American Forts: East

VERMONT

Baxter Barracks | Camp Baxter | Blanchard Mills Stockade | Brattleboro Barracks
Bridgman's Fort | Burlington Cantonment | Cabot Blockhouse | Fort Cassin
Champlain Arsenal | Chimney Point | Continental Storehouse | Cooke's Hill Fort
Corinth Powder House | Cowass | Fort Defiance | De Warm's Stockade
Fort Dummer | Fort Ethan Allen | Fort Frederick | Greensboro Blockhouse | Fort Hill
Fort at Isle La Motte | Camp Johnson | Johnston's Stockade | Fort La Motte | Fort Loyal
Fort Mott | Mount Independence | Fort Mount Washington | Newbury Blockhouse
Newbury Powder House | Fort New Haven | Camp Olympia | Peacham Blockhouse
Fort de Pieux | Fort Point la Chevelure | Fort Putney | Fort Ranger | Fort Rutland
Fort Ste. Anne | Sartwell's Fort | Shaftsbury Munitions House | Stephens' Fort
Fort Vengeance | Walden Blockhouse | Fort Warren | Fort at the Wells River

AMERICA'S HISTORIC LAKES

Last Update: 23/FEBRUARY/2015
Compiled by Pete Payette - 2015 American Forts Network

Orlando Bridgman's Fort
(1738 - 1755 ?), North Vernon FORT WIKI
A settlers' two-story timber garrison house, fortified (stockaded) in 1742. Attacked and burned by Indians in June 1746 and again in October 1747. Rebuilt and burned again in June 1755. Located about one-half mile south of Sartwell's Fort. The house remained standing until about 1824.

Josiah Sartwell's Fort
(1737 - 1755 ?), North Vernon FORT WIKI
A settlers' two-story timber garrison house fortified in 1740. Attacked and burned in June 1755. The house was dismantled in 1837 and replaced by a farmhouse using many of the original timbers.

Fort Dummer (State Park)
(1724 - 1763), Guilford FORT WIKI
A fortification on the Connecticut River south of Brattleboro. It was a wooden stockade 180-feet square, with 12 guns, manned by 55 men. It was attacked by Indians in 1724 before the stockade was completed. The site was the state's first permanent settlement. The fort was built by the Massachussetts colonial militia. The fort was eventually dismantled. Because of the construction of the Vernon Dam just downriver in 1908, the original site of the fort is now underwater. The Fort Dummer Historical Association built a complete model of fort and is on display in Brattleboro. State marker located near the Brattleboro Railroad Station.

Brattleboro Barracks
(1863 - 1865), Brattleboro
A Civil War training camp for units of the Union Regular Army.

Fort Putney
(1740 - 1747 ?, 1755 - 1760), East Putney FORT WIKI
A town fort at "Putney Great Meadows" to defend against the French and Indians during King George's War. Also called Fort Hill. A second town fort was built in 1755, consisting of 15 houses forming the walls, with two watch towers at opposite corners.

Continental Storehouse
(1776 ?), Bennington
A two-story wooden storehouse was built prior to 1777 to house foodstuffs and quartermaster supplies for the Continental Army. Located at the site of the Bennington Battle Monument, which was built in 1891.

Shaftsbury Munitions House
(1777), South Shaftsbury
A 1770 stone barn was used by Continental and Vermont troops to store powder and munitions prior to the Battle of Bennington (August 1777). The structure is still extant, now a private residence located on Buck Hill Road about 100 yards east of VT 7A (Ethan Allen Highway).

Fort Defiance
(1780 - 1781), Barnard
Built by the militia.

Fort Rutland
(1775), Rutland FORT WIKI
A town stockade located at present-day North and South Main Streets. Stone monument (1901) at site.
See also Rutland Tour from A Revolutionary Day Along Historic US Route 7

Fort Ranger
(1778 - 1781), Gookin's Falls
Located at Mead's (Rutland) Falls, just east of Rutland, this fort served as the headquarters for colonial troops in the area (Whitcom's Rangers). After the soldiers left for Fort Warren, the settlers used it as a gathering place.

Fort Warren
(1779 - 1781), Castleton FORT WIKI
A militia fort. The town later used the abandoned fort as a storehouse and as a meeting house until 1790. The site is now bisected by a road and a railroad, and occupied by a private home. State marker and stone monument on US 4 at East Hubbardton Road.

Blanchard Mills Stockade
(1781), Hydeville
A militia fort on the old Military Branch Road (1781) at Castleton Falls. See also Hubbardton Military Road Association

Fort Vengeance
(1780 - 1781), Pittsford
Built on Otter Creek west of Cox Mountain by the independent Republic of Vermont to garrison militia for the defense of local settlers in the Otter Valley from British and Indian atacks. Originally unnamed until one defender was killed by Indians and his comrades swore vengeance - so naming the fort.
(info provided by Christopher Borstel of the Louis Berger Group)

Fort Mott
(1777), Pittsford
A settlers' palisaded log fort on the east bank of Otter Creek, about a mile south of the future location of Fort Vengeance. Built after the Battle of Hubbardton (July 1777), it was also used by the local militia.
(info provided by Christopher Borstel of the Louis Berger Group)

Mount Independence (State Historic Site)
(1775 - 1777), near Orwell
An extensive fortification on a prominant headland jutting into Lake Champlain, which worked in conjunction with Fort Ticonderoga across the lake in New York (see also). It may have also been called Fort Mount Washington. Consisted of several shore batteries and a stockaded star fort. Site of winter quarters for 2500 Patriot troops in 1776 - 1777. Occupied by the British during July - November 1777, who built five blockhouses for land defense. The northern portion of the site is owned by the Fort Ticonderoga Association. The southern portion is owned by the state of Vermont (admission fee). Walking trails lead to several sites of bulding foundations and gun positions. Remnants of the Horseshoe Battery still remain.
See also Mount Independence Tour from A Revolutionary Day Along Historic US Route 4
Mount Independence from America's Historic Lakes.org

Chimney Point (State Historic Site)
(1690, 1731 - 1737, 1776 - 1777), Chimney Point
Located across from Crown Point, New York. Capt. Jacobus de Warm's Stockade was built here by the New York militia in 1690 to observe French movements. The French built Fort Pointe la Chevelure or Fort de Pieux in 1731. It was a 100-foot square stockade with four bastions, with three buildings. It was abandoned when Fort St. Frederic was completed at Crown Point in 1737. A French settlement was then established here, but was abandoned in 1759 to the British. It was burned in 1760 by Mohawk Indians, leaving only smoldering chimneys, hence the modern name of the point. A small Patriot garrison was here at the start of the American Revolution, later Hessian troops were posted here when Crown Point was reoccupied by British forces. The extant Chimney Point Tavern was built in 1785. Admission fee.

Champlain Arsenal
(1826 - 1855, 1861 - 1872), Vergennes FORT WIKI
A Federal arsenal with Officers' quarters, barracks, magazine, and ordnance and munitions storehouses, on 28 acres. It was sold to the state in 1873 to become the State Reform School for Troubled Youth. In 1907 the school was expanded and renamed the Vermont Industrial School. It was renamed the Governor Weeks School in 1937, closed in 1979. Now the Northlands Job Corps Center, located at 100 MacDonough Drive. At least one of the original Arsenal buildings still remains.

Fort Cassin
(1813 - 1815), near Vergennes
A seven-gun earthwork built to defend the temporary Naval Shipyard at Vergennes. It was attacked once by the British in 1814. Site located at the mouth of Otter Creek near Kingsland Bay State Park. No remains, no marker.

Fort New Haven
(1769 or 1772), New Haven
A blockhouse built by Ethan Allen to guard against New York land speculators.

Burlington Cantonment
(1812 - 1817), Burlington
Located at Battery Park. A 13-gun earthwork battery was originally located here, used against the British during the bombardment of Burlington in June 1813. A cantonment and hospital was built before the winter of 1812-13. This was also a state militia encampment site during the Civil War. Site transferred to the city in 1870. State marker in park. See also Battery Park History from University of Vermont

Fort Frederick ?
(1773 - 1775 ?), Winooski
A two-story blockhouse built by the Onion River Company, under Ira Allen, Ethan Allen's brother, who also established a shipyard nearby in 1772. The site is located at the Winooski (Onion) River bridge (state marker). The settlement was abandoned during the American Revolution. See also History of Winooski by William E. Wargo

Fort Ethan Allen
(1892 - 1952/1960), near Winooski FORT WIKI
This was one of the largest U.S. Cavalry and Field Artillery posts in the country at the time. During the two World Wars it was used as a Regular Army mobilization center and training area. Deactivated in 1943, it was then primarily used as a storage depot. It was taken over by the Air Force in 1952 and renamed Ethan Allen Air Force Base. Despite public protest, it was finally closed in 1960. Most of the former base is now owned by the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College (North Campus). The Fort Ethan Allen Museum is located in the former 1890's era Pump House, at 11 Marcy Drive, open by appointment or special occasion. The Parade Ground is now a community park shared between the Townships of Colchester and Essex.
See also Vermont Buffalo Soldiers from University of Vermont

Camp Olympia
(1898 - present), near Winooski
A Spanish-American War muster camp for state troops, located adjacent to Fort Ethan Allen. Later renamed for each current state governor until 1945. The site is now part of Camp Johnson, the present-day training center and headquarters of the Vermont National Guard. Located here is the Vermont National Guard Museum and Library.

Fort Ste. Anne
(1666 - 1676), Isle La Motte
Ste. Anne's Shrine (1893) marks the site of a French fort and mission on Lake Champlain. The site is the state's oldest white settlement. The fort served as a defense against the Mohawk Indians. Also known as Fort La Motte. A small museum is on the grounds, which includes relics of the fort. State marker located on West Shore Road.

Fort at Isle La Motte
(1775, 1814), Isle La Motte
A British fort was here during the American Revolution, and was briefly held by Patriot forces in 1775. The British set up a temporary three-gun battery here in 1814.

Fort Loyal
(1781 - 1796), North Hero
A Loyalist-built blockhouse on Dutchman's Point that the British refused to give up after the United States won independence in 1783. Dutchman's Point is now called Blockhouse Point.

Greensboro Blockhouse
(1779 - 1782), Greensboro
A blockhouse built by Continental troops under General Moses Hazen to protect the new military road (Hazen Road) built between Newbury and Lowell. The road was never finished past Hazen's Notch, but the blockhouses were still garrisoned by militia until the end of the war. Attacked by Indians in the summer of 1781.

Walden Blockhouse
(1779 - 1782), Walden
A blockhouse built by Continental troops under General Moses Hazen to protect the new military road (Hazen Road) built between Newbury and Lowell. The road was never finished past Hazen's Notch, but the blockhouses were still garrisoned by militia until the end of the war. The blockhouse here was later used as a church and school after the war.

Cabot Blockhouse
(1779 - 1782), Cabot
A blockhouse built by Continental troops under General Moses Hazen to protect the new military road (Hazen Road) built between Newbury and Lowell. The road was never finished past Hazen's Notch, but the blockhouses were still garrisoned by militia until the end of the war.

Peacham Blockhouse
(1779 - 1782), Peacham
A blockhouse built by Continental troops under General Moses Hazen to protect the new military road (Hazen Road) built between Newbury and Lowell. The road was never finished past Hazen's Notch, but the blockhouses were still garrisoned by militia until the end of the war. The blockhouse and camp here were the supply base for the road until construction was halted later in the year (1779).

Camp Baxter
(1861 - 1865), St. Johnsbury
A Civil War training camp also known as Baxter Barracks.

Fort at the Wells River
(1704, 1725), Ryegate
According to local tradition, a crude log fort or shelter, located on the west bank of the Connecticut River just north of the Wells River, was first built by Capt. Jonathan Wells during a late winter expedition north to Canada (following the February French-led massacre at Deerfield, MA), and used to shelter sick troops who could not continue. The fort was again used in August 1725 by an expedition under Capt. Benjamin Wright. The structure was reported to still exist in 1770 when English settlement of the area began.

Stephens' Fort ?
(1777 - 1782), East Ryegate
A town fort or private settlers' fort, noted on 1789 and 1790 maps of the area, located just north of the mouth of the Wells River. In a 1913 town history an unnamed 1777-built log blockhouse was reported to have been located on the "Fairview Farm", which may have been the same structure. It was occupied by a single family, and continued to be so occupied well after the war. General Moses Hazen's Continental troops may have used the blockhouse in 1779 as part of the Hazen Road system. Continental troops were again garrisoned in the town in the summer of 1781 after Indian raids to the north, and may have used the blockhouse.

Cowass
(1675), Newbury
An Abenaki Indian refugee village with a French Jesuit mission.

Newbury Blockhouse ?
(1777 - 1782), Newbury
A large militia log blockhouse with defensive ditch, built for the protection of the town settlers against the British and Indians from Canada. It could shelter up to two militia companies. Located on the ridge north of the town cemetery at the river oxbow. General Moses Hazen's Continental troops may have used the blockhouse in 1779 as part of the Hazen Road system.

Located at the south end of the village was Col. Robert Johnston's Stockade, a palisaded frame structure for defense. It was later transformed into a storage barn.

Newbury Powder House
(1809 - unknown), Newbury
A brick powder house was once located on the summit of Montebello Hill. Struck by lightning in 1836 and rebuilt. It was still in existence during the Civil War.

Cooke's Hill Fort
(1781), Corinth Center
A militia fort on Cooke's Hill.

Corinth Powder House
(unknown dates), Corinth Township
A powder house was noted on a 1858 town map of the Cookeville area.


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