Battery Alexander |
Fort Alexander |
Fort Alice |
Anderson's Fort |
Baker's Fort | Camp Bates | Bear Camp | Battery Benson | Camp Benton | Biggs Ford Site
Bladensburg Battlefield | Blockhouse Point | Camp Boonesboro | Fort Bradford
Budd's Ferry Battery | Fort Campobello | Camp Casey | Catoctin Mt. Signal Station
Chicamuxen Creek Camp | Conococheague Depot | T. Cresap's Fort | D. Cresap's Fort
Fort at Cresap's | Fort Cross | Fort Cumberland | Fort Davis | Battery Doubleday
Fort Duncan | Fairview Mt. Signal Station | Fort Foote | Fort Franklin | Frederick Barracks
Fort Frederick | Funkstown Line | Camp at the Grove | Hager's Fort | Camp Heintzelman
Hessian Barracks | Camp Hicks | Fort Hill | Camp Hooker | Indian Head Battery
Jacques' Fort | Battery Jameson | Killough's Fort (1) | Killough's Fort (2) | Fort Kirby
Battery Lane | Fort Lininger | Little Meadows Camp | Camp Lyon | Battery Mansfield
Fort Mansfield | Martin's Plantation Camp | Mattawoman Indian Fort | Mills' Fort
Mockley Point Site | Monocacy Blockhouses | Fort Mount Pleasant | Moyaons | Nicholas' Fort
Camp Ohio | Camp Observation | Fort Pendleton | Prather's Fort | Fort Ripley
Camp Rose Hill | Savage River Camp | Shade Run Camp | Shelby's Fort (1) | Shelby's Post (2)
Shelby's Post (3) | Battery Simmons | Fort Simmons | South Mt. Signal Station
Spendelow's Camp | Stoddert's Fort | Camp Stone | Stone Fort | Sugar Loaf Mt. Signal Station
Fort Sumner | Susquehannock Indian Fort (1) | Tonoloway Fort | Walker Site
Camp Warburton | Fort Warburton | Fort Washington | Camp Williams | Williamsport Line
Fort at Wills Creek | Zekiah Fort
Washington's Cold War AAA Defenses
Eastern Maryland - page 1 | Baltimore Harbor - page 2
Budd's Ferry Battery
(1861 - 1862), near Doncaster
A Union two-gun battery set up on Moss Point to counter the Confederate batteries across the river at Quantico Creek (Shipping Point), Virginia. Positions were occupied from October 1861 to March 1862 when the Confederates abandoned the Potomac River defenses in Virginia. State marker located on MD 224 at Budd's Ferry Place. General Daniel Sickles Headquarters state marker located on MD 6 at Clements Place.
Nearby was Union Chicamuxen Creek Camp (1861 - 1862). General Joseph Hooker's Headquarters state marker located on MD 224 at Chicamuxen Church. Rum Point state marker located on MD 224 at Stumpneck Road.
Indian Head Battery
(1814), Indian Head
A U.S. Naval battery with 18 guns set up to harrass the British fleet as they were sailing back downriver after attacking Alexandria, Virginia in September 1814. Only one heavy gun was emplaced that did any real damage. (see also White House Point Battery in VIRGINIA)
Mattawoman Indian Fort
(1670's), near Waldorf
A Mattawoman Indian town/fort was located in the vicinity. State marker located on US 301 south of Mattawoman Creek.
(1680 - 1692), near St. Charles
A Piscataway Indian refugee fort built by the Maryland colonial militia was located on a hill near Zekiah Swamp Run. Site found and excavated in 2011.
(Accokeek Creek Archaeological Site)
(The Accokeek Foundation)
(c. 1600), near Bonds
A palisaded major Piscataway Indian town located near the mouth of Accokeek Creek, directly across from Mount Vernon, Virginia. Noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Probably occupied beginning in 1590. Leonard Calvert considered this area for the state capital in the 1630's, but the local Indians persuaded him otherwise. The Piscataways later became Calvert's allies against Virginia trader William Claiborne and the Susquehannock Indians. Piscataway Park National Register Listing
Susquehannock Indian Fort (1)
(Accokeek Creek Archaeological Site)
(1674 - 1675), near Bonds
The Susquehannock Indians built a rectangular fort on the south bank of Piscataway Creek.
¤¤ COAST DEFENSES of the POTOMAC RIVER (partial) (see also Fort Hunt, VA)
Harbor Defense of the Potomac - FORT WIKI
¤¤ Fort Washington (National Park)
(1824 - 1946, intermittent), Fort Washington
Fort Warburton, designed by Pierre L'Enfant, was built in 1809 but it was destroyed in 1814 to prevent the British from capturing it. A two-gun blockhouse, surrounded by a semi-elliptical five-gun earthwork, was located where the present fort would be built. A five-gun Water Battery (1809 - 14) was located by the lighthouse. A six-gun Martello Tower may have been built to the rear of the fort, according to an old map. During the Civil War, the North Battery was built where Battery Decatur would later be built. The South Battery was located where Battery Many would later be. Plans were made to rework the North and South Batteries in 1873, but the work was never started. Endicott batteries include Battery Meigs (1900 - 1913), Battery Wilkin (1902 - 1928), Battery Smith (1903 - 1920), Battery Humphreys (1899 - 1929), Experimental Battery (1899 - 1900) buried, Battery Emory (1898 - 1929), Battery Decatur (1899 - 1918), Battery Many (1905 - 1928), and Battery White (1898 - 1920). An unnamed battery (1898) is located adjacent to Battery Humphreys (the gun from the experimental battery was moved here for wartime use). Battery White was built over top of the Ravelin Battery (1815 - 1830 / 1873 - 1890's). Four 15-inch Rodmans were emplaced here in the late 1870's or 1880's. An 1890's mine casemate was built in the lower level of the fort. The Mine Storeroom is by the river. Mines were planted in the river in 1898. Camp Warburton (1898) was on post, garrisoned by state troops to augment the fort's garrison during the Spanish-American War. There are several fire-control towers still remaining on post. This was the headquarters of the Potomac River Defenses. Admission fee. Warburton Manor state marker located near parking lot. Maryland National Register Listing
PHOTOS by John Hamill
A lighthouse was here from 1870 to 1901. Since 1901, the old lighthouse's bell tower has been used as the present lighthouse (no public access).
Fort Foote (National Park)
(1863 - 1878/1946), Fort Foote Village FORT WIKI
Originally a Civil War six-gun coastal defense work to augment Fort Washington. North Battery was located on Roziers Bluff, now a picnic area just north of the fort. The site came under Federal ownership in 1873. The fort's outer walls and magazines were rebuilt with concrete in 1874. One magazine was never completed, hence its ruined state today. The "King's Depressing Carriage" was tested here in 1876 - 1878. The post was used as a practice area for students from the engineer school from 1902 through 1917. During World War I some gas service tests were carried out at the post and Fort Washington used the area for training Officer Candidates during World War II. The reservation was taken over by the National Park Service in 1946. Most of the guns were removed but one of the fort's Parrott guns was sent to the Evergreen Cemetery in Leechburg, Pennsylvania. Two original 15-inch Rodman guns still remain and are on restored carriages and mounts. This is one of the few examples left of an unaltered "1870's Plan", or "Fourth System" fortification. Maryland National Register Listing
War Defenses of Washington
(NPS Historic Resources Study)
Washington, DC Civil War Defense System - FORT WIKI
(1861 - 1866), various locations
Of the 68 forts and 93 batteries built around Washington during the Civil War, the following (plus Fort Foote listed above) were the only ones actually located in Maryland. Most sites have not been preserved. Only Batteries Bailey and Jameson are still extant in some form.
(See also the DISTRICT of COLUMBIA and VIRGINIA pages)
Fort Simmons (1861) (eight guns, three vacant platforms), three miles above Chain Bridge, located at Berkley and Crescent Streets. (177 yard perimeter)
Battery Simmons (four guns), an outwork of Fort Simmons, located at Allen and Bayard Streets.
Fort Mansfield (11 guns, two vacant platforms), linked Forts Reno (in DC) and Sumner. Located at 5110 Worthington Drive. (220 yard perimeter)
Battery Mansfield (seven guns), located 125 yards north of 5100 Massachusetts Ave..
Fort Ripley (1861 - 1863), located at Little Falls. Renamed Fort (Redoubt) Cross in 1864.
Fort Alexander (1861 - 1863), located adjacent to Fort Ripley. Renamed Fort (Redoubt) Davis in 1864.
Fort Franklin (1861 - 1863), located adjacent to Fort Alexander. Renamed Fort (Redoubt) Kirby in 1864.
Fort Sumner (1863 - 1865) (32 guns, 15 vacant platforms), was the combined Forts Ripley, Alexander, and Franklin. (843 yard perimeter) No remains. Marker on Sangamore Road at Westpath Way. ¤ National Archives MAP ¤
Battery Alexander (1863) (with a seperate blockhouse), an outwork of Fort Sumner, located on Alexander Road. (guns included in Fort Sumner total)
Battery Bailey (1862) (six guns), two miles above Chain Bridge in Westmoreland Hills Park. Some earthworks remain. Marker in parking lot of park, at 5315 Elliot Drive.
Battery Benson (1862) (five guns), an earthwork located between Forts Sumner and Mansfield, west of the Powder Mill Branch, at 4805 Fort Sumner Drive.
Battery Lane (park) in Bethesda, at 4960 Battery Lane. No remains.
A three-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Simmons.
Camp Ohio (1863), located six miles from the Tenleytown area of Washington.
Prince George's County:
Battery Jameson (one gun, 14 vacant platforms), remnants located near the springhouse in Fort Lincoln Cemetery (established 1912). (80 yard perimeter) State marker.
A five-gun battery was located to the right of Battery Jameson.
There may have been a fort or battery located in Suitland.
Camp Casey (1861 - 1862), located in Cottage City near Bladensburg.
Earthworks and artillery breastworks were erected here in August 1814 by the Federal army and local militia defending Washington, DC from the attacking British army. The Americans were routed, and the British advanced to burn and pillage the national capital. See also Battle of Bladensburg from Town of Bladensburg
Cold War AAA Defenses of Washington
(1951 - 1959), Washington area
Several permanent sites were established for the Army's Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) Gun Site Program, the precursor to the NIKE missile defense program. Four 90mm AA guns and/or four 120mm AA guns were positioned at each site, with troop barracks and other support buildings. Known sites include:
Friendly (1951 - 1957) 120mm guns: undetermined.
Oxen Hill (1951 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined.
Carmody Hills (1952 - 1957) 120mm guns: undetermined.
Andrews Air Force Base (1953) 90mm guns, (1951 - 1954) 120mm guns (eight): on post (W-32).
Temple Hills (1951 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined.
Suitland: battery headquarters only (?), at Suitland Federal Center (W-34).
Forestville (1952 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-24).
Woodmore (1951 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined.
Landover (1951 - 1957) 90mm guns, (1953 - 1954) 120mm guns (eight): undetermined.
Chillum (1951 - 1959) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-03).
College Park (1953 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-10).
Hillandale (1951 - 1959) 120mm guns (eight): undetermined.
Bethesda (1951 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-82).
Cabin John (1954 - 1957) 90mm guns, (1951 - 1957) 120mm guns: undetermined.
Rosemary Hills (1953 - 1954) 90mm gun battery headquarters only, (1951 - 1957) 120mm guns: undetermined (W-91).
Other area sites included:
Fort Meade (1951 - 1959) 90mm and 120mm gun battery headquarters only: on post (W-13).
NIKE missile defense sites (1954 - 1974) are beyond the scope of this website.
See also NIKE missile info from the Fort Meade Museum
Of interest in Gaithersburg is NIKE Missile Park, a former NIKE missile launch site (W-94) (1955 - 1963) that was opened as a public park in 2002. Located at 8500 Snouffer School Road.
(See also the DISTRICT of COLUMBIA and VIRGINIA pages)
Blockhouse Point (Conservation Park)
(1862 - 1864), near Seneca
A Union blockhouse on the Potomac River at the head of Watkins Island, directly across from the Loudoun/Fairfax County line in Virginia. Burned by Confederates in July 1864 and not rebuilt.
Walker Archaeological Site
(1300 - 1500), Selden Island
A Late Woodland Period palisaded Indian town, excavated in the 1930's. Located on the Potomac River north of Ashburn, VA.
Poolesville Civil War Camps
(1861 - 1865), at or near Poolesville
Union garrison posts here were: Camp Bates, Camp Benton (1861 - 1862), Camp Lyon (1862), Camp Stone (1861 - 1862), and Camp Heintzelman (1862 - 1863). The river crossing at Edward's Ferry was protected throughout the war. Edward's Ferry state marker located on Edward's Ferry Road at MD 190 (River Road).
(1861 - 1862), White's Ferry
A Union post overlooking White's Ford. The river crossing here was later used repeatedly by Confederate forces. White's Ford state marker located on MD 107 (White's Ferry Road) at Martinsburg Road.
Sugar Loaf Mountain Signal Station
(1860's), near Stronghold
A Union signal station.
Signal stations were also known to be located on Catoctin Mountain and South Mountain (exact locations undetermined).
(Monocacy National Battlefield Park)
(1862 - 1863), near Frederick
A Union garrison camp at Monocacy Junction. Two stone blockhouses (1862 - 1865) were located on either side of the Monocacy River protecting the railroad bridge, along with several rifle pits. No remains.
(Maryland School for the Deaf - Frederick Campus)
(1777 - 1820 ?), Frederick
Officially known as Frederick Barracks. It was a group of several stone buildings, probably inside a palisade, with four blockhouses. British and Hessian prisoners were kept here after their capture in Trenton, NJ, and Saratoga, NY (via Albemarle Barracks, Charlottesville, VA in 1780). It was also used as a temporary prison for French naval officers in 1799, and for British troops in 1814. It was used as a hospital during the Civil War. One building was demolished in 1874 in order to construct a new building for the school. One original building still exists, renovated as a museum in 1931, located on the grounds of the Maryland School for the Deaf (1868) at Clarke Place and South Carroll Street. Open by appointment only.
(1861 - 1862), Frederick
A Union winter quarters camp.
Biggs Ford Archaeological Site
(1300 - 1500), near Walkersville
A Late Woodland Period palisaded Indian town, partially excavated 1969. Located on the Monocacy River at Glade Creek.
(Harpers Ferry National Historical Park - Maryland Heights)
(1862 - 1865), near Harpers Ferry, WV
A Union stone-walled defense located in the Maryland Heights section of Harpers Ferry NHP. It later became a storehouse and commissary in 1863. Also located here are Interior Fort (1863) (five guns), Exterior Fort (1863) (infantry parapets), Naval Battery (1862) (seven guns), the 100-pounder Battery (1863) (one gun), and the 30-pounder Battery (aka Six-Gun Battery) (1862). See also Maryland Heights Stone Fort Trail from Naviquan.com
(1862 - 1865), near Harpers Ferry, WV
A rectangular 16-gun work located near the Maryland Heights section of Harpers Ferry NHP. It is located behind Lock #36 of the C&O Canal Historical Trail at mile 62. A line of entrenchments connected it to Stone Fort to the east.
(1862 - 1863), Boonesboro
A Union garrison post.
A Union training camp.
Jonathan Hager's Fort
(Hager House and Museum)
(1739 - 1760's), Hagerstown
Dubbed "Hager's Fancy", the house was built in 1739-40 over two springs to ensure a protected water supply. The cellar was built with defensive loopholes. Hager sold the house in 1745 to Jacob Rohrer. The house was stockaded in 1755. The town was founded by Hager in 1762, originally named Elizabeth Town, after Hager's wife. Restored in the 1950's, opened as a museum in 1962. Located in Hagerstown City Park. Admission fee. State marker located on South Walnut Street.
A Union fort guarding the western approach to Baltimore.
(1863), near Funkstown
A Union line of entrenchments from Antietam Creek north of town to Tilghmanton to counter the Confederate forces in retreat after the Battle of Gettysburg. Battle of Funkstown state marker located on US 40 (Alt.) (Old National Pike) at East Green Street.
Conococheague Supply Depot
(1755 - 1760's), Williamsport
A stockaded supply base for the MD and VA colonial militias, and British regulars. Located across the Potomac River from Fort Maidstone, West Virginia, with which it was sometimes confused by past historians.
A Union earthwork battery built to halt Confederate raids across the Potomac River. It was soon abandoned because of inadequate sight lines to the river fords used by the Confederates. Remnants still exist, with monument, on Doubleday Hill within Riverview Cemetery. The cemetery was established before the war. The town changed hands several times during the war.
(1863), near Williamsport
A hastily-built line of Confederate entrenchments from Conococheague Creek and Hagerstown south to St. James and Downsville, built after the Battle of Gettysburg, to delay the Union pursuit while pontoon bridges were rebuilt on the flooded Potomac River at Falling Waters to allow the CSA Army to cross back into (West) Virginia. Several batteries were also erected on the West Virginia side of the river. Falling Waters state marker located on Falling Waters Road.
Daniel Cresap's Fort
(1750's - unknown), near Kemps
A stone house with a spring in its cellar, located on Conococheague Creek. It was built by Daniel, son of Thomas. It was attacked in 1756.
Isaac Baker's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), near Hicksville
A settlers' fort on Dry Run on Baker's Ridge, 11 miles northeast of Fort Frederick. It was used by the MD colonial militia after 1756.
Allen Killough's Fort (2)
(1756 ?), near Fairview
A settlers' fort on the west side of Conococheague Creek just south of the Mason-Dixon Line, at the crossing of present-day MD 58.
Thomas Prather's Fort
(1756 - 1759), near Big Spring
A settler's home used as a military depot. Located on Prather's Neck at Four Locks on the C&O Canal Historical Trail on mile 109.
Lancelot Jacques' Fort
(1750's), Big Pool
A log house just east of Fort Frederick, four miles west of Prather's Fort.
Evan Shelby's Post (2)
(1763 - 1773), Big Pool
A trading post established adjacent to Fort Frederick after Shelby's Fort (1) burned down (see below).
Fort Frederick (State Park)
(Friends of Fort Frederick State Park)
(1756 - 1764, 1780- 1783, 1861 - 1865), Big Pool FORT WIKI
One of the best preserved forts of the French and Indian War in the nation. The square-shaped stone fortress features four corner bastions and 17-foot high walls, with two wooden barracks that were restored in 1975. The stone walls were restored in 1934. The Officers' quarters will be restored by 2006. During the American Revolution, the fort served as a POW camp for British and Hessian soldiers. The fort was sold by the state in 1791. The ruins of the fort were regarrisoned for the Civil War. The only action to ever occur here took place in December 1861 by CSA raiders. Maryland National Register Listing See also Archaeology at Fort Frederick from Maryland Archaeological Conservation Lab
State marker #1 located on US 40 at MD 56 (Big Pool Road) || State marker #2 located on US 40 at Martin Street
Evan Shelby's Fort (1)
(1755 - 1763), near Clear Spring
A log house that was stockaded in 1755, and burned down in 1763. It was located three miles south of the Mason-Dixon line, about five miles west of Baker's Fort, on Little Conococheague Creek.
Fairview Mountain Signal Station
(1860's), near Clear Spring
A Union signal station. Captured by the CSA in October 1862. State marker located on US 40 about two miles west of town.
Thomas Mills' Fort
(1754 - 1760's), near Pectonville
Located on Licking Creek one mile from the Potomac River, five miles from Fort Frederick. A settlers' fort used by the MD colonial militia after 1756. State marker located on US 40 at the Park Head Methodist Church.
Allen Killough's Fort (1)
(1754 ? - 1756), near Pectonville
A stockaded settler's home, located on Licking Creek about four miles south of the Mason-Dixon line, northwest of Mills' Fort. Attacked and destroyed by Indians in 1756.
(Tonoloway State Park)
(1755 - 1756), near Hancock
A MD colonial militia stockaded blockhouse built for protection of settlers from Indians, garrisoned by 20 men. It was also known as Lt. Thomas Stoddert's Fort. It was probably located on the east bank of Little Tonoloway Creek. The settlement was attacked several times. It was abandoned after Fort Frederick was built. State marker located on MD 144 (Western Pike) at Locher Road. See also History of Hancock, MD from the Hancock Chamber of Commerce.
Thomas Cresap's Fort
(1742 - 1763), Oldtown
Located on the Potomac River, it was originally a trading post that was stockaded in 1755. Also known as Fort at Cresap's. It was a supply base for several expeditions, and it was attacked several times. Only the ruins of a stone chimney remain. Old Town state marker located on MD 51 at Opessa Street. Son Michael built his house nearby in 1764 (still extant on Main Street).
A Union post. Site located about 300 yards from Cresap's Fort ruins.
(1755), North Branch
A settlers' fort.
(1749 - 1765), Cumberland
A star-shaped fort with four bastions, alongside a large stockade surrounding the garrison area. Its early names included Fort at Wills Creek, Post at Wills Creek, and Fort Mount Pleasant, and it was originally built by the Virginia colonial militia as a trading outpost of the Ohio Company. When George Washington surrendered to the French at Fort Necessity, PA in 1754, he withdrew to this fort. Beginning in 1755 it was rebuilt by the Maryland colonial militia and British regulars under General Edward Braddock, and was renamed. The old fort was used again in 1794 as a staging area for Federal troops under President George Washington during the Whiskey Rebellion. State marker || Parade Ground state marker located at Prospect Square
Fort Cumberland Trail is a walking tour highlighting parts of the fort's ruins and tunnels located underneath Emmanuel Episcopal Church (1849), at Washington and Greene Streets. The old tunnels were used before the Civil War as part of the Underground Railroad. A scale model of the fort is on display in the church. Part of the fort's palisade has been reconstructed. Braddock's Road state marker located at the corner of Fayette Street, Greene Street, and Braddock Road.
George Washington's Headquarters (1794), a log cabin used during the Whiskey Rebellion encampment, still exists, relocated to Riverside Park on Greene Street. State marker located at original site on Washington Street at Prospect Square.
Cumberland Civil War Forts
Union defenses included:
Fort Hill located at 500 Greenway Ave. (site now Fort Hill High School).
Fort Campobello located at 616 Sedgewick Street (site now Allegheny High School).
Camp Rose Hill located at 512 Dunbar Drive.
A British encampment on the Braddock Road. Also known as Camp at the Grove. State marker located on Vocke Road.
(1755 - unknown), Cresaptown
A settlers' stockade with four blockhouses. It was attacked in 1756.
Martin's Plantation Camp
A British encampment on the Braddock Road. State marker located on US 40 (Alt.) at MD 36.
Savage River Camp
(1755), near Frostburg
A British encampment on the Braddock Road, west of town along the Savage River. State marker located on US 40 (Alt.) east of Piney Run Road.
Little Meadows Camp
(1755), near Grantsville
A British encampment on the Braddock Road, east of town along Meadow Run. State marker located on US 40 (Alt.) east of US 219.
Shade Run Camp
(1755), near Grantsville
A British encampment on the Braddock Road, west of town. State marker located on US 40 (Alt.) at the Big Shade Run bridge. East of town is The Little Crossings state marker located on US 40 (Alt.) at the old Casselman River bridge.
(1755), near Oakton
A British encampment on the Braddock Road, just south of the present-day state line. State marker located on US 40 (Alt.) at Hemlock Meadow Lane.
Evan Shelby's Post (3)
(1773 - 1775), near Selbysport
Another trading post built by Evan Shelby, located on Buffalo Run.
(1860's), near Oakland
A Union fort protecting the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad bridge over the Youghiogheny River northwest of town. Confederates attacked and destroyed the fort in 1863, and burned the railroad bridge.
(1860's), near Gorman
A Union blockhouse guarding the approach to the old Northwest Turnpike bridge. The fort burned down in 1888.
NEED MORE INFO: Fort Hill near Rawlings in Allegany County
Information on French & Indian War forts of the Potomac River basin gathered from "Frontier Forts along the Potomac and its Tributaries", by William H. Ansel, 1984, Fort Pearsall Press.
Eastern Maryland - page 1 | Baltimore Harbor - page 2
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