Florida's Gulf Coast

Anna Maria Radar Station | Fort Apalache | Camp Apalachicola | Fort Armistead
Camp Armstrong | Fort Atzroth | Bayport Battery | Boca Grande Island Res.
(Fort) Braden Castle | Branch's Fort | Cantonment Brooke | Fort Brooke (1)
Fort Frank Brooke (2) | Calos Blockhouse | Fort Casey | Cayo Costa Res.
Post at Cedar Keys | Cedar Keys Res. | Camp Clinch (2) | Fort Coombs
Crystal River Radar Station | Fort Dade (4) | Camp Daniels | Fort Daniels | Camp Davis (1)
Camp DeSoto | Fort De Soto (2) | Deadman's Bay Post | Fort Dulaney | Post at Egmont Key
Egmont Key Res. | Flag Island Res. | Camp Florida | Gasparilla Island Res. | Camp Georgia
Fort Harney (2) | Fort W.H. Harrison | Fort Harvie | Camp Hillsborough
Camp on Hillsborough Bay | Fort Howard | Fort Hulbert | Indian Rocks Radar Station
Fort Industry | James Island Post | Fort Lonely | Long Key Res. | Fort Manatee
Manatee River Post | Camp Mitchell | Camp Morgan (1) | Cantonment Morgan
Mullet Key Res. | Fort Myers | Fort No. Three (E) | Fort No. Four (E) | Fort No. Six (M)
Fort No. Seven (M) | Fort No. Ten (M) | Fort No. 13 (M) | Fort No. 15 (M)
Fort Ocklawaha | Camp at Palmetto Beach | Port Leon Battery | Fort Port Leon
Camp Rodgers | Camp Rogers (2) | Fort San Antonio de Padua
Fort San Marcos de Apalache | Fort St. Marks | Sea Horse Key Battery | Camp Smead
Fort Starke | Camp Tampa | Fort Tocobaga | Fort Van Buren | Fort Waccasassa (1)
Wakulla River Post | Camp Walbach | Camp Ward | Fort Ward (2) | Camp Whipple
Fort William | Camp Wrenn

Northeast Coast - page 1 | St. Johns River - page 2
Eastern Florida - page 3 | Middle Florida - page 4
Central Florida - page 5 | Southern Florida - page 6
Western Florida - page 8 | Pensacola Bay - page 9

FLORIDA'S COASTAL MARITIME TRAIL - FORTS
FLORIDA'S PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVES
OLD FLORIDA MAPS
COASTAL FORTIFICATIONS PHOTO ARCHIVES

SPANISH FLORIDA 1513-1763

Last Update: 12/OCTOBER/2014
Compiled by Pete Payette - 2014 American Forts Network

Camp Davis (1)
(1861), St. Vincent Island
A Confederate post.

Flag Island Military Reservation
(1882 - 1910's ?), near St. Vincent Island
A proposed gun battery location at the West Pass entrance to St. George Sound. This island no longer appears as such on modern maps.

Camp Apalachicola
(1862), Apalachicola
A Union camp established after the Confederates evacuated the river port in April 1862. Exact location undetermined. Battery Park is located downtown.

Fort Coombs
(1901 - present ?), Apalachicola
The FL National Guard Armory in town is inscribed with this name on the exterior facade. Home of the Franklin Guards.

Camp Gordon Johnston (Museum)
(1942 - 1946), Lanark Village
A WWII training camp for Army Amphibious Engineer units and support groups, notably the 38th, 28th, and 4th Infantry Divisions. Located four miles east of Carrabelle on St. James Island. Museum is located in the former Post Theater (1943) at 302 Marine Street.
* This entry is listed here for historical interest only. *

Wakulla River Trading Post
(1780's - 1814 ?, 1815 - 1816), near Lower Bridge
A British trading post/store operated by the Panton, Leslie, and Company was located on the Wakulla River four miles above St. Marks. Later operated by John Forbes around 1800. In 1815 British trader Alexander Arbuthnot established a trading post here. It was abandoned in 1816. The Americans claimed this post was a major supplier of arms to the Seminoles and Creeks. Arbuthnot was executed by General Andrew Jackson for inciting the Indians against the American settlers in Georgia and Alabama.

San Marcos de Apalache (State Historic Site)
(1679 - 1682, 1718 - 1824, 1861 - 1865), St. Marks *PHOTOS*
A Spanish settlement and mission here were first established in 1672. A port facility for the Apalachee Province missions was probably in operation here as early as 1639. The settlement was attacked by pirates in 1677. The first Spanish fort built here was wooden and was burned by French pirates in 1682. The second Spanish fort was also wooden and was built in 1718 to reconquer the abandoned Apalachee Province. The third Spanish fort was stone and was built beginning in 1739. It was still unfinished by 1765 when British troops took control of West Florida, and was renamed Fort Apalache to avoid confusion with the other British-held Fort San Marcos (St. Mark) in St. Augustine. The British garrison departed in 1769 and left the fort abandoned, but Spanish forces only regained control of the fort in 1787. Creek Indians under British agent William Augustus Bowles took control of the fort for five weeks in 1800 (May - June), trying to establish the independent Native American "State of Muskogee". The Americans under General Andrew Jackson occupied the fort briefly in April 1818 to control Creek raids into Georgia. The fort was ceded to the U.S. in 1821 with the rest of Florida, and was known as Fort St. Marks. Abandoned after 1824, the stone fort was mostly demolished in 1839 to construct a Federal Marine Hospital near the site for yellow fever victims. Additional stones were removed to build the base of the St. Marks Lighthouse in 1842. Some remains of the bombproofs and one bastion still exist. The park's visitor center is built on the foundation of the old hospital. The remains of the old fort were re-occupied by Confederates in 1861 - 1865. A large earth-covered powder magazine still exists, as well as additional earthwork walls. The Union Navy referred to the old fort as Fort Ward (2). Captured by the Union in May 1865.

The Confederate Camp Ward (1861 - 1865) was across the St. Marks River from the old fort.

Port Leon Battery
(1861 - 1864 ?), Port Leon
A CSA gun battery on or near the site of the Seminole War era Fort Port Leon (see below).

Fort William
(St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge)
(1861 - 1865), near St. Marks
A Confederate fort located at the St. Marks Lighthouse (1842) as an advance lookout post for Fort St. Marks and to protect a saltworks. It was briefly captured by the Union in April 1862. The Union Navy returned in 1863 to dislodge the Confederate lookouts. The Union Army landed in March 1865 and held the site until the end of the war. The tower was relit in 1867. The lighthouse is located within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, southeast of town at the end of FL 59. Admission fee. See also Explore Southern History.com
(NOTE: not to be confused with Fort Williams at Port Orange, Volusia County)

Deadman's Bay Post
(1864), near Steinhatchee
A Confederate cavalry post used as a base to search for deserters and Union sympathizers.

Post at Cedar Keys
(1839 - 1843, 1861 - 1865), Cedar Key
Fort Number Four (E) (1839 - 1841) was the first post here on Cedar Key, which later became the site of a major hospital and supply depot. Cedar Key was also known as Depot Key on some period maps. The islands of Cedar Key, Way Key, North Key, Sea Horse Key, and Snake Key were reserved as the Cedar Keys Military Reservation in 1840. Camp (Cantonment) Morgan (1) (1841 - 1842) was established on one of the islands about two months after Fort No. Four (E) was abandoned. The islands were severely damaged by a November 1842 hurricane, completely destroying the post. Sea Horse Key was occupied as a hospital camp in 1841, and was also used as a Seminole Indian detention camp at one time (date ?). Of interest here is the Cedar Key State Museum (admission fee).

The island depot was occupied by the Confederates in 1861, captured by the Union Navy in February 1862. The Florida Railroad terminated here (completed in 1860), running from Fernandina via Gainesville, along present-day FL 24.

On the mainland near Lukens was Fort Howard (unknown dates). It protected either the boat landing (2nd Seminole War) or the railroad bridge approach (Civil War) to Cedar Key.

Sea Horse Key Battery
(1861 - 1862), Sea Horse Key
A Confederate battery that protected the approach to Cedar Key. It was captured by the Union in February 1862. Two of the original guns are now on display at the Cedar Key State Museum. The Sea Horse Key Lighthouse was built in 1854.

Crystal River Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), near Crystal River
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-270 early warning radar was located here. Exact location undetermined.

Bayport Battery
(1861 - 1865), Bayport
A Confederate battery protected this port used for blockade-running. It withstood an attack in 1863.

Indian Rocks Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), Indian Rocks Beach
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-270 early warning radar was located here. Exact location undetermined.


COAST DEFENSES of TAMPA BAY
Coastal Fortifications on the Gulf of Mexico by Andy Bennett
Harbor Defense of Tampa Bay - FORT WIKI

Fort De Soto (2) (County Park)
(1882/1898 - 1928), Mullet Key
Originally named Mullet Key Military Reservation. Formally named in 1900 as a subpost of Fort Dade (4). Batteries include Battery Laidley (1902 - 1921), and Battery Bigelow (1904 - 1920), which is broken up in the surf. Battery Laidley still has four 12-inch mortars remaining, which are the only ones left remaining in the continental U.S.. Used as an Army Air Force Gunnery Range from 1941 - 1948, as a subpost of MacDill Field in Tampa. Sold in 1948, became a county park in 1963. The road to the island was not built until 1962. All other military structures have been removed or destroyed (most by 1939). The Quartermaster Storehouse Museum is a 1999 reconstructed wooden building.

Fort Dade (4)
(Egmont Key State Park)
(Egmont Key National Wildlife Refuge)
(1860's, 1882/1898 - 1928), Egmont Key
The Union fleet used the island during the Civil War, and Confederate naval and blockade-runner prisoners were kept there at times. Originally named Post at Egmont Key. The current lighthouse was built in 1858, replacing the 1848 tower. The island was reserved as the Egmont Key Military Reservation in 1882. Formally named in 1900. Seacoast batteries include Battery Burchsted (1899 - 1920) broken up in the surf, two of the guns were moved to Fort De Soto (2) in 1980 for display, Battery McIntosh (1900 - 1923) breaking up in the surf (one of the guns was relocated in 1927 for display at Plant Park on the University of Tampa campus as a memorial to the Spanish-American War, but was scrapped in WWII and replaced with a similar gun from Fort Morgan, AL), Battery Howard (1920 - 1926) breaking up in the surf, Battery Mellon (1904 - 1920), Battery Page (1910 - 1919) broken up in the surf, and an unnamed battery of two M1888 8-inch BL guns (1899 - 1900) which had been built over by Battery Mellon. Became a National Wildlife Refuge in 1974. Transferred to the state and became a state park in 1989. Public access is by private boat only. See also the Fort De Soto link above for more info. 1909 PHOTO 1 || 1909 PHOTO 2


TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of TAMPA BAY

Long Key Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), Pass-a-Grille Beach
A four-gun 155mm battery in revetments (no Panama mounts) was located here, later replaced by 90mm guns in 1944 before being abandoned.


Fort Tocobaga
(Safety Harbor Mound at Philippe Park)
(1567), near Safety Harbor
A Spanish 30-man blockhouse located at the Tocobaga Indian village along the north shore of Old Tampa Bay. The Indians killed the garrison and burned the fort.

Fort Brooke (1)
(Cotanchobee - Fort Brooke Park)
(1824 - 1882, 1898), Tampa FORT WIKI
A log stockade built around settler Robert Hackley's house, originally known as Camp Hillsborough, or Camp on Hillsborough Bay, on the east side of the mouth of the Hillsborough River. It was renamed Cantonment Brooke in 1824. Renamed again in 1835. A battle occurred near here in 1841. The Confederates occupied the fort 1863 - 1864 until the Union recaptured it in May 1864. Two 24-pounder guns are now located in Plant Park at the University of Tampa. The fort was later used intermittently as a seasonal camp for troops from Key West Barracks. Florida state troops encamped here in 1898 at Camp Mitchell, a subpost of Camp Tampa (see below). Site located at Platt and Franklin Streets. No remains. The Tampa Bay History Center, at 801 Old Water Street, is located near the original site.

Camp Tampa
(1898), Tampa
The primary assembly and staging area for the Spanish-American War (Cuban Campaign). The main encampment was in the Tampa Heights area, south of Robles Park near Ross and Central Aves. and along Florida Ave.. The Port of Embarkation staging camp for the cavalry was located on the beach midway between Port Tampa City (a separate city until 1961) and the Port Tampa railroad station, about one mile from the docks. Picnic Island, just west of Port Tampa City, was also a camp site. The Rough Riders were camped about one-half mile west of the Tampa Bay Hotel, on the west side of Tampa. The site is marked by a plaque at the "Fort Homer Hesterly" National Guard Armory at 500 North Howard Ave.. Camp Wrenn was located about one mile from Port Tampa City.

A satellite assembly camp was located in DeSoto Park about one mile east of downtown Tampa, at the end of South 26th Street at McKay Bay. This camp was originally known as Camp at Palmetto Beach, then renamed Camp Florida, then renamed again as Camp DeSoto. Palmetto Beach is located at the end of South 22nd Street. The troops here later transferred to Amelia Island (Fort Clinch) because of unhealthful conditions.

Camp Rogers (2)
(1898), Ybor City
A Spanish-American War assembly camp for the heavy artillery regiments for the Cuban Campaign. Also spelled Rodgers in some sources. Located about two miles north of Camp DeSoto, in the northeast part of the city near College Hill. The streetcar and rail lines were choked with scores of artillery-mounted flatcars.

Fort Lonely
(unknown dates), Fort Lonely
No data. Located on Tampa Bay on the Hillsborough County line just north of Piney Point.

Anna Maria Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), Anna Maria Island
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-270 early warning radar was located here. Exact location undetermined.

Manatee River Post or ?
(1860's), near Bradenton
A Civil War battery and/or observation post was located on an Indian mound at the mouth of the Manatee River. Site located near DeSoto National Memorial, possibly the same site as Fort Starke (1840) (see below).

Gasparilla Island Military Reservation
(1882 - 1900's ?), Port Boca Grande
A proposed gun battery location.

Cayo Costa Military Reservation
(1882 - 1900's ?), Cayo Costa
A proposed gun battery location at Boca Grande Pass. Also known as Boca Grande Island Military Reservation.

Fort Myers
(1850 - 1858, 1863 - 1865), Fort Myers FORT WIKI
A large stockade with four barracks, eight Officers' quarters, administration building, hospital, laundry, blacksmith, bakehouse, sutler, storehouses, and wharf. It covered about eight blocks of today's city. The City of Fort Myers Historical Museum, at 2300 Peck Street, has a scale model of the fort. The post was used as a Union camp during the Civil War, attacked by a small Confederate force in 1865 before it was abandoned. The town was settled in 1866, incorporated in 1885. History of the City of Fort Myers

Fort Harvie was first located here 1841 - 1842, replacing Fort Dulaney. It was burned by Seminoles after it was abandoned. Camp Daniels (aka Fort Daniels) (1855), was located 200 yards from Fort Myers. Camp Walbach (1856) was also nearby. Lasted only six days.

Fort San Antonio de Padua
(Mound Key Archaeological Site)
(1567 - 1568), Mound Key, near Fort Myers Beach
A Spanish blockhouse and Jesuit mission at the Calusa Indian village Calos, that was abandoned after being starved out by the Indians. It was later burned. Also referred to as the Calos Blockhouse. Jesuit missionaries returned in 1569, but left for good in 1570.

An unnamed Franciscan mission was briefly established here in 1697, but failed the same year.


Seminole Wars Forts
(includes those forts and posts not already listed above)
Tour of Florida Territory During the Seminole Wars by Chris Kimball

Franklin County:
Fort Ocklawaha (unknown dates), near Eastpoint.
James Island Post (1838), St. James Island.

Wakulla County:
Fort Industry (1839), Shell Point.
Fort Port Leon (1841 - 1843), Port Leon. Abandoned after a hurricane destroyed it.
Fort No. 6 (M) undetermined location, possibly on or near the coast somewhere between Goose Creek Bay and the mouth of the Aucilla River.

Taylor County:
Fort Number Seven (M) (1839), located somewhere between the mouths of the Econfina and Fenholloway Rivers.
Fort Number Ten (M) (1839 - 1840), near the mouth of Spring Warrior Creek at Spring Warrior Camp.
Fort Hulbert (1840), located three miles inland near Blue Springs (?), midway between Forts Andrews and Frank Brooke (2), 15 miles northwest of Steinhatchee.
Fort Number 13 (M) (1839), north shore of Deadman's Bay, west of "Stephensville" (location ?).
Fort Frank Brooke (2) (1838 - 1840), Steinhatchee. (Possibly same as Fort No. 13 ?)

Dixie County:
Fort Number 15 (M) (1839), undetermined location, possibly on or near the coast somewhere between Horseshoe Beach and Suwannee.

Levy County:
Fort Number Three (E) (1839 - 1840), on Waccasassa Bay near the mouth of the Waccasassa River.
Fort Waccasassa (1) (1839 - 1843), on the west side of the mouth of the Waccasassa River.

Pinellas County:
Fort William Henry Harrison (1841), Clearwater. An Army relief center for sick and wounded troops. Site now at Harbor Oaks at Druid Road and Orange Place. The city later grew out of the original settlement. History of the City of Clearwater

Hillsborough County:
Camp Clinch (2) (1850), one mile east of Tampa (near Ybor City ?).
Camp Georgia (1836), at or near Fort Brooke (1) in Tampa.

Manatee County:
Fort Starke (1840 - 1841), near Bradenton. Built on ancient Indian mounds at the mouth of the Manatee River near De Soto National Memorial.
Fort Atzroth (1856), Bradenton. A sarcastic reference to Joseph Atzroth's house at the mouth of the Manatee River.
Fort Manatee (1841), on the south side of Manatee Inlet near Grant's Pass.
(Fort) Braden Castle (1850's), Bradenton. Dr. Joseph Braden's fortified tabby mansion at the Manatee and Braden Rivers. Built beginning in 1845, it served as a settler refuge during the Third Seminole War. Destroyed by fire in 1903. Ruins remain of the house and an adjacent sugar mill, located at the Braden Castle Park community.
Camp Armstrong (1856 - 1857), near Manatee Village. Renamed Camp Smead in 1856.
Dr. Franklin Branch's Fort (1849), Bradenton. A settlers' fort once located at the foot of present-day East 13th Street.

Sarasota County:
Fort Armistead (1840 - 1841), Sarasota. Lasted only seven months. 600 men were posted here, but over 100 died of tropical diseases. The garrison was then transferred to Sea Horse Key to the north. Site located at Indian Beach at Coconut Ave. and 5th Street, east of the present-day Municipal Auditorium.

Charlotte County:
Camp Whipple (1857), on the Peace River. Surrounded by defensive earthworks.

Lee County:
Fort Casey (1850), on the east-central side of Cayo Costa Island at Charlotte Harbor.
Fort Harney (2) (1839), Cape Coral, at Harney Point (Cape Coral Bridge). A government-built trading post for the Seminoles. Unofficially named Fort Van Buren by Col. William Harney. The unfinished post was attacked and burned by Seminoles in July 1839. It was not rebuilt.
Fort Dulaney (1837 - 1838, 1841, 1856 - 1858), Punta Rassa. Completely rebuilt in 1841, but a hurricane in October that year destroyed it before it was completed.


NOTE: In 1839 during the Second Seminole War, General Zachary Taylor implemented a plan to divide East Florida into 18 or 20 mile squares with a 20-man garrison in the center of each. East Florida was divided in half, "Middle" Florida being between the Suwannee River and the Apalachicola River, and duplicate fort numbers were used in East (E) and "Middle" (M) Florida. The highest number recorded in East Florida was "21". The highest number recorded in "Middle" Florida was "15".

NEED MORE INFO: Fort Island near Crystal River, Citrus County. Fort Lonely on the Hillsborough County line near Piney Point on Tampa Bay.

Northeast Coast - page 1 | St. Johns River - page 2 | Eastern Florida - page 3
Middle Florida - page 4 | Central Florida - page 5 | Southern Florida - page 6
Western Florida - page 8 | Pensacola Bay - page 9

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