Southern Pennsylvania II

All's Fort | W. Allison's Fort | Post at Armstrong's (1) | Aughwick Fort | Aull's Fort | Fort Bedford
Camp Biddle | Carlisle Barracks | Camp at Carlisle | Carlisle Fort | Fort at Carlisle | Carnaham's Fort
Chambers' Fort | Fort Chambers | Camp Colt | Fort Conococheague | Coombs' Fort | Coulter's Fort
G. Croghan's Fort (1) | G. Croghan's Fort (2) | Cross' Fort | Culbertson's Fort | Cuthbertson's Fort
D. Davis' Fort | P. Davis' Fort | Fort Defiance | Dickey's Blockhouse | Edmiston's Fort | Edmonson's Fort
Elliott's Fort | Ferguson's Blockhouse | Fort Franklin (2) | Harron's Fort | Hendrick's Blockhouse (b)
Jack's Fort | Fort Juniata Crossing | Fort Letort | Camp Letterman | Fort Loudoun | Fort Louther
Fort Lowther | Fort Lyttleton | McAlister's Blockhouse | McCallister's Blockhouse | McCauley's Fort
McComb's Blockhouse | McConnell's Fort | G. McCord's Fort | W. McCord's Fort | McCormick's Fort (1)
J. McDowell's Fort | Fort at McDowell's Mill | McField's Fort | Marshall's Fort | Martin's Blockhouse
Maxwell's Fort | Camp Meredith | Fort Morris (1) | Path Valley Fort | Piper's Blockhouse | Fort Raystown
G. Robinson's Fort | G. Robison's Fort | R. Robinson's Fort/BH (1) | R. Robison's Fort/BH (1)
Shawnee Cabins Camp | E. Shippen's Blockhouse | Fort Shirley | Shoup's Fort | Camp Slifer | Camp Snyder
Camp Stanwix | Steel's Fort | Fort at Steel's Meetinghouse | Stouffer's Fort | Waddell's Fort | Washingtonburg

Southeast Pennsylvania - page 1 | Northeast Pennsylvania - page 2
Central Pennsylvania - page 3 | Southern Pennsylvania I - page 4
Southwest Pennsylvania - page 6 | Northwest Pennsylvania - page 7
Greater Pittsburgh - page 8

EXPLORE PA HISTORY
CONOCOCHEAGUE INSTITUTE

Last Update: 25/JUNE/2010
Compiled by Pete Payette - 2010 American Forts Network

Thomas Coulter's Fort
(1770's), near Centerville
A settlers' defense located on Evitts Creek in the Cumberland Valley.

Shawnee Cabins Camp
(Shawnee State Park)
(1758), near Schellsburg
A British encampment on the Forbes Road. See also PA state marker - Forbes Road located east near Napier.

Fort Bedford (Park)
(1758 - 1770, 1794), Bedford
Originally called Fort Raystown during its first year. This was a palisaded stockade with five bastions covering 7000 square yards, with two outer redoubts on the south and west. Surrounded by the river and an eight-foot deep moat, the British thought it was impregnable. It was said to have been the first British fort ever to be captured by American rebels, when in 1769 eighteen men led by James Smith (aka the "Black Boys") captured it by obtaining admission through a ruse. They were protesting continued trade with the Indians. See also The Black Boys from Mother Bedford.com. The fort was not active during the American Revolution, but still stood as a settler refuge. The current blockhouse structure is a reproduction (1958), used as the visitor center/museum, which features a scale model of the fort. An original stone building still exists on the grounds. It was used as President Washington's headquarters on his march against the instigators of the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794. Admission fee. The town was originally known as Raystown, first settled in 1751. See also PA state marker || Mother Bedford.com

Martin's Blockhouse
(1770's), West Providence Township, Bedford County
A settlers' blockhouse, located east of Everett towards Juniata Crossing. Exact site undetermined.

Fort Defiance
(1770's), West Providence Township, Bedford County
A settlers' defense located in a natural rock formation on the west bank of Shaffer Creek, in the southeast corner of the township bounds.

Fort Juniata Crossing
(1758 - 1763), Juniata Crossing
A British fortified supply camp on the Forbes Road on the east-side of the river, located one-half mile north of the US 30 bridge. There was a log stockade with four bastions, barracks, and storehouses. Afterwards used by the PA colonial militia, but abandoned during Pontiac's War.

Lt. Col. James (or John ?) Piper's Blockhouse
(1777 - unknown), near Cypher
A settlers' stockaded two-story stone house on Piper's Run, off of the Raystown Branch Juniata River.

Sebastian Shoup's Fort
(1770's), near Saxton
A settlers' defense located on Shoup Run, just below town on the east bank of the Raystown Branch Juniata River.

Fort Shirley
(1755 - 1756), Shirleysburg
A stockaded trading post originally named George Croghan's Fort (1) or Aughwick Fort. Croghan had lived here since 1751. In 1754 the post became a refuge for the pro-British Ohio Iroquois after the fall of Fort Necessity. Briefly used by the PA colonial militia and renamed in 1756. It was reportedly somewhat larger than Fort Lyttleton. Abandoned after the fall of Fort Granville. No remains. A stone monument is located on US 522 at Fort Run north of town. Ongoing site excavations have revealed a palisade wall foundation.

Fort Lyttleton
(1756 - 1760, 1763 - 1764), Fort Littleton
A 100-foot square stockade with four bastions, built by the PA colonial militia. It was located one-half mile northeast of town on the north-side of US 522. A stone monument (1924) is located here. The spelling of the town's name was later altered. This area was originally known as the Sugar Cabins. See also PA state marker - Forbes Road || PA state marker - Burnt Cabins

Daniel McConnell's Blockhouse
(1764), McConnellsburg
A settlers' blockhouse. The present house was built later (date ?), located on Lincoln Way and First Street.

Coombs' Fort
(1755 - 1760's), near Warfordsburg
A settlers' stockaded house, located two miles north of Hancock, MD. A stone monument (1935) is located on the site. It is undetermined if the house belonged to Edward or Joseph Coombs. When the fort was built, this was considered part of Maryland, as the Mason-Dixon survey did not reach this area until 1767. The MD colonial militia used this fort after 1756. It was attacked by Indians several times. Maryland state marker located in Hancock at High and Virginia Streets.

David Davis' Fort
(1755 - unknown), Sylvan
A settler's fort built by the brother of Philip. Attacked by Indians in 1756. Located on Fort Davis Road.

Fort Loudoun
(1756 - 1765), Fort Loudon
Built by the PA colonial militia on the site of settler Matthew Patton's burned house. It was a 127-foot square palisade with two wooden buildings on stone foundations, and a stone-lined well. This was an important supply depot on the Forbes Road in 1758. Known as Fort Conococheague in some accounts. In 1765 about 300 settlers forced the British to evacuate the fort, angry that trade with the Indians was resumed after Pontiac's War. Excavations were undertaken in 1977 and 1982 to determine the exact location and layout of the fort. The palisade trace and the stone foundations were located. The fort's stockade was reconstructed in 1993 on the exact site, but without the interior buildings at present. The visitor center is in a restored 1798 house that was originally built on the fort site, but was relocated to its present site in 1982. Located one mile southeast of town on North Brooklyn Road. The spelling of the town's name was later altered. See also PA state marker
See also History of Fort Loudoun from Stoneledge Whippets

John McDowell's Fort
(1755 - 1757), Markes
A rectangular stockade with four blockhouses surrounding a gristmill (1740). Forty men from the PA colonial militia garrisoned this fort in 1756 until Fort Loudoun was built. It was attacked by Indians several times. Located two miles southeast of Fort Loudoun. Also known as Fort at McDowell's Mill. A stone monument (1910) is located at Lemar Road and Mercersburg Road.

Rev. John Steel's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), Church Hill
A stockaded log meetinghouse/church (1738) located three miles east of Mercersburg along the West Branch of Conococheague Creek, used for public defense. Also spelled Steele. Also known as Fort at Steel's Meetinghouse. Steel, active in the area's defense, was made a captain in the local militia. A stone monument is located at the cemetery at Church Hill Road and Steele Ave..

William Maxwell's Fort
(1755 - unknown), Welsh Run
A fortified settlers' house on the West Branch of Conococheague Creek, north of town on Gaines Road. It was attacked by Indians in 1757. Also known as McField's Fort in one source, probably in error.

Cross' Fort
(1757 - unknown), near Bino
A settlers' fort on the north-side of Rush Run at an old Indian town site called Conococheague (pronounced CON-oco-KEEG). May have been destroyed soon after it was built.

Philip Davis' Fort
(1755 - unknown), near Welsh Run
Located on Welsh Run two miles southwest of town, and 2.2 miles south of Claylick. A settler's fort that was also used by the PA colonial militia. A stone monument (1931) is located off Bain Road near Royer Road. A so-called "Fort House" was taken down at this site in 1933. The state marker is located on Welsh Run Road at Bain Road.

Stouffer's Fort
(1756 - 1760's), near Claylick or Shimpstown
A settlers' stockade on Licking Creek, located near Marshall's Fort.

William Marshall's Fort
(1756 - 1760's), near Claylick
A settlers' fortified house on the south-side of Licking Creek, two miles west of town south of Clay Hill Road. Used by the PA colonial militia.

McCauley's Fort
(1750's ?), Greencastle
A settlers' fort. A marker is located at the southwest corner of PA 16 and US 11.

Camp Meredith
(1860's), near Greencastle
A Civil War training camp. Exact location undetermined.

William Allison's Fort
(1755 - unknown), near Waynesboro
A settlers' fort located along Antietam Creek, used for public defense.
(NOTE: there may have been another Fort Allison (1750's) west of Greencastle on Conococheague Creek, or possibly that was the correct location. There is an Allison St. in Greencastle.)

Benjamin Chambers' Fort
(Fort Chambers Park)
(1756 - 1760's), Chambersburg
A settlers' stone house, sawmill, and gristmill surrounded by a stockade with two swivel guns, used for public defense. Also referred to as Fort Chambers. The house (1730) had a lead roof, and was built over a stream at Falling Spring. A stone monument (1984) is located in the park on North Main Street, between Market and King Streets.

Camp Slifer
(1861), near Chambersburg
A Civil War training camp south of town. There were other camps in the area as well, their names and locations undetermined.

Thomas Waddell's Fort
(1754 - unknown), St. Thomas
A fortified house one mile west of town. Used by the PA colonial militia. A stone monument is located at US 30 and PA 416, which is south of the exact site.

Post at Capt. Joseph Armstrong's (1)
(1756), Edenville
A settlers' house used as a militia patrol station. There is no historical evidence of a fortification.

William McCord's Fort
(1755 - 1756), near Freys
A settlers' fort also used by the PA colonial militia. It was attacked and destroyed by Delaware Indians in April 1756. Located northeast of Edenville. A marker and stone monument (1914) is at the site on Fort McCord Road. (NOTE: the state marker says "John McCord", who was either William's brother or eldest son.)

Sharp's Fort
(1758), Franklin County
A settlers' fort located somewhere west of Chambersburg.

John All's Fort
(1750's), Franklin County
A settlers' fort. Also spelled Aull. Undetermined location.

Elliott's Fort
(1755 - unknown), Springtown
A settlers' fort. This may be the Path Valley Fort where several settler families gathered for protection during an Indian raid in 1755, but were not directly attacked.

Capt. Alexander Culbertson's Fort
(1755 - 1758 ?), Culbertson
A settlers' fort. Culbertson was killed by Indians in 1756. Referenced in Indian raids during 1757 and 1758. Also spelled Cuthbertson in one source.

Edward Shippen's Blockhouse
(1755), Shippensburg
Edward Shippen had a 30-foot square stone "strong house" built for use as a supply depot during General Braddock's Campaign. It was to be replaced with a stone magazine at McDowell's Mill, which was considered closer to the troops, but which was never built. Site located on "Toll Gate Hill" behind 445 East King Street, now a parking lot. The 1930's PA state marker for the blockhouse at the "Bull's Eye" site on West King Street is in error. The stone dwelling house that was known to have been built at the "Bull's Eye" was not built until sometime after 1763, and was demolished before 1836.

Thomas Edmonson's Fort
(1740), Shippensburg
According to local tradition this was a settlers' blockhouse, supposedly originally built in 1740, later occupied by Edmonson and his family in 1741. Also spelled Edmiston. It was evidently no longer in use as a defense when Fort Morris (1) was ordered built in 1755. There is no record of its exact location or actual existence; however, 19th-century historians believed it may have been at the East Burd Street site, and it was later known as "Fort Franklin" (2) to distinguish it from Fort Morris (1), which had already been officially designated elsewhere by that time. Artifacts were found here in 1933. A stone monument was then erected in 1937 at the then presumed site of the "Fort Franklin" well, at 335 East Burd Street. (See Fort Morris (1) below)

Fort Morris (1)
(1755 - 1759, 1763 - 1764), Shippensburg
A bastioned log stockade built and used by the Pennsylvania colonial militia. The guns were withdrawn in 1759, but the fort was still maintained, and was regarrisoned in 1763. Site located on East Burd Street.
NOTE: A stone monument (1937) is located at 335 East Burd Street, once the presumed site of the fort's well, and part of a tract once known as "Fort Field". However, this monument describes a "Fort Franklin" (2), because earlier in 1921 a PA state historic marker for Fort Morris (1) was erected at the "Bulls Eye" site at West King and Morris Streets, due to local tradition. This was the result of considerable confusion among 19th-century historians regarding the true location of Fort Morris (1), and whether or not a second fort was also located here. There is no official record of a "Fort Franklin" in this area, and also no record of any private settlers' fort prior to 1755. Artifacts were found at the East Burd Street site in 1933. Soon after, the 1921 marker at the "Bull's Eye" site was removed and a new marker was erected by the state at the Old Court House at King and Queen Streets. Onsite excavations sponsored by the Shippensburg Historical Society in 2008 and 2009 have confirmed the true location of Fort Morris (1) to be on East Burd Street. The fort's well was actually found at 333 East Burd Street. No artifacts were ever found at the "Bulls Eye" site.
(thanks to John J. McCorriston, Shippensburg Historical Society, for providing info)

See also PA state marker - Forbes Road located on US 11 one mile north of town.

McCormick's Fort (1)
(1755 - unknown), Newburg
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse. Indians attacked nearby in 1757. The house was originally built in 1754, and lasted until torn down in 1905. Exact location unrecorded.

McCallister's Blockhouse
(1763 - unknown), Upper Mifflin Township, Cumberland County
Used by the PA colonial militia. Also spelled McAlister. Exact location undetermined.

Jack's Fort
(1767), North Newton Township, Cumberland County
A settlers' blockhouse, originally built in 1742. Also known as Carnaham's Fort.

McComb's Blockhouse
(1763), Doubling Gap
A settlers' blockhouse.

George Robinson's Fort
(1755 - 1756), Fort Robinson
A settlers' blockhouse. Also spelled Robison. A stone monument (1927) is located on PA 850 on Bixler's Run north of town.

Robert Robison's Fort (1)
(1756 - unknown), Shermans Dale
A settlers' blockhouse, also known as Robison's Blockhouse. Also spelled Robinson. Attacked by Indians in 1756.

George McCord's Fort
(1750's - 1763), Perry County
A settlers' fort attacked in 1763. George was probably related to William (listed above).

Hendrick's Blockhouse (b)
(1763), Perry County
A settlers' blockhouse.

Harron's Fort
(1757), Perry County ?
A settlers' fort located about twelve miles from Carlisle (undetermined location). An Indian attack occurred nearby in 1757.

Fort Letort
(1753 - 1756 ?), Carlisle
A trading post originally built by James Letort. Located near "Beaver Pond" (location ?). Possibly stockaded in 1755 by the local townspeople, or a different site was located for the town's defense. This new defense work was soon replaced by Fort Lowther.

Fort Lowther
(1756 - 1758 ?), Carlisle
A new and larger stockade was built in 1756 by the PA colonial militia to replace the original stockade built by the town, which was deemed inadequate. Also spelled Louther. Originally known simply as Fort at Carlisle or Carlisle Fort. Practically replaced by Carlisle Camp (see below), as there was no room for additional quarters or supplies as more troops arrived. Site located on West High Street, west of the Public Square.

Carlisle Barracks (U.S. Army Reservation)
(U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center)
(1777 - 1871, 1920 - present), Carlisle FORT WIKI
The British Army first encamped here in 1756, and in 1757 they built a more permanent fortified encampment, simply named Camp at Carlisle or Camp Stanwix, located just northeast of town. It became a major supply depot in 1758, practically replacing Fort Lowther, and it became an armory for the colony in 1769. See also PA state marker - Forbes Road. A state arsenal was established here in 1777. The powder magazine, which still stands, was built in 1777 by Hessian prisoners who were captured at Trenton, NJ. It is now a museum. The Mill Apartments were built between 1761 and 1768. This is the second oldest active Army post in the U.S. It was originally called Washingtonburg during the American Revolution. It became a Federal post in 1801, and was given its current name in 1807. Confederate forces briefly occupied and then burned the post on July 1, 1863. See also PA state marker #1 and PA state marker #2. Camp Biddle (1864 - 1865) was established outside the post to take in draftees. The post became the Carlisle Indian Industrial School from 1879 - 1918. Various U.S. Army schools were located here after 1920. The Army War College (1951) and Army Military History Institute (1967) are now located here, as well as the Omar N. Bradley Museum (1970).

Ferguson's Blockhouse
(1774 - unknown), near Carlisle Springs
A settlers' blockhouse.

Dickey's Blockhouse
(1763 - unknown), Cumberland County
Located about ten miles from the Susquehanna River on the south side of Blue Mountain, possibly near Donnellytown.

George Croghan's Fort (2)
(1755 - unknown), Cumberland County
A settlers' fort near the Susquehanna River. Used by the PA colonial militia.

Camp Letterman
(1863), Gettysburg
An Army General Hospital located one mile east of town on the York Pike. Established after the Battle of Gettysburg to treat the wounded of both sides. Site now Natural Springs Park.

Camp Snyder
(Gettysburg National Military Park)
(1898), Gettysburg
A Spanish-American War training camp, probably located on the Gettysburg Battlefield.

Camp Colt
(Gettysburg National Military Park)
(1917 - 1919), Gettysburg
Training camp for the Army Tank Corps. Located on the grounds of Gettysburg National Military Park.

Also here in WWII was Camp Sharpe (1943 - 1945), a German and Italian POW camp.


Special thanks to Jim Geisler for providing information on some early settlement forts and blockhouses.

Information on some French & Indian War forts of the Potomac River basin gathered from "Frontier Forts along the Potomac and its Tributaries", by William H. Ansel, 1984, Fort Pearsall Press.

Southeast Pennsylvania - page 1 | Northeast Pennsylvania - page 2 | Central Pennsylvania - page 3
Southern Pennsylvania I - page 4 | Southwest Pennsylvania - page 6 | Northwest Pennsylvania - page 7
Greater Pittsburgh - page 8

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
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