Mississippi River Delta

Algiers Barracks | Annunciation Square Camp | Fort de la Balise | Fort la Baliza
Post at Balize | Fort Banks | Camp Barataria | Bayou Dupre Redoubt
Bayou Gentilly Redoubt | Bayou Mazant Redoubt | Fort Beauregard (1) | Beauregard's Castle
Camp Benjamin | Camp Bertonniere | Battery Bienvenue | Bonnet Carre Post | Fort Borgoña
Fort de la Boulaye | Fort Bourbon | Fort Bourgogne | Boutte Station Post | Fort Burgundy
Burrwood Res. | Camp Carroll | Camp Carrollton | Chalmette Battlefield | Camp Chalmette
Fort Chef Menteur (1) | Fort at Chef Menteur (2) | Camp Claiborne (2) | Camp Coffee
Camp Corbin | Côte des Allemands Post | Fort Darby | Fort Détour à l'Anglais | Tower Dupre
Camp Foster | Fort at German Coast | German Coast Stockades | Greenville Barracks
Head of Passes Fort | Fort Iberville (1) | Fort Isla Real Católica de San Carlos
Jackson Barracks | Fort Jackson | Karistein Stockade | Camp Kearny | Lafayette Square Camp
Camp Lewis | Fort Little Temple | Fort Louisiana | Camp Lovell (2) | Fort Macomb
Battery Maxent | Battery Mazant | Fort Morgan | New Orleans Arsenal (1)
New Orleans Arsenal (2) | New Orleans Barracks | Camp New Orleans Fair Grounds
Camp Nicholls | Fort les Oumas | Camp Parapet | The Parapet Line | Fort Petite Coquilles
Philippon Tower | Fort Pike | Fort Plaquemines | Fort at Plaquemines Bend | Fort Pontchartrain
Port Eads Res. | Powder Magazine Barracks | Camp at Powers' Point | Fort Proctor
Proctor's Landing Tower | Proctorsville Battery | Quarantine Station Post | Fort at the Rigolets
Camp Roman | Fort San Carlos (1) | Fort St. Charles | Fort San Felipe | Fort St. Ferdinand
Fort San Fernando | Fort St. Jean | Fort St. John (1) | Fort St. John (2) | Fort San Juan
Fort San Juan del Bayou | Fort St. Leon | Fort San Leon | Fort St. Louis | Fort San Luis
Fort Ste. Marie | Fort Santa Maria | Fort St. Philip | Fort St. Philippe | Sedgwick Barracks
Spanish Fort | Star Fort (1) | Camp Terre aux Boeufs | Fort Tigouyou | Villere Canal Redoubt
Camp Walker | Camp Weitzel (1) | Fort Wood

Western Louisiana - page 1 | Florida Parishes - page 3

UNDER SEIGE: ENDANGERED FORTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA

Last Update: 06/JUNE/2009
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2009 American Forts Network

German Coast Stockades
(1729 - 1750's ?), St. Charles Parish
The early German settlers to this region palisaded their settlements against Indian attacks. The first and main settlement was Karistein (settled 1722) (renamed later as Lucy). About four or five other settlements were also palisaded (undetermined locations).

Côte des Allemands Post
(1749 - 1759, 1766 - 1770's ?), St. Charles Parish
A French stockaded military blockhouse to protect German settlers from Indian raids. Abandoned, but later taken over by the Spanish in 1766. Also known as Fort at German Coast.

Bonnet Carre Post
(1862 - 1865), near Norco
A Union garrison post during the Civil War.

Boutte Station Post
(1862 - 1865), Boutte
A Union garrison post during the Civil War.

Camp Weitzel (1)
(1862), Kenner
A Union encampment.


New Orleans Colonial Forts

NOTE: New Orleans, first permanently settled in 1718, became the capital of French Louisiana Province in 1722. Taken over by Spain in 1763, although Spanish troops didn't arrive until 1766, and the city always remained French in character. Louisiana Province (including New Orleans) secretly reverted from Spanish rule to French rule in 1800, but Spanish troops still remained until 1803 waiting for French troops to take possession. However, by then the Americans had taken control by purchasing the entire territory from France. Only a handful of French officials and troops were on hand during the official transfer ceremonies in New Orleans (December 1803) and later in St. Louis (March 1804) in Upper Louisiana.

French Forts
(1708 - 1765)
Very little defenses were constructed by the French for the city proper until 1729, when a palisade was built around the city, with small blockhouses at the corners, and a moat begun but not completed. A brick Powder Magazine was built in 1732 near present-day Decatur and Iberville Streets. It was enclosed by a high wall mounting six-sided towers at each corner. It was destroyed by fire in 1794. More elaborate defenses were constructed in 1754 and 1760. A moated embankment with nine bastions encircled the city, known as Condé's, Kerlérec's, St. Louis, Choiseuel's, Orleans, Bayou Redan, Berry's, D'Abbadie's, and Charles' Bastions, with 100 guns mounted. This enclosed area is known today as the "French Quarter", or the Vieux Carré.

Fort les Oumas (1710's ?), a wooden fort, and the first above the city on the Mississippi River (undetermined location).
Fort Tigouyou (1750 - 1765), a small earthen redoubt located at the mouth of Bayou Tigouyou (Trepagnier) on the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain. Destroyed by a hurricane in 1778 (see below).
Fort St. Jean (1708 - 1765), the first fort built within the present-day city, an earthen redoubt located on Lake Pontchartrain just north of the present-day City Park. Later known as Spanish Fort and Fort St. John (1) (see below).
Fort Détour à l'Anglais (1722 - 1765), originally three earthwork batteries at English Turn. Rebuilt in 1748 as two nearly identical 30-gun stockaded earthworks (a 10-gun crescent with five four-gun redans each) located across from each other just north of Belle Chasse (Batterie de l'Anse) and at English Turn (Batterie de la Pointe). Later rebuilt again in 1754 as four-bastioned squares, renamed Fort St. Leon (19 guns) and Fort Ste. Marie (21 guns) respectively.

Spanish Forts
(1766 - 1803)
The Spanish initially used the poor-condition French works, but were soon abandoned. The city's major defenses were not rebuilt until 1792, in order to defend against the French.
Fort San Carlos (1), previously French Charles' Bastion, located at Esplanade and North Peters Aves.. Later became the site of the U.S. Mint.
Fort San Juan, located at North Rampart and Barracks Streets. Rampart Street received its name from the ramparts built between Forts San Juan and Borgoña.
Fort San Fernando (Ferdinand), located at present-day Beauregard Square.
Fort San Felipe de Borgoña (Bourgogne), located at North Rampart and Iberville Streets.
Fort San Luis, previously French St. Louis Bastion, located at Canal and Decatur Streets. Burned in the 1794 fire. Later became the site of the U.S. Customs House.
An Arsenal (1) was built in 1769 at present-day Jackson Square.
Fort Tigouyou (1766 - 1778) (see above). Destroyed by a hurricane in October 1778.
Fort San Juan del Bayou (aka Spanish Fort). It was rebuilt in 1770, with four to nine guns. It was originally French Fort St. Jean, an earthen redoubt (see above).
Fort San Leon (1766 - 1780 ?) near Belle Chasse (see above). In ruins by 1780.
Fort Santa Maria (1766 - 1780 ?) at English Turn (see above). In ruins by 1780.

French Forts
(1803)
The new French Tricolor flag flew over New Orleans only from 30 November to 20 December, 1803.

American Forts
(1803 - 1823)
Initially used all extant Spanish forts.
Fort St. John (2) (San Juan) was demolished in 1805.
Fort St. Ferdinand (San Fernando) was demolished in 1805.
Fort Burgundy (Borgoña) was demolished in 1805.
Fort St. Louis (San Luis) was not used in the War of 1812, and was abandoned later. The U.S. Customs House was built on the site in 1848.
Fort St. Charles (San Carlos) (1803 - 1821) was the only original fort still in use during the War of 1812. It was demolished in 1821. The U.S. Mint was built here in 1835.
Fort St. John (1) (aka Spanish Fort), rebuilt as a brick work in 1808, with barracks, Officers' quarters, powder magazine, guardhouse, and kitchen. Also known as Fort Pontchartrain. It was abandoned in 1823. In use by CSA forces in 1861. Partially restored in 1911. Ruins of the brick walls remain just north of City Park.
Powder Magazine Barracks (1813 - 1817), also known as Algiers Barracks, located in the Algiers area. A group of 16 barracks were built to house 1600 American reinforcements for the defense of the city against the British. Converted to a hospital after the Battle of New Orleans (January 1815).
Camp Carroll (1814 - 1815), a TN state militia camp located in the Carrollton area.
Camp Coffee (1814 - 1815), a TN state militia camp near Camp Carroll.
Camp Claiborne (2) (1804), a temporary camp located seven miles east of town (undetermined location) to escape a Yellow Fever outbreak.
American Fort St. Leon (1808 - 1817) was built on the site of French Fort St. Leon near Belle Chasse. Built for nine guns, only four were emplaced in 1814. Also built were a magazine, two barracks, Officers' quarters, kitchen, and guardhouse. It was not attacked by the British in December 1814. It was completed in January 1815, but later dismantled. A fortified camp for barracks to house up to 3000 troops was built across the river at the site of French Fort Ste. Marie at old Wood's Ville. The site of Fort St. Leon was excavated in the 1960's but is now under water. State marker on River Road.


New Orleans Arsenal (2)
(1846 - 1862), New Orleans
A state arsenal built to supplement the Federal Baton Rouge Arsenal. This was the site of the 1769 Spanish arsenal. Became the CSA Arsenal and/or Ordnance Depot in 1861 - 1862. After the Union took the city in April 1862, it became a military prison. After the war, it was used by the city police. Became part of the Louisiana State Museum in 1914. Located behind the historic Cabildo on Jackson Square. Admission fee.

Jackson Barracks
(Louisiana National Guard History and State Weapons Museum)
(1834 - present), New Orleans FORT WIKI
Originally named New Orleans Barracks, it had four blockhouses with a palisade, located three miles downriver from downtown on Delery Street. Occupied by Confederates in January 1861 until April 1862. It was renamed in 1866. Several buildings were severely damaged in a 1912 flood and levee break. The post served as the Headquarters of the New Orleans Coast Defense in WWI. Turned over to the state National Guard in 1921, but Federalized in 1941 - 1946 as part of the New Orleans Port of Embarkation. It has again been a state reservation since 1955. The museum (since 1977) is in the restored 1837 Powder Magazine. The post suffered major damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

New Orleans Civil War Forts and Camps
(1861 - 1865), New Orleans and vicinity
Annunciation Square Camp (1862 - 1863), a public square used as a CSA troop campsite in 1862, then later as a Union campsite.
Lafayette Square Camp (1862), a temporary Union campsite.
Fort Banks (1861 - 1865), located in Bridge City below Labranche Canal. It was originally a CSA six-gun earthwork (unnamed) that was captured by the Union in April 1862 and renamed. FORT WIKI
The Parapet Line (1861 - 1862), CSA earthworks built in the Metairie area along present-day Causeway Boulevard, with Camp Parapet at the southern terminus, and another small work across the river. The 1.5 mile long works were unfinished when the Union captured the city in April 1862. Camp Parapet was rebuilt and renamed Fort John M. Morgan by the Union in 1862. An earth-covered brick powder magazine still remains at the end of road, in a small park adjacent to the American Legion Post. At the north-end of the line the Union built a ten-pointed Star Fort (1).
Camp Walker (1861), a CSA training camp at the Metairie horse race track. It was replaced by Camp Moore in Tangipahoa. (see page three)
Fort St. John (1) (see above) was reoccupied by CSA troops in 1861.
Greenville Barracks (1864 - 1866), a Union post in the Greenville area. Also known as Sedgwick Barracks.
Camp Lewis (1861), a CSA camp in Carrollton.
Camp Carrollton (1862 - 1865), a CSA camp also known as Camp Roman, located in the Carrollton area. Site used by Union troops after the fall of the city.
Camp Kearny (1862 - 1863), a Union camp in the Carrollton area.
Camp Benjamin (1861 - 1862), a CSA camp on Gentilly Road.
Bayou Gentilly Redoubt (1862 - 1865), a Union defense on Bayou Gentilly.

Of interest is the Confederate Museum, located on Camp Street. Admission fee. An 8-inch gun from Spanish Fort, Alabama is on display in front.

Camp New Orleans Fair Grounds
(1898), New Orleans
A Spanish-American War Army mobilization camp prior to embarking for Mobile, Alabama. Located just to the east of City Park.
Also here was Camp Foster (1898), a state troop muster camp, and Camp H.C. Corbin (1898), an Army training camp.

Camp Nicholls
(1916, 1917), New Orleans
A mobilization camp for state troops during the Mexican Border Crisis of 1916. Site re-occupied in 1917 for WWI before the troops were transferred to Camp Beauregard (3) in Alexandria. Located at City Park.

Chalmette Battlefield
(Jean Lafitte National Historic Park)
(1815, 1862), Chalmette
American artillery positions remain from the January 1815 Battle of New Orleans. Confederate earthworks from 1862 also still remain. This site was known as Camp Chalmette by both the CSA and Union during the Civil War.

Camp Bertonniere
(1814), New Orleans
An American fortified camp with two batteries, located at the Bertonniere Plantation on Chef Menteur Road, along Bayou Sauvage. It was established after the British invaded the area in December 1814.

Fort Petite Coquilles
(1793 - 1817), Pass Rigolets
A small Spanish wooden fort located one mile west from the future site of Fort Pike. Rebuilt and garrisoned by the Americans in 1813 as a nine-gun work. It was a parallelogram with two bastions on the west end, a half-bastion on the southwest corner, and a semi-circular battery on the north-side. There were also two barracks, a magazine, and Officers' quarters. Site is now under water.

Fort Pike (State Historic Site)
(1819 - 1884), Pass Rigolets FORT WIKI
Completed in 1827, originally known as Fort at the Rigolets. The citadel was enlarged with a second story in the 1850's. Held by the CSA from January 1861 to April 1862. Abandoned in 1871 to caretaker status. The citadel/barracks burned in 1862 and again in 1887. Sold by the Army in 1890. A lighthouse was built in 1921 on part of the old reservation. Some repairs to the fort were made in 1935 when the state park opened. A museum and visitor center are in the former citadel/barracks. Admission fee. Damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
See also Coastal Fortifications on the Gulf of Mexico by Andy Bennett

Fort Macomb
(1822 - 1871), Chef Menteur Pass FORT WIKI
Located nine miles west of Fort Pike. Previously here was American Fort Chef Menteur (1) (1814 - 1815). The new fort built in 1822 (identical to Fort Pike) was originally named Fort at Chef Menteur (2) until 1827 when completed, then renamed Fort Wood until 1851. It was garrisoned by the CSA from January 1861 to April 1862. It was later abandoned after a fire destroyed the barracks in 1867. A portion of the moat is now used by the Venetian Isles Marina. The fort is owned by the state, but is closed to the public due to its deteriorating condition. Damaged further by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

Battery Bienvenue
(1826 - 1872), Villere
A 20-gun moated open work 600 feet long, with barracks, magazine, Officers' quarters, and guardhouse. Built on the site of the American three-gun star redoubt Battery Mazant (Maxent) (1815), located at the confluence of Bayou Bienvenue and Bayou Maxent (Mazant). On private property, access by boat only. Several old guns remain on the parapet ruins.

Villere Canal Redoubt
(1814 - 1815), near Villere
A strong work built by the British, located at the junction of the Villere Canal and Bayou Mazant (Villere).

Bayou Mazant Redoubt
(1815), near Villere
A small work built by the British to defend their retreating forces after the Battle of New Orleans. Located at the confluence of Bayou Mazant (Villere) and Bayou Jumonville (Ducros).

Tower Dupre
(1827 - 1865), Bayou Dupre
A two-story hexagonal Martello-type tower located eight miles east of Chalmette. Also known as Philippon Tower. Built on or near the site of American Bayou Dupre (du Preé) Redoubt (1814). Completed in 1830, but rebuilt in 1832 after a severe storm in 1831. Repaired in 1848, 1852, and 1855. With only five guns, it was garrisoned by the Confederates in 1861. Sold in 1883. On private property, completely surrounded by water. A roof and a pier had been added by the owners, somewhat preserving the structure. Completely destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, only rubble remains. See also Flying Cypress-Adventures of a Biologist

Fort Proctor
(1855 - 1860), Shell Beach
Also known as Proctor's Landing Tower, Fort Beauregard (1), Beauregard's Castle, it was a square castle-like tower with a square moat, located ten miles southeast of Tower Dupre, a few hundred yards west of the mouth of Bayou Yscloskey. It was to protect the terminus of the Mexican Gulf Railroad at old Proctorsville. It was abandoned before it was completed due to storm damage, and never garrisoned. It has suffered additional storm damage over the years. Completely surrounded by water, access is by boat only. The outer wall was damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, but no apparent damage to the main fort.

Proctorsville Battery
(1861 - 1862), Shell Beach
A CSA shore battery at the old town, about one mile from Fort Proctor.

Camp Terre aux Boeufs
(1809), Terre aux Boeufs
A Federal encampment located 12 miles downriver from New Orleans.

Fort Darby
(1815), near Delacroix
An American two-gun earthen redoubt located on Bayou Terre aux Boeufs at Lake Lery. It was built to prevent further British raids up this route. It was dismantled soon after peace was declared.

Camp Barataria
(1814), near Lafitte
An encampment of Baratarians (Jean Lafitte's pirate gang) drafted into American service for the defense of New Orleans.

Fort Little Temple
(1861 - 1862), near Lafitte
A CSA palisaded two-gun water battery located at the junction of Bayou Perot and Bayou Rigoletts.

Camp at Powers' Point
(1814), Jefferson Parish
A state militia encampment prior to the Battle of New Orleans (January 1815). Exact location undetermined, possibly near Barataria Bay.

Fort Iberville (1)
(1700 - 1711), Phoenix
First French fort in present-day Louisiana. It was a 28-foot square moated two-story six-gun blockhouse. Abandoned militarily in 1707, but used as a trading post until 1711. Also known as Fort de la Boulaye and Fort Louisiana. Site found in 1930, located two miles north of town. No remains, site under water.

Quarantine Station Post
(1862), Ostrica
A small CSA garrison occupied the Quarantine Station on the north bank of the Mississippi River above Fort St. Philip. It was captured by the Union in April 1862 after Forts St. Philip and Jackson fell.

Located on the opposite bank was CSA Camp Lovell (2) (1862).


¤ COAST DEFENSES of NEW ORLEANS
Harbor Defense of the Mississippi - FORT WIKI

¤ Fort Jackson (park)
(1824 - 1920's), Triumph
Completed in 1832, it was originally built similar to Fort Morgan in Mobile, Alabama. In 1858 the exterior Lower and Upper Water Batteries were built to either flank of the fort. The Confederates gained control in 1861, but the star-shaped 69-gun fort was captured by the Union in April 1862. The interior barracks were destroyed. A museum is now inside the fort. The Lower Battery was rebuilt in 1872 - 1876 for ten guns and five magazines. It was armed with at least two mounted 15-inch Rodman guns in 1898. It still exists, now seperated from the fort by a modern levee. Several gun fragments still remain. The two coverface batteries on the fort's outerworks were also rebuilt for four guns each. The lower coverface battery still exists. The upper coverface battery was later removed to built Battery Millar. Two new gun platforms and two magazines were built in the north bastion of the fort in 1874. Endicott batteries here are Battery Ransom (1899 - 1918), which is inside the old fort and is now used for park offices; and Battery Millar (1901 - 1920). The fort was sold in 1927. Restored in 1962 as a parish park. Completely flooded by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, with extensive damage. Reopened to the public in January 2011.

¤ Fort St. Philip
(1761 - 1765, 1792 - 1923), Triumph
Directly across the Mississippi River from Fort Jackson, at Bayou Mardi Gras. A small French work known as Fort St. Philippe (1761 - 1765) was first located here. It was abandoned. The Spanish then built Fort San Felipe de Placaminas (1792 - 1803) (18 guns). Suffered hurricane damage in 1793 and 1794. Became American in 1803. Also known as Fort Plaquemines and Fort at Plaquemines Bend. Suffered hurricane damage in 1814. It was strengthened in December 1814 after a British naval attack, and rebuilt in 1841. Suffered hurricane damage in 1854. Two Water Batteries were located to either flank of the fort just before the Civil War. Controlled by Confederates in 1861 - 1862, the 45-gun fort was captured by the Union in April 1862 along with Fort Jackson. Abandoned in 1871, but regarrisoned after smuggled liquor was found here. In 1872 the water batteries were reworked and joined together with a new section along the front of the fort to form a continuous 25-gun battery. At least ten guns were mounted by the 1890's. An unnamed battery of two M1888 8-inch BL guns on modified 15-inch Rodman carriages was located here in 1898 - 1899. The water battery was largely built over and/or destroyed by the later batteries, although several platforms and magazines are still extant. Endicott batteries here are Battery Pike (1898 - 1919), Battery Forse (1899 - 1918), Battery Merrill (1907 - 1920), Battery Ridgely (1899 - 1913), Battery Scott (1901 - 1920), and Battery Brooke (1904 - 1920). High tides usually flood the lower levels of the batteries and magazines. Access is by boat only. Private property.


Fort Bourbon
(1793 - 1803 ?), Triumph
A Spanish earthen redoubt located about one mile or less from where American Fort Jackson was later built. Rebuilt in 1795 and again in 1796 after hurricanes. Apparently abandoned before 1803, as it was not listed to be transferred to the Americans. No trace remains.

Balize Forts
(1722 - 1749, 1766 - 1792, 1794 - 1815), near Pilot Town
French Fort de la Balise, a six-gun fort with two detached batteries, was built at the mouth of Southeast Pass on Toulouse Island. By 1734 two barracks, a cistern, and powder magazine were built. Repaired in 1742 after a hurricane. Flooded in 1749, and destroyed by a hurricane in 1750. It was never rebuilt. The Spanish decided to build a new fort at the mouth of Northeast Pass instead, named Fort Isla Real Católica de San Carlos (1766 - 1769). They abandoned this fort due to constant flooding, and moved back into the old one in 1770, renaming it Fort la Baliza (four-guns). A Governor's House was built, along with barracks, hospital, church, and 10 other houses. It was destroyed in 1778. A new post was then built at the junction of Southeast Pass and Pass a Loutre in 1778. It was abandoned in 1792 due to periodic flooding. The Spanish then built a two-story two-gun log blockhouse and barracks at the junction of Southeast Pass and Old Balize Bayou in 1794. It was briefly captured by French raiders in 1795. Taken over by the Americans in 1803, known as Post at Balize. Rebuilt in 1813 as a five-gun battery, but abandoned and then destroyed by the British in 1813. Re-occupied by the British in December 1814 until after their defeat in January 1815. The old blockhouse was used as the base of a light tower from 1817 - 1850's. The site was completely destroyed by a hurricane in 1865. No trace remains.

Head of Passes Fort
(1861 - 1865), Pilot Town
A Union fort or blockhouse was built at or near the present-day village.


¤¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of the MOUTH of the MISSISSIPPI RIVER

¤¤ Port Eads Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), Port Eads
A two-gun 155mm battery on Panama mounts was located here. No trace remains. Located on the South Pass. A field artillery battery was temporarily set up at Boothville before the defenses were completed.

¤¤ Burrwood Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), Burrwood
A two-gun 155mm battery on Panama mounts was located here to defend the river approach to New Orleans. It is not likely that any trace remains. Located on the Southwest Pass. The U.S. Navy had earlier established a Naval Section Base here in late December 1941.


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