Fort Ammen |
Camp Armistead |
Fort Armistead |
Fort Bragg |
Fort Buckner | Battery Bushnell | Redoubt Carpenter | Fort Cass | Charleston Redoubt
Chattanooga Defenses | Fort Cheatham | Camp Cherokee | Chickamauga Junction
Chickamauga Station | Fort at Choto | Citico Creek Blockhouse | Camp Clanewaugh
Cleveland Defenses | Concord Blockhouse | Battery Coolidge | Fort Creighton
Fort Crutchfield | Battery Erwin | Fort Granger (1) | Harrison Defenses | Fort Hindman
Hiwassee Garrison | Post at Hiwassee | Hiwassee Site | Fort Hooker | Fort Jones | Fort King
Ledford Island Site | Camp Lindsay | Loudon Defenses | Fort Loudoun (1) | Fort Lytle
Battery McAloon | Fort McCook (1) | Fort Marr | Fort Maxey | Fort Mihalotzy (2)
Fort Morrow | Fort Negley (2) | Battery O'Meara | Old French Store | Ooltewah Blockhouse
Fort Palmer | Fort Phelps | Fort Putnam | Fort Red Clay | Camp Ross | Fort Scott
Fort Sheridan | Fort Sherman | Battery Smartt | Fort Southwest Point | Star Fort | Stone Fort
Battery Taft | Tellico Blockhouse | Fort Thomas (2) | Toqua Site | Tyner's Station
Fort Virginia | Wauhatchie Station | Fort Whitaker | Camp Whiteside | Fort Wood (1)
Fort Wood (2)
Northeastern Tennessee - page 1 | Middle Tennessee - page 3
Greater Nashville Area - page 4 | Western Tennessee - page 5
Fort Southwest Point (Park)
(1797 - 1811), near Kingston
A reconstruction of a Federal fort. A local militia blockhouse was originally built in 1792 about one-half mile upstream by General John Sevier to prevent Cherokee raids. Federal troops were posted there beginning in 1793. Federal troops built the fort in 1797 before abandoning it in 1807, transferring to Hiwassee. The fort was thereafter used by local militia. The Cherokee Indian Agency was located here from 1801 - 1807. Site excavated in 1974. This is the only reconstructed fort in the state on the original foundation. Located south of town on TN 58 at the mouth of the Clinch River. See also Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture || See also The Avery Trace
See also Fort Southwest Point from Groover Research
Civil War Defenses of Loudon
(1863 - 1864), Loudon
Fort Ammen was a Union redoubt located on a hill overlooking the town. A smaller second redoubt was located on the river bank, as well as two small redoubts on either end of the railroad bridge across the Tennessee River.
Fort Granger (1)
(1794 - 1807), Lenoir City
A state militia fort, possibly also later garrisoned by Federal troops.
Fort Loudoun (1)
(State Historical Park)
(1756 - 1760), near Vonore FORT WIKI
Built by the SC colonial militia as a defense against the French and Indians. It was the first British post in the region, also called Fort at Choto (or Chota). It was a moated and palisaded diamond-shaped bastioned work. Later garrisoned by British Regulars. The Cherokee War broke out in 1759, and the garrison surrendered to the Indians in August 1760 and the fort was burned. Marching to South Carolina, the soldiers and their families were then killed or taken prisoner at camp 15 miles away, at Cane Creek on the Tellico River near Belltown. Site excavated in the 1930's and the 1970's. The current structure is a reproduction. See also Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
(Fort Loudoun State Historical Park)
(1794 - 1807), near Fort Loudoun
A local militia work built of stone, located near Fort Loudoun (1), across from the mouth of Ninemile Creek at the Little Tennessee River. Garrisoned by Federal troops in 1796 as part of the "factory system" of Indian trading posts. The "Tellico Treaty" was signed here in 1798. Ruins still exist. Artifacts are on display at the Frank H. McClung Museum at the University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
Toqua Archaeological Site
(Tellico Lake Wildlife Management Area and Refuge)
(1400 - 1560 ?), Monroe County
A Late Mississippian Period (Dallas Culture) palisaded Indian town located near the mouth of Little Toqua Creek at the Little Tennessee River. The palisade wall had several bastions. There were two platform mounds, Mound A was about 50 meters in diameter and 7.3 meters high. This may have been the location of the Indian town of Tali which was visited by Hernando DeSoto in July 1540. The area was most likely abandoned within a few decades of DeSoto's visit. Site was excavated by the University of Tennessee. Site now inundated by Tellico Lake.
(1755 - 1757), Tallassee
This unfinished Virginia militia fort was never actually garrisoned, and was abandoned after Fort Loudoun (1) was completed.
(Cherokee National Forest)
(1832 - 1835), Coker Creek FORT WIKI
A Federal post built to keep white settlers from Cherokee lands after the 1827 gold rush. Also known as Fort Armistead by modern historians. Site acquired by the U.S. Forest Service in 2005 for inclusion into the Cherokee National Forest.
(1835 - 1838), Charleston FORT WIKI
Built for the Cherokee Removals. Located on the south bank of the Hiwassee River, south of Calhoun. The Cherokee Indian Agency was also located nearby from 1821 - 1838. See also The Unicoi Turnpike
(1863 - 1864), Charleston
A Union redoubt was located by the Hiwassee River overlooking the railroad bridge, along with blockhouses on both ends of the bridge from Calhoun.
Ledford Island Archaeological Site
(1400 - 1550 ?), near Mt. Harmony
A Late Mississippian Period (Mouse Creek Culture) palisaded Indian town located near the mouth of Candies Creek on the Hiwassee River. Site excavated by the Tennessee Valley Authority before the flooding of Chickamauga Lake.
(Cherokee Removal Forts)
(1838), near Bellefounte
A major assembly camp built for the Cherokee Removals (13,000 Cherokees), located at Rattlesnake Springs, about four miles south of Charleston.
(Cherokee Removal Forts)
(Hiwassee/Ocoee Scenic River State Park)
(1814, 1835 - 1838), Old Fort, and Benton FORT WIKI
A two-story log blockhouse originally built to guard General Jackson's supply line to New Orleans during the Creek War. Rebuilt and garrisoned in 1835, and named Camp Lindsay or Fort Morrow at that time, it is now the only remaining extant fort in the region used for the Cherokee Removals in 1838. The blockhouse was moved in 1858 to the nearby Higgins Farm and was used as a smokehouse. It was relocated in 1922 about 12 miles north to the high school grounds in Benton, and was relocated again in 1965 adjacent to the Polk County Sheriff's Office and Jail, located at 6042 US Highway 411 north of town. Transferred to state ownership in 1977. The blockhouse was moved again in 2012 to the Hiwassee/Ocoee Scenic River State Park near Delano, at 404 Spring Creek Road.
Civil War Defenses of Cleveland
(1863 - 1864), Cleveland
Two unnamed Union redoubts were located on hills overlooking the town from the southwest, near South Mouse Creek. Fort Hill Cemetery is probably the site of one of these works.
The Union Army of the Ohio was encamped in this area, and south along the railroad towards Red Clay, during the winter of 1863-64.
Fort Red Clay (State Historic Park)
(Cherokee Removal Forts)
(1838), near Weatherly Switch FORT WIKI
A stockade or assembly camp may have been located here for the Cherokee Removals, although historical evidence is currently lacking. This site was the last Cherokee Nation capital before the Trail of Tears, after it was moved from New Echota, Georgia in 1832. Located just north of the state line, about 12 miles south of Cleveland.
Hiwassee Archaeological Site
(1200 - 1500), Hiwassee Island
A Mississippian Culture palisaded village and mound complex, located on the original Hiwassee Island, inundated by the waters of Chickamauga Lake since the late 1930's. Indians were still living here as late as 1818.
Post at Hiwassee
(1807 - 1814), near Five Points
A Federal fort and Cherokee Indian Agency located near the confluence of the Hiwassee and Tennessee Rivers, transferred from Fort Southwest Point. Also known as Hiwassee Garrison. Abandoned after a land dispute forced its closing. The Indian Agency then moved up the Hiwassee River to the mouth of Agency Creek from 1816 - 1821. Site located off of Garrison Road, south of the old Armstrong Ferry location.
(additional info courtesy of Peggy Hall)
A Union blockhouse guarded the railroad station and the Wolftever Creek trestle on the East Tennessee and Georgia line.
Civil War Defenses of Harrison
(Harrison Bay State Park)
Two or three CSA shore batteries, and a large redoubt, were in or near the old town of Harrison on the Tennessee River. The old town no longer exists, now under the waters of Chickamauga Lake since the 1930's.
Tyner's Station Defenses
Confederate troops built two earthen redoubts to guard the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad’s Tyner's Station and its associated village. The southern redoubt was built on Tyner Hill, now occupied by Tyner Middle School at 6837 Tyner Road, at Hickory Valley Road. The structure for which the redoubt was destroyed was the original Tyner High School, built in 1906, burned in the 1950’s. The northern redoubt lay at the center of the former village, next to the house which CSA General Patrick Cleburne used as his headquarters. This redoubt, for which the Redoubt Soccer Complex on Bonny Oaks Drive is named, still remains and is well-preserved, located in the woods on the north side of Bonny Oaks Drive. Unlike the village, which was seized under eminent domain along with the village of Hawkinsville along Hickory Valley Road north of Bonny Oaks Drive which disappeared in the construction of the former U.S. Army's Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant in the 1940's.
The Union built a blockhouse at the railroad station in 1864.
(1864), East Ridge
A Union blockhouse guarded the two railroad trestles over South Chickamauga Creek on the Western and Atlantic Railroad line. Located between the bridges, in the vicinity of present-day Douglas Drive.
Chickamauga Station Defenses
(1863), East Chattanooga
Confederate troops built two earthen redoubts to guard the Western and Atlantic Railroad's Chickamauga Station on Milliken’s Ridge. The first redoubt, overlooking the former Col. Lewis Shepherd mansion "Altamede" (1838 ?) to the east, stood atop Dupree Hill where Grace Works Church now sits, at 6445 Lee Highway. This structure had been long-since destroyed by the final owner of Altamede, who had sold off the top of the hill for dirt. Altamede was demolished in 1977. The second redoubt stood atop Stein Hill in the exact location now occupied by the water tower past the end of Franklin Drive overlooking Perimeter Place Mall. The base of the redoubt still exists, supporting the water tower, surrounded by the remains of several rifle pits.
The Union built a blockhouse at the railroad station in 1864. Located just east of the present-day Chattanooga Airport terminal.
Chickamauga Junction Defenses
(1864), East Chattanooga
At the junction of the Western and Atlantic Railroad and the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, in the vicinity of Lightfoot Mill Road. A Union blockhouse was built on the Western and Atlantic line, and another blockhouse was built 0.3 mile east to guard the two separate bridges over South Chickamauga Creek.
(1812 - 1813), Chattanooga
A supply depot for the TN state militia during the Creek War, and an assembly camp for the Cherokee Regiment. Located at the mouth of Chattanooga Creek on the Tennessee River. The city was known as Ross' Landing until 1838.
Fort Wood (1)
Built for the Cherokee and Creek Removals to house the garrison guarding the detainees at Camp Cherokee (at present-day UT-Chattanooga Scrappy Moore Field, along the Tennessee Riverwalk near the mouth of Citico Creek) and at Camp Clanewaugh (Creek Removal, June 1838) (at "Indian Springs", now site of National Health Care of Chattanooga at 2700 Parkwood Ave.). Located at the site of the present-day Chattanooga School for the Arts and Sciences (CSAS), at 865 East 3rd Street.
Civil War Defenses of Chattanooga
(Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park)
(1863 - 1864), Chattanooga FORT WIKI
Extensive lines of earthworks surrounded the area, mostly south of the Tennessee River along Missionary Ridge to Lookout Mountain. The city was occupied by the Union beginning in September 1863. The Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge occured in November 1863.
Union forts built during the November 1863 siege or the following winter:
Signal Hill (1), a signal station located at the apex of Cameron Hill, along present-day Cameron Lane.
A large Powder Magazine was constructed within the east side of Cameron Hill.
Redoubt Carpenter (six guns), on Kirkman (Reservoir) Hill. Site later became the city's water reservoir after the war, then became the athletic field (Hawk Hill) for Kirkman Technical High School after urban renewal projects in the late 1950's. Now a minor league professional baseball field (Bell South / AT&T Field, built 1999) at 201 Power Alley. The former school is now the Tennessee Aquarium IMAX Center.
Battery (Redoubt) Coolidge (1864), on Terrace Hill below Fort Milhalotzy, at present-day West Martin Luther King Boulevard and Boynton Drive.
Fort Mihalotzy (2) (eight guns), at 221 Boynton Terrace on Terrace Hill, near West Martin Luther King Boulevard and Gateway Avenue.
Fort Sheridan, aka Fort Crutchfield (1864), between Fort Lytle and Fort Mihalotzy. A monument was once located at 1219 East Terrace, which was leveled in 1958 for highway and bridge approach construction. Actual site now Boynton Towers.
Fort Lytle (aka Star Fort) (1864) (five guns), on Academy Hill on College Street between West 13th and West 14th Streets. Site now College Hill Courts.
Fort (Redoubt) Putnam (six guns), southeast corner of present-day Walnut Street and East 5th Street. Leveled in 1886.
Fort Sherman (eight guns), between East 3rd Street and East 5th Street, and between Georgia Avenue and Lindsay Street. Leveled in 1880.
Battery (Lunette) O'Meara, adjacent to Fort Sherman, at the northwest corner of present-day East 5th Street and Lindsay Street. Leveled in 1880.
Battery (Redoubt) Bushnell, at the southwest corner of East 4th Street and Lindsay Street. Leveled in 1885.
Signal Hill (2), a signal station located on Brabson Hill, at or near the site of the earlier CSA Battery Smartt. Site now the parking lot of the Hunter Museum of American Art on Bluff View Ave., at the end of High Street at East 2nd Street.
Battery McAloon, on the Tennessee River near the end of Houston Street, in the present-day Battery Place neighborhood.
Citico Creek Blockhouse (1864), a blockhouse built on top of the old Indian mound at the mouth of Citico Creek. The mound was further leveled in 1914 during the construction of Riverside Drive/Parkway, but is still partially extant on the grounds of the Tennessee-American Water Company complex.
Battery Erwin, between Fort Jones and Fort Sherman. Actually divided in half, one section located in the southeast corner of present-day East 8th Street and Mabel Street (First Baptist Church), while the other section was in the northeast corner of East Martin Luther King Boulevard and Peeples Street (UT-Chattanooga campus).
Fort Jones (aka Stone Fort), site now the U.S. Customs House and (Old) Courthouse (built 1893) at 31 East 11th Street. Leveled in 1880. The nearby Stone Fort Inn at 120 East 10th Street was built in 1909.
Battery Taft, south of the present-day 200 block of East Martin Luther King Boulevard, between Lindsay and Houston Streets. Site now the Bessie Smith Cultural Center.
Fort Wood (2), originally named Fort Creighton (14 guns), site on Fort Wood Hill. The NPS has emplaced period display cannon (two guns each) in the general vicinity at 801 Oak Street (UT-C Faculty Club and Alumni Office) and at 850 Fort Wood Street.
Fort Palmer (1864), site now Park Place School (built 1924) at 1000 East Martin Luther King Blvd.. Building is now private condos.
Fort King (1864), stood on top of Bald (or Brushy) Knob, now the site of the National Cemetery on South Holtzclaw Ave..
Fort Phelps, aka Fort Negley (2) (10 guns), at 1706 Read Ave.. Site bound by East Main Street, East 17th Street, Mitchell Street, Read Ave. and Rossville Avenue. Leveled in 1885.
A log blockhouse was located at the railroad depot in town, site now Union Square and the city public library and the Krystal Company Building on Broad Street at West 10th Street.
Nothing remains today of any of the preceding Union works.
Several gun emplacements and rifle pits still remain on Billy Goat Hill and Angora Hill, facing the north end of Missionary Ridge; and earthworks still remain on Trueblood Hill (aka Tunnel Hill) in the Sherman's Reservation section of the National Military Park in East Chattanooga.
Union batteries were also located north of the river on Moccasin Point, and at the eastern landing of Brown's Ferry.
Fort Whitaker, at the southern tip of Stringers Ridge on Moccasin Point. Originally built as a CSA battery in 1862. No remains.
Fort Hooker, anchored the line of works protecting the western approach to Brown's Ferry. No remains.
An unnamed Union redoubt was located in North Chattanooga at present-day Valentine Circle, off of Fairmount Avenue. No remains.
Signal Point, a Union signal station located on the Tennessee River on Signal Mountain, in the town of Signal Mountain. Site preserved as a unit of the National Military Park.
The combined Union Army of the Tennessee and the Army of the Cumberland were encamped here during the winter of 1863-64.
There were reportedly twelve numbered forts built by the Confederates in late 1862 or early 1863, surrounding the city on the north, east, and south. At least three were named.
Fort Cameron, located at the crest of Cameron Hill, about one city block south of the Union's later Signal Hill (1) station. The hill was later leveled for highway construction and urban renewal in 1958. Site now occupied by the Gordian Health Division of Blue Cross/Blue Shield on Cameron Circle.
Fort Cheatham, located between 4th Ave. and East 23rd and East 28th Streets. No remains.
Battery Smartt, along the south bank of the Tennessee River near the upper end of Maclellan Island, at Bluff View. No remains.
There were once twelve log blockhouses (1863) built along the length of South Chickamauga Creek, from the Tennessee River to present-day Camp Jordan Park in East Ridge. Exact sites undetermined, no remains.
Located within Camp Jordan Park are two surviving large man-made earthen walls enclosing the south and west sides of a peninsula formed by the junction of South and West Chickamauga Creeks. The structure could have been an anchor fort for the twelve blockhouses, or earthworks constructed by Union troops who later bivouacked there in the winter of 1863-64. It could also be nothing more but the remnant of an old levy.
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge were heavily fortified with earthwork trenches and rifle pits. West of the Cravens House, the Rifle Pits Trail runs past the trenches of the 29th and 30th Mississippi Infantry, the only ones still remaining on Lookout Mountain. Orchard Knob on Missionary Ridge still has two lines of remaining earthworks.
The so-called Fort Bragg, Fort Hindman, Fort Breckenridge, and Fort Buckner were shown on some early maps of the battlefield. These were most likely the headquarters positions of the several CSA generals involved in the battle. No remains.
Several CSA rifle pits still remain in the hills on both sides of Brown's Ferry.
Three CSA gun batteries from the 1863 seige line are located in Point Park.
Admission fee to some National Park areas.
Old French Store
(1760 or 1761), near Valdeau
A short-lived French trading post was established here on the river at an Indian village, possibly on Williams' Island, sometime after the British defeat at Fort Loudoun in August 1760. Insurmountable navigation hazards in this section of the Tennessee River forced its abandonment.
Wauhatchie Station Defenses
A Union blockhouse (or two), and possibly a redoubt, guarded the junction of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and the Wills Valley Railroad from Trenton, GA.
(1863 - 1864), Whiteside
Four Union blockhouses guarded the massive railroad trestle over Running Water Creek and through Running Water Valley on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad.
Fort (Alexander) McCook (1)
(1862 - 1864), South Pittsburg
A Union blockhouse on the Tennessee River at Battle Creek. Originally built in the early summer of 1862, reoccupied during the 1863 Chickamauga Campaign and renamed Fort Thomas (2). It was briefly held by Confederate troops in August 1862 as Fort Maxey. Marker located on Jaycee Drive at South Pittsburg River Park.
Northeastern Tennessee - page 1 | Middle Tennessee - page 3 | Greater Nashville Area - page 4
Western Tennessee - page 5
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