundville
A Late Mississippian Period palisaded Indian town and mound center. This was the largest Native American city south of the Ohio River, with several satellite towns under its influence. This may be the site of Zabusta which was visited by Hernando DeSoto in December 1540. DeSoto did not note the existence of a palisade at that time. The 320-acre park has 20 platform mounds, a replica temple, extensive earthworks, and a museum. Admission fee.
A settlers' stockaded fort for protection against the Creeks. The town of Jonesborough was first settled in 1815, and was later incorporated into the city of Bessemer. Site located at the Terrace Manor housing complex.
(thanks to Jim Bennett for providing location)
A Spanish-American War muster-out camp for state troops. Located in the East Lake area.
(1862 - 1865), near Shelby
A CSA training camp was established at the Shelby Springs Hotel and Spa (1839). The hotel itself was taken over as a military hospital in 1865. The resort reopened in 1869, but was closed in 1915. The site is now a cattle ranch off of AL 25.
(1814), near Talladega Springs
A Federal supply post and hospital. Located on the Coosa River at Cedar Creek. Site is now under the waters of the Coosa River created by the Mitchell Dam.
Indian Palisade (b)
(1400 - 1539 ?), near Talladega ?
A Late Mississippian Period palisaded Indian village located on or near the Coosa River. Exact site undetermined. Visited by Hernando DeSoto in September 1540, who noted that it was abandoned by the Indians and overgrown with tall weeds, but that the palisade wall was still standing.
Fort (Alexander) Leslie
A Lower Creek Indian fortified house, also called Leslie's Station, Leslie's Post, Fort Lashley, and Lashley's Fort (mis-spellings, but pronounced that way). These Indians were opposed to the Red Sticks, the Creek faction that was causing trouble with the white settlers and General Andrew Jackson's troops. Site located at Fort Lashley Ave. and South Street. General Jackson defeated the Red Stick Creeks at the "Battle of Talladega" in November 1813.
(thanks to Marshall Sitrin for additional info)
(1813), near Oxford
A Lower Creek Indian fort six miles east of town on the north-side of Big Shoal Creek near Wolfskull Creek. Also known as Chief Chinnaby's Fort.
Camp Anniston (1)
A CSA camp and supply base.
(1898 - 1899), Anniston
A Spanish-American War winter camp. One of the Army General Hospitals (Leiter ?) from Camp Chickamauga, GA was relocated here in October after the war. Located just west of town, near the old Union Foundry and the American Pipe and Foundry Company. Parades were held on the grounds of the old Anniston Inn, which had become a college by then. West of the present-day Fort McClellan reservation.
Camp Anniston (2)
(1912, 1915), Blue Mountain
An Alabama National Guard summer encampment and artillery firing range. Known as Camp John T. Morgan in 1915.
Fort McClellan (State Military Reservation)
(Fort McClellan Development Authority)
(Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge)
(1917 - 1999/present), Anniston
A Federalized National Guard training encampment for the 29th "Blue-Gray" Division. Placed in care-taker status after 1919. Site then used for annual summer training by the Army Reserve and National Guard. Originally named Camp McClellan until renamed in 1929 as a permanent post. New construction took place soon after, and again in 1940 when the camp was re-activated for WWII as a Regular Army infantry replacement center. A German POW camp was built here in 1943. The U.S. Army Chemical School was located here 1951 - 1973, and 1979 - 1998 until moved to Fort Leonard Wood, MO. The Army Chemical Corps Museum also moved. The Women's Army Corps School was located here 1952 - 1978. The Women's Army Corps Museum moved to Fort Lee, VA. The U.S. Army Military Police School was located here 1975 - 1998 until also moved to Fort Leonard Wood, MO. The Military Police Corps Museum also moved. The post was closed in 1999 as an active installation, and is now undergoing redevelopment. Portions still in use by the AL National Guard and Army Reserve. A portion of undevelped land became the Mountain Longleaf NWR in 2003.
(1813 - 1814), near Ohatchee
General Andrew Jackson's base of operations during the First Creek War. Located four miles west of town on the Coosa River opposite Charchee Creek. The palisaded fort was 100 yards square enclosing eight hospital huts, a supply house, and 25 tents, as well as a large hog pen. Built after the Battle of Tallassahatchee, and before the Battle of Talladega. A stone marker (1913) was erected by the D.A.R..
Fort Armstrong ?
(1814), near Cedar Bluff
A temporary Federal post built during the First Creek War, probably located on what is now Williamson Island in Weiss Lake (Coosa River). Garrisoned mostly by Cherokee Indians.
According to local tradition, this site was used by the British as a supply base during the American Revolution.
(1838), near Cedar Bluff
A Federal log stockade near "Turkey Town", used for the Cherokee Removals on the "Trail of Tears". Probably located on what is now Williamson Island in Weiss Lake (Coosa River). No remains.
(1838), Barry Springs
A Federal circular log stockade in "Brown's Lower Valley" (Broomtown Valley) used for the Cherokee Removals on the "Trail of Tears". Located near the springs on Mill Creek. No remains. The nearby Richard Barry log house (1838) was destroyed by fire in 1970. The Cherokee County Historical Society erected a marker here in the mid 1970s. Actual site is private property.
(1835 - 1836, 1838, 1864), Fort Payne
A Federal stockade used for the Cherokee Removals on the "Trail of Tears". Located at the Willstown Mission (built 1823) for the Cherokee. The ruins of the original log house (torn down in 1946) that was within the stockade remain on private property at the end of 4th Street SE off of Gault Ave.. A marker is located in City Park.
The CSA later built a small fort here to guard saltpeter works.
(DeSoto State Park)
(unknown dates), near Fort Payne
Ancient Indian fortifications protected rock "rooms" in a cliffside near DeSoto Falls.
Civil War Defenses of Bridgeport
(1862 - 1865), Bridgeport
Three unnamed Union redoubts with blockhouses;
Fort #1 was on a hill downriver (south) from the railroad bridge.
Fort #2 was on a hill overlooking the steamboat landing on the Tennessee River;
Fort #3 was just to the west covering the railroad spur.
Three blockhouses protected the two railroad bridges over Long Island; two on either end of the first bridge from town, and the other was on a hill in town overlooking the first bridge.
Civil War Defenses of Stevenson
(1861 - 1865), Stevenson
CSA Fort Stevenson (1861) was the original town defense.
Union works in 1862 included:
Fort (Redoubt) Harker, a rectangular 50-yard square earthwork (seven guns) with a powder magazine and a bombproof, on the south side of town on Crow Creek. The earthworks and four gun platforms are well-preserved. Excavated in 1976, restored in 1985. Now a town park on Sawmill Road overlooking Guntersville Lake.
Fort (Redoubt) Mitchel (2), on the railroad north of the depot.
Two unfinished redoubts, southeast and northeast of town.
There were seven numbered blockhouses surrounding the town on all sides.
A Federal muster post and supply depot used during the Cherokee Removals.
Fort Deposit (b)
(1813 - 1814), Guntersville
A TN militia supply base during General Andrew Jackson's Creek War campaign. Located on the Tennessee River at Honey (Thompson's) Creek.
A Federal log stockade at Gunter's Landing used for the Cherokee Removals on the "Trail of Tears". No remains. The town was renamed in 1854.
Gunter's Landing Cantonment
A CSA encampment.
(1861), near Hulaco
An earthwork constructed by the local residents for their own defense, it had no official recognition by the CSA government. No action is known to have taken place here.
(1862 - 1865), Huntsville
An unnamed Union fort on the high elevation within town.
Camp Monte Sano
(1888, 1898), Huntsville
A state National Guard summer encampment east of town. Also used as a Spanish-American War camp by Army Regulars.
(1898 - 1899), Huntsville
A Spanish-American War winter camp, later renamed Camp Albert G. Forse. Troops were encamped in various locations throughout the city: the Robinson home at 2709 Meridian Pike; "Oaklawn" (location ?); the Sullivan home on Greene and Randolph Streets; Brahan Spring Park (cavalry) in South Huntsville; the Moore home (location ?); the Chapman farm (location ?); the Steele home at 808 Maysville Road (general HQ); Moore's Grove (hospital camp); College Grove near Randolph Street; Calhoun Grove; McCalley Grove; and in West Huntsville. The Medical Suppy House headquarters was on Holmes Street.
(unknown dates), Huntsville
(1862 - 1865), Decatur
An unnamed Union redoubt with several supporting batteries and earthworks was located along the railroad to the bridge over the Tennessee River. Confederates attacked the town in 1864. Markers for the Union defense line are located at the Old State Bank Building on Bank Street, at Bank and Vine Streets, and at Railroad and Lafayette Streets. A Union advanced lunette was located at Moulton Street and 6th Ave. (no marker). A CSA advanced battery was located at Moulton Street and 10th Ave. (no marker).
Fort Henderson (2)
(1863 - 1865), Athens
A Union star-shaped earthwork fort located on Coleman Hill, just southwest of downtown. Attacked by Confederates in September 1864. Became the site of the Trinity School in 1908. Site mostly destroyed in 1930 for the building of Trinity High School (closed in 1970). One bastion and portions of the ditch still remain on the grounds of the Trinity Congregational Church at 800 Browns Ferry Street.
Sulphur Branch Trestle Fort
A Union stockaded earthwork fort (two guns) with two outlying blockhouses protecting the Central Alabama Railroad bridge over Sulphur (Springs) Creek, located about one mile south of town. The main fort was on the south side of the creek, with the two blockhouses on either bank. Attacked and destroyed by Confederates in September 1864. The railroad was abandoned in 1986 and is now used as a hiking and bike trail.
(1812 - 1813), Limestone County
A settlers' stockaded fort on the Elk River.
(1809 - 1817), near Coxey
A Federal fort located on the Elk River near the Tennessee River, built to protect the Chickasaw Indian reservation from white squatters. Also known as Fort at Muscle Shoals. Site is now the Harmony Church.
Site of Confederate breastworks in Monumental Park at South Chestnut and Parkway. At "Bounds Place" on Cypress Mill Road, there is a secret basement with loopholes in the walls, said to have been used by Confederate troops.
Camp Gravelly Springs
(1865), near Oakland
A Union camp on the Waterloo Road used as a base for raids into the state.
Sand Fort (2)
(1860's), Colbert Heights
A CSA earthwork battery.
(1861 - 1862 or 1863), near Riverton
A CSA five-gun battery on the Tennessee River. Located at the old townsite of Chickasaw, now submerged under Pickwick Lake.
NEED MORE INFO: Camp Coffee (date ?) at Laceys Spring, Morgan County
Towns: Camp Hill in Tallapoosa County.
Southern Alabama - page 1 | Mobile Bay area - page 2
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com