Middle Tennessee

Asher's Station | Bell Buckle Encampment | Big Lick Garrison | A. Bledsoe's Station | I. Bledsoe's Station
Camp Blount | Fort Blount | Camp Boone | Camp Bradley | Redoubt Brannan | Brentwood Post
Fort Bruce | Camp Burnett | Castalian Springs Site | Camp Cheatham | Fort Clark | Clarksville Defenses
Columbia Arsenal | Columbia Fort | R. Crockett's Camp | S. Crockett's Fort | Fort Defiance | Fort Donelson
Fairfield Encampment | Fort Foote | Camp Garesché | Fort Granger (2) | Greenfield Station
Guest Hollow Stockade | Hall's Station | Camp Halleck | Camp Hamilton | Hamilton's Station
Camp Harris | Fort Henry | Indian Fortress | Johnsonville Defenses | Johnsonville Depot
Kilgore's Station | Lindsley Site | McCain's Station | Mack's Fort | Manchester Defenses | Fort Mitchel
Morgan's Fort | Mound Bottom | Murfreesboro Defenses | Fort Nash | New Providence Blockhouse
Old Fort | Old Stone Fort | Camp Pennsylvania | Pulaski Fort | Fort Redmond | Renfroe's Station
Ridge Station | Fortress Rosecrans | Saunders' Fort | Fort Sevier | V. Sevier's Station
Camp Shaefer | Shelbyville Defenses | Camp Sill | Camp Smartt | Fort Smith | Spencer's Station
Camp Stanley | Fort Thomas | Titsworth's Fort | Camp Trousdale | Tullahoma Defenses
Walnutfield Station | Wartrace Encampment | Waverly Fort | J. White's Station (2) | Ziegler's Station

Northeastern Tennessee - page 1 | Southeastern Tennessee - page 2
Greater Nashville Area - page 4 | Western Tennessee - page 5

EARLY HISTORY OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE
CUMBERLAND VALLEY FRONTIER STATIONS

TENNESSEE'S CIVIL WAR HERITAGE TRAIL

Last Update: 24/OCTOBER/2009
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2009 American Forts Network

Camp Blount
(1813, 1830's), Fayetteville
A TN state militia camp on the south bank of the Elk River during General Jackson's campaign against the Creek Indians (October 1813). The site was also used for recruiting during the First Seminole War.

Camp Harris
(1861 - 1863), Estill Springs
Initially a CSA training camp, later became a heavily fortified CSA camp defending the bridges over the Elk River. Traces remain. This site was once part of the Allisonia mill community. A marker is one and one-half miles south of town on TN 16.

Civil War Defenses of Tullahoma
(1862 - 1863), Tullahoma
Confederate earthwork batteries surrounded the town west of Rock Creek along Military Road (Batteries #1 - #6), and north and east of town (seven breastwork batteries) protecting the Manchester Road, Cascade Spring Road, and the railroad. Later two earthwork forts were built closer to town, and the outer works were extended from the east to the south. This was the headquarters of the CSA Army of Tennessee's winter encampment (January - June 1863) under General Braxton Bragg, after the December 1862 Battle of Murfreesboro.

Old Stone Fort (State Archaeological Park) ?
(1 AD - 500 ?, 1863 ?), Manchester
A 2000-year old Middle Woodland Period Indian stone-walled structure. Possibly used in the Civil War by CSA forces to defend the town.

Civil War Defenses of Manchester
(1862 - 1863), Manchester
CSA earthworks covered the approaches to the town. A redoubt and a seperate stockade were built to the east past the railroad depot.

Fort Nash
(1793 ?, 1801 - 1806), near Gossburg
A Federal fort on the Tennessee Valley Divide in the Coffee - Cannon County boundary area protecting Cherokee lands from white encroachment. Site located near the head of Jernigan Branch or Perry Creek, in the vicinity of Lawrence Branch Road and Parker Road. A settlers' or militia fort may possibly have existed here as early as 1793.

Guest Hollow Stockade
(1862), near Summitville
A Union stockade protecting the railroad bridge. Attacked by Confederates in August 1862.

Camp Smartt
(1861 - 1863, intermittant), near McMinnville
A CSA training camp. Marker is located two miles south of town on TN 108.

Fairfield Encampment
(1863), Fairfield
A CSA defensive winter encampment (January - June 1863) for Hardee's Corps.

Wartrace Encampment
(1863), Wartrace
A CSA defensive winter encampment (January - June 1863).

Bell Buckle Encampment
(1863), Bell Buckle
A CSA defensive winter encampment (January - June 1863).

Civil War Defenses of Shelbyville
(1862 - 1863), near Shelbyville
CSA earthworks surrounded the town from Horse Mountain, north of Little Hurricane Creek, then west to Elbethel, then south to the Duck River at Warner's Mill (Bridge). The Confederate forces withdrew to the south in June 1863.

Civil War Defenses of Murfreesboro
(Stones River National Battlefield)
(1863 - 1866), Murfreesboro
Fortress Rosecrans, built after the December 1862 Battle of Stones River to prevent another Confederate attack, and to protect the vast storehouses and supply depots along the river and railroad. One of the largest earthen forts built during the war (225 acres), it consisted of four redoubts (Schofield, Brannan, T.J. Wood, Johnson); nine lunettes (Stanley, Negley, Reynolds, Rousseau, Gordon Granger, Crittenden, McCook, Thomas, Palmer); two demilunettes (Davis, Garfield); one redan (Van Cleve); and two batteries (Cruft, Mitchel). Most portions have been destroyed by development, but about one-quarter mile of works still exists. Redoubt Brannan is well-preserved and located in Old Fort Park.

Old Fort (1862), the first Union fort, located closer to town, and across Lytle's Creek from the railroad depot and Rio Mill.
A blockhouse was located at the railroad bridge on Overall Creek near Florence.
Camp Bradley, undetermined location.
Camp Garesché, near the Lebanon Pike, within the bounds of the present-day battlefield.
Camp Pennsylvania, on the Salem Pike west of town.
Camp Shaefer, undetermined location.
Camp Sill, undetermined location.
Camp Stanley, four miles south of town on the Manchester Pike, at Lytle's Creek. (thanks to Michael Swanson for info)

John Mack's Fort
(1790's), near McCains
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse at a spring, located about one mile southeast of town on Covey Branch. Mack may have settled here as early as 1781.

Columbia Fort
(1862 - 1865), Columbia
An unnamed Union fort on a hill west of the courthouse. Union trenchworks (1864) were south of town. The town was attacked by Confederates in November 1864.

Columbia Arsenal
(Historic Sites in Maury County)
(1888 - 1902), Columbia
A Federal arsenal, completed in 1892, originally composed of nine stone buildings on 67 acres, located on West Seventh Street by the railroad. During the Spanish-American War (1898) known as Camp Hamilton. Sold and became the Columbia Military Academy in 1904 (closed 1978).

Fort Granger (2)
(1862 - 1865), Franklin
Extensive Union earthworks with 24 guns, located on the north bank of the Harpeth River behind Pinkerton Park. This fort did not play any significant role in the November 1864 Battle of Franklin. Tours can be arranged with the Carter House Museum at 1140 Columbia Ave.. There were also five or six supporting batteries on the surrounding hills, including Roper's Knob Battery north of town. Save the Franklin Battlefield, Inc.

Also of interest is Historic Carnton Plantation at 1345 Carnton Lane. South of town along US 31 at Winstead Hill is the Confederate Memorial Park with exhibits of the battlefield.

Brentwood Post
(1863), Brentwood
A Union 785-man garrison post here was captured by Confederates in March 1863. Marker on US 31.

Mound Bottom (State Archaeological Area)
(Harpeth River State Park)
(1100 - 1400), near Shacklett
A Mississippian Culture palisaded town and 14-mound complex on the west bank of the Harpeth River, opposite Mound Creek. First surveyed in 1804. Guided tours by reservation only, from November to March. Excavated artifacts are on display at the Montgomery Bell State Park office. The "Pack Site", located just to the south across from Dog Creek, was also a palisaded mound complex.

Indian Fortress
(unknown dates), near Bellsburg
An ancient structure located northwest of Nashville near the Cumberland and Harpeth Rivers. (Possibly in reference to above ?)


(see page 4 for Greater Nashville Area fortifications)


Robert Crockett's Camp
(1769), near Oak Hill
A hunting camp near a cave in a creek bank, established by Robert Crockett, Joseph Drake, and Kasper Mansker. Crockett was killed by Indians, and the others buried him on a nearby hill overlooking the site. Located about four miles south of Okolona.

Fort Blount
(1788 - 1796 ?), near Flynns Lick
A local militia fort with four blockhouses, located on the north (west) bank of the Cumberland River (Cordell Hull Lake) on Smith Bend, nearly opposite the mouth of Flynn Creek, along the old Avery Trace. Also known as Big Lick Garrison. Federal troops garrisoned the post after 1794. The history of this fort is told at the Fred Lucas Haile Museum in nearby Gainesboro.

Lindsley Archaeological Site
(Sellars Farm State Archaeological Area)
(The Friends of Sellars Farm)
(1000 - 1300), Greenwood
A palisaded and moated Mississippian Culture temple mound complex on Spring Creek, southeast of Lebanon. The palisade had bastions at regular intervals. The park is a subunit of Long Hunter State Park.

Major William Hall's (Sr.) Station
(1785 - unknown), near Castalian Springs
A settlers' fort on Lick Creek off Governor Hall Road, northeast of town. Hall and two sons were killed by Indians a few years later. Son William Jr. later became a general in the Federal Army and state governor.

Jacob Ziegler's Station
(Bledsoe Creek State Park)
(1791 - 1792), Cairo
A settlers' four log-cabin complex located 1.5 miles north of town on Bledsoe Creek. It was not stockaded. It was attacked and burned in June 1792.

Castalian Springs Archaeological Site
(Bledsoe's Lick Historical Association)
(1100 - 1450), Castalian Springs
A Mississippian Culture palisaded temple mound complex located at Bledsoe's Lick. Several mounds are still extant. Bledsoe's Lick Archaeological Project

Isaac Bledsoe's Station
(Bledsoe's Fort Historic Park)
(1780 - unknown), Castalian Springs
A settlers' fort at Bledsoe's Lick. It was attacked by Indians in July 1788, killing brother Anthony Bledsoe and others. Site later became Bledsoe Academy. The 80-acre park is on TN 25 west of "Cragfont". A portion of the historic Avery Trace is part of a walking trail. The town was renamed in 1830. Bledsoe's Lick Archaeological Project

Col. Anthony Bledsoe's Station
(1783 - 1788, 1790's), near Castalian Springs
A settlers' fort located 2.5 miles north of brother Isaac's. Also known as Greenfield Station. It was abandoned, with the settlers moving to Isaac Bledsoe's Station. It was re-established by Anthony's sons, and attacked by Indians in April 1793.

John Morgan's Fort
(1786 - unknown), Rogana
A settlers' fort located at the mouth of Dry Fork Creek, 2.5 miles north of Anthony Bledsoe's Station. It was attacked in 1787.

Saunders' Fort
(1791 - unknown), near Gallatin
A settlers' fort located on Deshea Creek, four miles northwest of Isaac Bledsoe's Station, and 2.5 miles east of White's Station (2).

Capt. James White's Station (2)
(1791 - unknown), near Gallatin
James White's second establishment. Located three miles northeast of town.

Walnutfield Station
(1791 - unknown), near Gallatin
A settlers' fort located three miles southeast of town. Built by Capt. Joseph Wilson.

Thomas Spencer's Station
(1780's), Sumner County
A settlers' fort or cabin somewhere near Gallatin.

Asher's Station
(1780, 1783 - unknown), Gallatin
A settlers' station attacked in 1780, abandoned but rebuilt three years later. It was located 2.5 miles southeast of the town center.

Fort Thomas
(1863 - 1865), Gallatin
A Union fort located on the north-side of the railroad across Town Creek. Apparently built after the Confederates briefly captured the town in August 1862.

Fort Mitchel
(1863), Buck Lodge
A Union fort protecting the two railroad bridges over West Fork Drakes Creek. Highway marker on TN 109.

Fort Smith
(1863), Mitchellville
A Union fort protecting the railroad. Highway marker on TN 109.

Camp Trousdale
(1862), near Portland
A CSA training camp. Marker on TN 109, three miles southeast of Mitchell. The Cold Spring School (1857) was used as the camp hospital. The structure was moved in 1975 to Richland Park in Portland.

James McCain's Station
(1783 - unknown), near Ocana
A settlers' fort located on the west bank of Big Station Camp Creek south of Long Hollow Pike (TN 174).

Hamilton's Station
(1788 - unknown), near Cummings Gap
A settlers' fort also known as Ridge Station.

Thomas Kilgore's Station
(1780 - 1782), Cross Plains
A settlers' fort. The stockade was later dismantled for fear of invoking Indian attacks, but the main house remained for many years.

Isaac Titsworth's Fort
(1780's), Springfield
A settlers' fort attacked and destroyed in 1792, killing Titsworth and several others.

Fort Redmond
(1861 - 1865), Springfield
A CSA blockhouse protecting the railroad depot on the line between Nashville and Forts Donelson and Henry. After those forts fell to the Union in February 1862, the Confederates withdrew to Nashville. Occupied by the Union afterwards.

Samuel Crockett's Fort
(1788 - unknown), near Glover Crossroad
A settlers' fort. Attacked by Indians in 1789.

Camp Cheatham
(1861 - 1862), Adams
A CSA training camp located east of town, towards Cedar Hill.

Renfroe's Station
(1780), Clarksville
A settlers' fort located at the mouth of the Red River. It was attacked and destroyed in July 1780. Fleeing survivors were caught and massacred at Battle Creek 17 miles east, two miles southeast of Coopertown.

Col. Valentine Sevier's Station
(1788 - 1794), New Providence
A settlers' stone blockhouse. Brother to John. One source calls it New Providence Blockhouse. Attacked by Cherokees in November 1794, killing six family members. It is the oldest standing structure in the county, located at 326 Walker Street, south of "B" Street.

Civil War Defenses of Clarksville
(1861 - 1865), Clarksville, and New Providence
Confederate works built in 1861 were:
Fort Defiance (aka Fort Sevier), in New Providence at 120 "A" Street, near Pine Street. Captured by the Union in February 1862, briefly recaptured by Confederates, then taken again by the Union and renamed Fort Bruce.
Fort Clark an earthwork located on the south-side of the Red River at its mouth. Site destroyed by development.
An unnamed earthwork fort or battery was located at the Red River crossing of the old Louisville and Nashville Railroad grade. Still exists, private property.
(thanks to Steven Stewart, Customs House Museum & Cultural Center, for providing info)

Camp Boone
(1861), near Clarksville
A CSA recruiting camp for Kentuckians before that state's neutrality was broken, located along Spring Creek. Highway marker on US 79 three and one-half miles south of the KY state line.
CSA Camp Burnett (1861) was nearby (undetermined location).

Fort Donelson (National Battlefield)
(1861 - 1865), Dover ¤National Archives MAP¤
A Confederate fort captured and held by the Union in February 1862. The earthworks fort has been restored and includes the Water Battery, Jackson's Battery, French's Battery, and Maney's Battery. Confederates tried to retake the fort in February 1863. The Union then built a second earthwork fort nearby in 1863, and this site is now the National Cemetery. Attacked again in September 1863.

Fort Henry
(Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area)
(1861 - 1865), Fort Henry
Located west of Dover. A Confederate 17-gun earthwork fort captured and held by the Union in February 1862, then renamed Fort Foote. The site is now mostly underwater in Kentucky Lake. Some outworks still remain.

Camp Halleck
(1862), near Fort Henry
The Union landing on the Tennessee River, north of Panther Creek, during the assault on Fort Henry. Site now underwater.

Waverly Fort
(1863 - 1864), Waverly
A Union redoubt to protect the railroad. Traces still remain, located at the Humphreys County Museum (built 1922) at 201 Fort Hill Drive. A stockade was also built further south in the present-day Hurricane Mills community.

Johnsonville Defenses
(Johnsonville State Historic Area)
(1864 - 1865), near New Johnsonville
Two Union redoubts still remain here along the river on the Johnsonville Redoubts Trail, built after the Confederate attack (November 1864). Four Union gunboats were sunk attempting to reach the Union's fortified Johnsonville Supply Depot that was once at (Old) Johnsonville. The old town site was submerged under the river in 1945 after the dam was built upriver in Kentucky. The visitor center has information.


NEED MORE INFO: a fort in Pulaski (date ?).
Towns: Bryant Station and Park Station in Maury County; Turners Station in Sumner County; Union Camp in Macon County.

Northeastern Tennessee - page 1 | Southeastern Tennessee - page 2 | Greater Nashville Area - page 4
Western Tennessee - page 5

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