Southeastern Tennessee

Fort Ammen | Camp Armistead | Battery Bushnell | Redoubt Carpenter | Fort Cass
Charleston Redoubt | Chattanooga Defenses | Fort Cheatham | Fort at Choto
Cleveland Defenses | Battery Coolidge | Fort Creighton | Fort Crutchfield | Battery Erwin
Fort Granger (1) | Harrison Batteries | Fort Hindman | Hiwassee Garrison | Post at Hiwassee
Hiwassee Site | Fort Jones | Fort King | Ledford Island Site | Loudon Defenses
Fort Loudoun (1) | Fort Lytle | Fort Marr | Fort Mihalotzy (2) | Fort Morrow | Fort Negley (2)
Battery O'Meara | Old French Store | Fort Palmer | Fort Phelps | Fort Putnam | Fort Red Clay
Camp Ross | Fort Scott | Fort Sheridan | Fort Sherman | Battery Smartt | Fort Southwest Point
Star Fort | Stone Fort | Tellico Blockhouse | Toqua Site | Fort Virginia | Fort Wood

Northeastern Tennessee - page 1 | Middle Tennessee - page 3
Greater Nashville Area - page 4 | Western Tennessee - page 5

TENNESSEE'S CIVIL WAR HERITAGE TRAIL

Last Update: 29/NOVEMBER/2008
Compiled by Pete Payette - 2008 American Forts Network

Fort Southwest Point (Park)
(1797 - 1811), near Kingston
A reconstruction of a Federal fort. A local militia blockhouse was originally built in 1792 about one-half mile upstream by General John Sevier to prevent Cherokee raids. Federal troops were posted there beginning in 1793. Federal troops built the fort in 1797 before abandoning it in 1807, transferring to Hiwassee. The fort was thereafter used by local militia. The Cherokee Indian Agency was located here from 1801 - 1807. Site excavated in 1974. This is the only reconstructed fort in the state on the original foundation. Located south of town on TN 58 at the mouth of the Clinch River. See also Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture || See also The Avery Trace
See also Fort Southwest Point from Groover Research

Civil War Defenses of Loudon
(1863 - 1864), Loudon
Fort Ammen was a Union redoubt located on a hill overlooking the town. A smaller second redoubt was located on the river bank, as well as two small redoubts on either end of the railroad bridge across the Tennessee River.

Fort Granger (1)
(1794 - 1807), Lenoir City
A state militia fort, possibly also garrisoned by Federal troops.

Fort Loudoun (1) (State Historical Park)
(1756 - 1760), near Vonore
Built by the SC colonial militia as a defense against the French and Indians. It was the first British post in the region, also called Fort at Choto (or Chota). It was a moated and palisaded diamond-shaped bastioned work. Later garrisoned by British Regulars. The Cherokee War broke out in 1759, and the garrison surrendered to the Indians in August 1760 and the fort was burned. Marching to South Carolina, the soldiers and their families were then killed or taken prisoner at camp 15 miles away, at Cane Creek on the Tellico River near Belltown. Site excavated in the 1930's. The current structure is a 1960's reproduction. See also Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture

Tellico Blockhouse
(Fort Loudoun State Historical Park)
(1794 - 1807), near Fort Loudoun
A local militia work built of stone, located near Fort Loudoun (1), across from the mouth of Ninemile Creek at the Little Tennessee River. Garrisoned by Federal troops in 1796. The "Tellico Treaty" was signed here in 1798. Ruins still exist. Artifacts are on display at the Frank H. McClung Museum at the University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

Toqua Archaeological Site
(Tellico Lake Wildlife Management Area and Refuge)
(1400 - 1560 ?), Monroe County
A Late Mississippian Period (Dallas Culture) palisaded Indian town located near the mouth of Little Toqua Creek at the Little Tennessee River. The palisade wall had several bastions. There were two platform mounds, Mound A was about 50 meters in diameter and 7.3 meters high. This may have been the location of the Indian town of Tali which was visited by Hernando DeSoto in July 1540. The area was most likely abandoned within a few decades of DeSoto's visit. Site was excavated by the University of Tennessee. Site now inundated by Tellico Lake.

Fort Virginia
(1755 - 1757), Tallassee
This unfinished Virginia militia fort was never actually garrisoned, and was abandoned after Fort Loudoun (1) was completed.

Camp Armistead
(1832 - 1835), Tellico Plains
A Federal camp, probably associated with the Cherokee Removals.

Fort Cass
(1835 - 1838), Calhoun
Built for the Cherokee Removals. See also The Unicoi Turnpike

Ledford Island Archaeological Site
(1400 - 1550 ?), near Mt. Harmony
A Late Mississippian Period (Mouse Creek Culture) palisaded Indian town located near the mouth of Candies Creek on the Hiwassee River. Site excavated by the Tennessee Valley Authority before the flooding of Chickamauga Lake.

Fort Scott
(Cherokee Removal Forts)
(1838), near Charleston
Built for the Cherokee Removals. The Cherokee Indian Agency was located nearby from 1821 - 1838. A major assembly camp for the Removals (13,000 Cherokees) was located south at Rattlesnake Springs, east of Bellefounte.

Charleston Redoubt
(1863 - 1864), Charleston
A Union redoubt was located on the Hiwassee River near the railroad bridge, along with blockhouses on both ends of the bridge.

Fort Marr
(Cherokee Removal Forts)
(1814, 1835 - 1838), Old Fort, and Benton
A two-story log blockhouse originally built to guard General Jackson's supply line to New Orleans during the Creek War. Regarrisoned in 1835, and possibly renamed Fort Morrow at that time, it is now the only remaining fort (of 23) used for the Cherokee Removals in 1838. The blockhouse was relocated in 1922 about 12 miles to Benton, and still survives today as a historic site, located on US 411 north of town.

Civil War Defenses of Cleveland
(1863 - 1864), Cleveland
Two unnamed Union redoubts were located on hills overlooking the town from the southwest, near South Mouse Creek. Fort Hill Cemetery is probably the site of one of these works.

The Union Army of the Ohio was encamped in this area, and south along the railroad towards Red Clay, during the winter of 1863-64.

Fort Red Clay (State Historic Park)
(Cherokee Removal Forts)
(1838), near Weatherly Switch
A stockade may have been built here for the Cherokee Removals, although historical evidence is currently lacking. This site was the last Cherokee Nation capital before the Trail of Tears, after it was moved from New Echota, Georgia in 1832. Located just north of the state line, about 12 miles south of Cleveland.

Hiwassee Archaeological Site
(1200 - 1500), Hiwassee Island
A Mississippian Culture palisaded village and mound complex, located on the original Hiwassee Island, inundated by the waters of Chickamauga Lake since the late 1930's. Indians were still living here as late as 1818.

Post at Hiwassee
(1807 - 1814), near Five Points
A Federal fort and Cherokee Indian Agency located near the confluence of the Hiwassee and Tennessee Rivers, transferred from Fort Southwest Point. Also known as Hiwassee Garrison. Abandoned after a land dispute forced its closing. The Indian Agency then moved up the Hiwassee River to the mouth of Agency Creek from 1816 - 1821. Site located off of Garrison Road, south of the old Armstrong Ferry location.
(additional info courtesy of Peggy Hall)

Harrison Batteries
(Harrison Bay State Park)
(1863), Harrison Bay
Two or three CSA gun batteries were in the old town of Harrison on the Tennessee River. The town no longer exists, now under the waters of Chickamauga Lake.

Camp Ross
(1812 - 1813), Chattanooga
A supply depot for the TN state militia during the Creek War, and an assembly camp for the Cherokee Regiment. Located at the mouth of Chattanooga Creek on the Tennessee River. The city was known as Ross' Landing until 1838.

Civil War Defenses of Chattanooga
(Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park)
(1863 - 1864), Chattanooga
Extensive lines of earthworks surrounded the area, mostly south of the Tennessee River along Missionary Ridge to Lookout Mountain. The city was taken by the Union after the Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge in November 1863.

Union forts built during the following winter:
Redoubt Carpenter (six guns), on Cameron Hill.
Fort Sheridan, monument at 1219 East Terrace on Cameron Hill.
Fort Mihalotzy (2) (eight guns), at 221 Boynton Terrace on Cameron Hill.
Battery (Redoubt) Coolidge (1864), below Fort Milhalotzy.
Fort Crutchfield (1864), between Fort Lytle and Fort Mihalotzy.
Fort Lytle (aka Star Fort) (1864) (five guns), on College Street between 13th and 14th Streets.
Fort Phelps (10 guns), at 1706 Read Ave.. It still existed until 1885.
Fort Negley (2), near Fort Phelps. It still existed until 1885.
Fort Jones (aka Stone Fort), site now U.S. Custom House and Post Office near Market and 11th Streets. Leveled in 1880.
Battery Erwin, between Fort Jones and Fort Sherman.
Fort Wood, originally named Fort Creighton (14 guns), site now under the water standpipe of the city water company. NPS emplaced three display cannon nearby.
Fort Sherman (eight guns), at Walnut and 5th Streets. Leveled in 1880.
Battery O'Meara, adjacent to Fort Sherman.
Fort (Redoubt) Putnam (six guns), near 4th and Lindsay Streets, at Brabson Square. Leveled in 1886.
Fort King, unknown location.
Fort Palmer, site now Park Place.
Battery (Redoubt) Bushnell, east of Georgia Ave. near Battery Place. Leveled in 1885.
A log blockhouse was located at the railroad depot in town.
Union batteries were also north of the river on Moccasin Point, and at Brown's Ferry.

The combined Union Army of the Tennessee and the Army of the Cumberland were encamped here during the winter of 1863-64.

Confederate forts:
Fort Cheatham (1862), located between 4th Ave. and 23rd and 28th Streets. Earthworks remain ?
Fort Hindman, unknown location.
Battery Smartt (1862), along the south bank of the river near the upper end of Maclellan Island. No remains.
Cameron Hill was initially fortified by the Confederates.
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge were heavily fortified.
Three CSA gun batteries from the 1863 seige line are located in Point Park.

Admission fee to National Park areas.

Old French Store
(1760 or 1761), near Valdeau
A short-lived French trading post was established here on the river at an Indian village, possibly on Williams' Island, sometime after the British defeat at Fort Loudoun in August 1760. Insurmountable navigation hazards in this section of the Tennessee River forced its abandonment.


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