Southern California I

Camp Banning | Fort Beale | Fort Benson | Camp Bitter Springs | Redoubt Bitter Springs
Camp Burton (2) | Camp Cady | Campo de Cahuenga | Camp Cajon | Camp Calhoun
Camp at Calicienga Ranch | Campo Stone Store | Camp Cañada de las Uvas | Camp Carleton
New Camp Carleton | Camp Coco Mungo | Fort Defiance (1) | Fort Defiance (2)
Camp Dolores | Drum Barracks | Camp Drum | Fort Drum | Fort DuPont | Camp at El Chino
Camp at El Monte | Camp Fauntleroy | Camp Fitzgerald (1) | Camp Fitzgerald (2)
Fort Frémont | Fort Gass | Camp Gaston (1) | Fort Gaston (2) | Camp Giftaler Ranch
Castillo de Guijarros | Fort Guijarros | Hancock's Redoubt | Fort Hill (1) | Fort Hill (2)
Camp Independence (1) | Camp Johnson | Fort Jurupa | Camp Kellogg | Fort Keysville
Kline's Ranch Post | Camp La Paz | Fort Laguna de Chapala | Camp Laguna Grande
Camp Latham | Camp Leonard | Post at Los Angeles (1) (2) | Camp at Marl Springs
Camp at Martin's Ranch | Depot on the Mojave River | Fort Moore | Mormon Camp
Mormon Stockade | Camp Morris | Camp at New San Pedro | Fort Pacheco
Camp Pah-Ute Spring | Fort Piute | Fort Piute Hill | Camp Point Loma | Camp Prentiss
Mission de la Purísima Concepción | Camp Rancho Cucamonga | Camp Rancho del Chino
Post at Rancho del Chino | Camp Rancho del Jurupa | Rancho del Jurupa Post
Camp Resting Springs | Camp Riley | Camp Rock Springs | Camp Salvation
Camp San Bernardino | Fort San Bernardino | Post San Bernardino | Fort San Diego
Post at San Diego | New Post of San Diego | San Diego Barracks | San Diego Depot
San Diego Garrison | Post at Mission San Diego | Presidio de San Diego | Camp San Felipe (1)
Mission San Juan Capistrano | Camp San Luis Rey | Post at Mission San Luis Rey
San Pasqual Battlefield | Camp near San Pedro | Post at San Pedro | Camp Santa Barbara
Presidio de Santa Barbara | Camp Santa Catalina Island | Camp Santa Isabel
Camp Santa Ysabel | Fort Soda | Fort Soda Lake | Camp Soda Springs | Fort Stockton (2)
Camp Sugar Loaf | Sycamore Grove Camp | Fort Tejón | Camp near Temecula
Camp Vallecito | Vallecito Depot | Warner's Ranch Camp | Wilmington Q.M. Depot
Camp Wright (2) | Camp Yuma | Fort Yuma | Yuma Presidio

Northern California - page 1 | Central California - page 2
San Francisco Bay Area - page 3 | Sonoma-Marin Headlands - page 4
Southern California II - page 6

CALIFORNIA STATE MILITARY MUSEUM
THE CALIFORNIA MISSIONS TRAIL
CALIFORNIA MISSION STUDIES ASSOCIATION

FORT WIKI - CALIFORNIA

Last Update: 25/JULY/2010
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2010 American Forts Network

Fort Keysville
(1855 or 1856), Keyesville
Also called Fort Hill (2). Built by miners anticipating an Indian attack. Located near Lake Isabella.

Camp Leonard
(1863), Onyx
A CA Volunteer Cavalry encampment built to prevent Indians from leaving the Sebastian River Reservation for their former homes in the Owens Valley. Located 15 miles northeast of Keyesville on the north bank of the South Branch of the Kern River.

Camp Sugar Loaf
(1858), near Barstow
A temporary desert camp, intermittently used, located just west of town on the Mojave River.

Camp Cady
(1859, 1860, 1863 - 1864, 1865 - 1871), near Newberry Springs
Originally located here in September 1859 was the temporary Depot on the Mojave River. A Dragoon post to guard against Piute attacks was later established here in April 1860 with temporary brush shelters or mud dugouts used for only three months. Permanent adobe buildings were later built in 1868, arranged around a 300-yard square parade ground located about one-half mile west from the original site. Became a major base of operations throughout the Mojave Desert for several military posts established along the Old Government Road to Fort Mohave, AZ and the Salt Lake Road. Located on the Mojave River, about 20 miles east of Barstow.
(NOTE: "Mojave" is generally spelled with a "J" west of the Colorado River, and spelled with an "H" east of the Colorado River. Both are pronounced the same.)

Camp Bitter Springs
(1859 - 1860), near Baker
A temporary military encampment once located on the eastern edge of the current Fort Irwin Military Reservation (established in 1940) (see page 6), about 20 miles west-northwest of town. A stone fort replaced the camp in 1860, known as Redoubt Bitter Springs.

Fort Soda
(1860, 1867 - 1868), near Baker
Built by the Dragoons in 1860 as Hancock's Redoubt. Regarrisoned in 1867 as Fort Soda Lake or Camp Soda Springs. Ruins remain at site on Soda Lake south of town, now the Desert Research Center of Cal-State University - Fullerton.

Camp Resting Springs
(1859 - 1860), near Tecopa
Located at an important water hole on the old Spanish Trail to Las Vegas, NV, about five miles east of town. Traces of the stone redoubt and corral supposedly still remain. Scene of an Indian massacre in 1844, and an Indian attack on a Mormon wagon train in 1854.

Camp at Marl Springs
(1867 - 1868), near Kelso
An outpost of Camp Cady, built to protect an important water source in the desert. Ruins of the stone walls still remain. Located six miles northeast of town.

Camp Rock Springs
(1860, 1863, 1866 - 1868), near Cima
An outpost of Camp Cady in December 1866 to guard against Indian attacks. Located on the road from Camp Cady to Fort Mohave, AZ. It was garrisoned as an outpost of Fort Mohave, AZ in 1863. Located about 10 miles southeast of town in Cedar Canyon, near Table Mountain.

Fort Piute
(1859 - 1861, 1866 - 1868), near Goffs
Originally established by the Dragoons, known as Fort Beale. Abandoned at the start of the Civil War. Occasionally outposted by CA Volunteers during the Civil War. Re-established in 1866, and renamed. Also called Fort Piute Hill. Ruins are on private property, 10 miles north of town, 20 miles southwest of Searchlight, NV.

Camp Pah-Ute Spring
(1867 - 1868), near Hart
An Army post located in the eastern Mojave Desert.

Mission de la Purísima Concepción de María Santísima
(La Purísima Mission State Historic Park)
(1787 - 1821 ?), Lompoc
A Spanish mission guard was posted here for a time after Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuén established the new mission. After the 1812 earthquake, the mission was rebuilt at a new site. Ruins remain at the original site, located near Locust Avenue between "E" and "G" Streets. The second site is now a state park, located at 2295 Purisima Road, about two miles northeast of town. The new mission was restored in the 1930's, including the Soldiers' Barracks and Mess Hall (1816). The complex is considered to be the most completely restored of any California mission.

El Presidio de Santa Bárbara (State Historic Park)
(1782 - 1848), Santa Barbara
Located here is the second oldest extant building in the state. The Mission de Santa Bárbara Virgen y Martir was not built until 1786, located less than two miles northeast. The presidio was initially a 60-yard square wooden stockade enclosing several log huts. Rebuilt in 1788 as an 80-yard square adobe-walled compound, with stone foundations, and two bastions in the corners. A Mexican garrison here was captured by Americans in 1846. Several restored Spanish and Mexican buildings were destroyed in the 1925 earthquake. Two pre-1790 buildings within the former compound did survive. The site is between Garden, Anacapa, Carillo, and De La Guerra Streets. The city was formally established in 1826. State marker || CA State Military Museum entry

Camp Santa Barbara
(1846 - 1848, 1864), Santa Barbara
Occupied at different times by Frémont's Rangers (1846), and NY Volunteers (1847 - 1848). The St. Charles Hotel was used as the post headquarters, but the main camp was on the beach. The town was reoccupied during the Civil War by CA Volunteers.

Fort Tejón (State Historic Park)
(1854 - 1861, 1863 - 1864), near Lebec
A Dragoon post built to replace Fort Miller, and to guard the pass through the Tehachapi Mountains. The Army's "Camel Corps" was stationed here from 1857 to 1861, with the stables and corral located across Grapevine Creek from the rest of the post. They proved successful, but other factors conspired against them. The post became a station on the Butterfield Overland route in 1858. Ordered evacuated in 1861, but reoccupied by CA Volunteers in 1863. The adobe buildings were later used for a private ranch operation (Beale Ranch, later Tejón Ranch Company), and three have been restored. Ruins exist of several others. Camp Cañada de las Uvas was nearby and was a temporary camp during the construction of the fort. State marker || CA State Military Museum entry
See also The Fort Tejón 1857 Earthquake

Located somewhere nearby was the temporary Dragoon post Camp Fauntleroy (1856).

Camp Johnson
(1891), Santa Monica
A temporary summer encampment of the CA National Guard. Site located near 7th and Montana Streets.

Campo de Cahuenga (Historic Site)
(1847), Los Angeles
Site of the surrender treaty ceding Alta (Upper) California from Mexico to the United States. Monument located at 3919 Lankershim Blvd. in North Hollywood.
Treaty of Campo de Cahuenga from CA State Military Museum

A Mexican garrison in oldtown, and one also in San Pedro, were captured by the U.S. Army in 1847.

Fort Moore
(1847 - 1849), Los Angeles
Originally named Post at Los Angeles (1) in January 1847, it was built on the site of earlier Fort Hill (1) (from which the Mexicans had ejected the American Marines in September 1846) to control the city. It was formally named in March or April 1847. It was a six-gun earthwork, but it was never fully completed and was later abandoned, and dismantled in 1853. The actual hill, on Hill Street near Sunset Blvd., was leveled in 1949. Site commemorated today by a large stone mural (Fort Moore Pioneer Memorial) built in 1957. See also The Seige of Los Angeles from CA State Military Museum

Post at Los Angeles (2) was re-established during the Civil War (1861 - 1865 ?) in rented quarters within the city.

Camp Fitzgerald (2)
(1861), Los Angeles
A Dragoon tent camp which moved three times for lack of water and horse pasture. Probable site at 3rd and Main Streets.

Camp Kellogg
(1861 - 1862), Culver City
A tent camp of the CA Infantry at Willow Grove.

Camp Latham
(1861 - 1862), Culver City
A temporary tent camp of the CA Volunteer Infantry located at the Ballona Ranch on Ballona Creek, at present-day Overland and Jefferson Boulevards.

Kline's Ranch Post
(1862), near Los Angeles
A temporary post.

Drum Barracks
(1862 - 1873), Wilmington
A major depot and base of operations during the Indian Wars, but only the Officers' quarters still remain today, now the City of Los Angeles Civil War Museum. Ruins of a powder magazine are reportedly off-site nearby. Originally established as Camp at New San Pedro, at present-day Avalon Street and Anaheim Boulevard. Relocated about one mile northwest to its present site a few weeks later after heavy rains washed away the first site. Lumber-built barracks, stables, and post hospital replaced the tent city in 1862. It was then known as Camp Drum until renamed in 1863, and then again after 1871. It was proposed to be named Fort Drum in 1863, but was not acted upon. CA State Military Museum entry || State marker

Located nearby, bounded by "C", Front, and Canal Streets was the Wilmington Quartermaster Depot (1861 - 1870).

Post at San Pedro
(1858), Dead Man's Island, San Pedro
An Army post on Dead Man's Island in San Pedro (Los Angeles) Harbor.

Located nearby was Camp near San Pedro (1892) (undetermined location).

Camp Santa Catalina Island
(1864), Two Harbors, Santa Catalina Island
The CA Volunteers from Drum Barracks occupied the island on threat of Confederate privateers operating in the area. All settlers were removed to the mainland. An Indian reservation was also proposed here by the Army for those Indians in northwest California near Fort Humboldt, but a treaty in August 1864 called for a reservation in that area instead. One building remains at Two Harbors.

New Camp Carleton
(1862), El Monte
A CA Cavalry camp located 10 miles east of Los Angeles. Also known as Camp at El Monte. This post replaced Camp Carleton at San Bernardino.

Camp Rancho del Chino
(1850 - 1852), Chino
Also known as Post at Rancho del Chino. A temporary Army infantry camp using leased quarters, later transferred to Camp Rancho del Jurupa, about 15 miles east.

Located here or nearby in 1862 was Camp at El Chino.

Camp Rancho del Jurupa
(1852 - 1854), Rubidoux
A small 20-man Army detachment garrisoned the Rubidoux Grist Mill (1846) on the Santa Ana River. Also called Rancho del Jurupa Post. Became known as Fort Jurupa and later as Fort Frémont. Marker located at 5540 Molina Way.

Fort Benson
(1856 - 1857), Colton
An earthwork with one cannon, built by Mormon settler Jerome Benson during land squabbles between other settlers. No remains. Marker (1935) located on the west side of town at 601 Hunts Lane.
See also San Bernardino Posts from CA State Military Museum

Mormon Stockade
(1851 - 1857), San Bernardino
A 300-by-720-foot, 12-foot high log stockade built for protection against Indians. Also known as Mormon Camp, and also Fort San Bernardino. No remains. The Army stationed troops here briefly in 1855. Site occupied by the courthouse on Arrowhead Ave. between 3rd and 4th Streets. State marker
See also San Bernardino Posts from CA State Military Museum

San Bernardino Posts
(1847, 1851, 1857 - 1859, 1861 - 1863), San Bernardino
Several different militia and regular Army posts and camps were located throughout the area over several different years. They were:
Camp Cajon (1847 Mormon Battalion, winter 1857-58 Army) about 15 miles south of Cajon Pass on the "Devore Cut-Off", about 1.5 miles west of I-15 near Devore. This was also known as Camp at Martin's Ranch (December 1858 - January 1859 Army). This was also probably the same as Sycamore Grove Camp (1847 Mormon Battalion, 1851 Mormon settlers campsite);
Camp Dolores (1851 local Mormon ranger battalion) near present-day Valley College;
Camp San Bernardino (February - June 1858 Army) undetermined exact location;
Camp Banning (February - May 1859 Army) (renamed Camp Prentiss May - autumn 1859 Army) near Mt. Vernon Ave. and Mill Street;
Camp near San Bernardino (August - September 1861 CA Infantry) undetermined exact location;
Camp Carleton (October 1861 - March 1862 CA Cavalry) on Waterman Ave. on the north bank of the Santa Ana River, south of the city. Also known as Post San Bernardino. Relocated to El Monte after a flood in February 1862.
Camp Morris (June - October 1863 CA Infantry) in rented buildings downtown.

Camp Rancho Cucamonga
(1864), Rancho Cucamonga
Troops were encamped here for two weeks in June 1864 during civil unrest between Americans and Californios. Also known as Camp Coco Mungo.

Mission San Juan Capistrano
(1776 - 1821 ?), San Juan Capistrano
A Spanish mission guard was posted here for a time after Father Junipero Serra established the new mission. Many of the original structures were restored in the 1930's, including the Soldiers' Barracks (1791). The Great Stone Church was destroyed in the 1812 earthquake, ruins remain. The setting of the first "Zorro" novella ("Curse of Capistrano" published 1919) takes place here.

Camp Laguna Grande
(1862), Lake Elsinore
A short-lived post.

Camp near Temecula
(1862), near Temecula
A temporary Army camp.

Camp Giftaler Ranch
(1863), Aguanga
A temporary post located a little west of town, 13.5 miles southeast of Temecula, established in response to secessionist activities.

Camp Wright (2)
(1861 - 1862/1866), Oak Grove
A temporary infantry camp to guard the communication and travel route to Arizona. No remains. Originally called Warner's Ranch Camp, it was moved one month after it was established to a new site 12 miles west near the Oak Grove stage station and renamed. The stage station was used as the camp hospital. The state marker claims the date of abandonment in 1866. It was no longer regularly garrisoned by troops after May 1862. Oak Grove is located in San Diego County just south of Aguanga. Camp Wright state marker || Oak Grove Stage Station state marker

Camp San Felipe (1)
(1846, 1865), near Warner Springs
First occupied by General Stephen Kearny on his march to San Diego and the Battle of San Pasqual. The Butterfield stage station later built here in 1858 was occupied by CA Volunteers in April 1865. Located southeast of town.

Camp Vallecito
(Vallecito County Park)
(1850), near Julian
Originally a fortified stage station that later became an important supply center (Vallecito Depot (1851 - 1853)). The station has been restored, located at Vallecito County Park. See also Phantoms of Vallecito Stage Station from Legends of America.com

Camp San Luis Rey
(1798 - 1835, 1846, 1847 - 1849, 1850 - 1852), San Luis Rey
A small Spanish garrison originally protected Mission San Luis Rey de Francia (1798). The Mormon Battalion camped nearby in 1846. In 1847 American troops were posted at a site five miles south of the mission, near Carlsbad, to protect travelers between Los Angeles and San Diego. Abandoned, then re-established in 1850 adjacent to the old mission as Post at Mission San Luis Rey. The church (1815) and mission buildings have been restored. Ruins of the soldiers' barracks. Located about four miles east of Oceanside on the San Luis Rey River.

San Pasqual Battlefield (State Historic Park)
(1846), Escondido
Location of the December 1846 Battle of San Pasqual. The Californios and Americans both claimed victory.

Camp Santa Ysabel
(1851 - 1852), Santa Ysabel
An Army supply depot at the Santa Ysabel church (built 1818). Also spelled Isabel. The original church was in ruins by 1860. The present church was built in 1924. State marker

Presidio de San Diego
(Presidio Park)
(1769 - 1831), San Diego
This was the first white settlement in the state. The presidio was built to protect Mission de San Diego de Alcalá (1769) (state marker). Attacked by Indians soon after it was built, the compound was then stockaded. The mission moved six miles east in 1774 to its present site on San Diego Mission Road (restored in the 1940's), but the presidio stayed here on Presidio Hill. Known as El Presidio Real (The Royal Garrison) after 1774. The wooden structures were replaced with adobe structures beginning in 1778. In 1795 an esplanade, powder magazine, and barracks were added to the compound. The garrison reached its peak of 100 men in 1819. See also Life on Presidio Hill under the Spanish Flag by William Smythe, from the San Diego Historical Society

The Mexican army took over in 1822. The Mexican governor of Alta California resided here from 1825 to 1829. The Mexicans abandoned the post in 1831. By 1836 the compound was in ruins. The Mexicans built a new earthwork on Presidio Hill in 1838 to protect the town, which was established in 1835. This work later became Fort Stockton (1) (see below). The present-day Presidio Park was created in 1929, although much of the original site has been lost to development. The Serra Museum was built on site in 1929. The Junipero Serra Memorial was erected in 1913. Presidio state marker
See also The Royal Presidio of San Diego from California History and Culture Conservancy
See also The Use of Presidio Hill by Jennifer Luksic and Nik Kendziorski, from San Diego Historical Society

After the war, American cavalry troops were encamped at the then-abandoned mission (rebuilt in 1812), known as Post at Mission San Diego or San Diego Garrison (1847 - 1858, intermittant). The mission was returned to church ownership in 1862.

Of interest downtown is Old Town San Diego State Historic Park (state marker).

Fort Stockton (1)
(1838 - 1848), San Diego
Located in Presidio Park a short distance from the entrance. This was originally a small unnamed (?) Mexican earthwork battery, later captured by the American Navy in 1846 and renamed Fort DuPont. Californios briefly regained the fort, but it was recaptured again by the Americans and renamed yet again. Also known as Fort San Diego. Some earthworks still remain. An old Spanish cannon is located here, originally from Fort Guijarros. State marker

San Diego Barracks
(1850 - 1866, 1869 - 1920), San Diego
Originally a supply depot called San Diego Depot or New Post of San Diego, it was renamed in 1879. No remains. Site located on Market Street between Pacific Highway and Kettner Ave.. State marker || See also San Diego Barracks by George Ruhlen, from San Diego Historical Society

Fort Guijarros
(Fort Guijarros Museum Foundation)
(1797 - 1838), San Diego
Located at Fort Rosecrans on Point Loma (see page 6). Also called Castillo de Guijarros, it was a Spanish 10-gun battery with an adobe powder magazine and barracks. Reported to be in ruins by 1836. One of the cannons from this fort is now on display at Presidio Park (Fort Stockton). Another cannon is on display at Old Town Plaza downtown. The site was discovered in 1981 inside the Navy's Submarine Support Facility (built here in 1962). The so-called "Battle of San Diego" (March 1803) was fought here between the battery and an American merchant ship that was trying to trade with the Spanish. The ship was damaged, but sailed away. Another incident with an American ship occured in 1828. State marker

The American Army established Camp Point Loma here in 1852, known as Post at San Diego after 1858.

Also of interest here is the Ballast Point Whaling Station historic site (1857 - 1873). The Ballast Point Lighthouse was built in 1890, demolished in 1957.

Camp Burton (2)
(1855), San Diego
A temporary Army post before occupying the abandoned Mission San Diego de Alcalá in Mission Valley.

Camp Riley
(1849), near Otay
Established by troops assisting the International Boundary Commission. Actual site located in the present-day salt flats at the southern end of San Diego Bay.

Campo Stone Store
(1885), Campo
Built as a civilian defense against outlaws to replace an earlier wood-frame building that was attacked by bandits in 1875. Built by brothers L.H. and S.E. Gaskill, it had stone and masonry walls four feet thick on the first level, three feet thick on the second level, wooden shutters covered with iron plate, and a tunnel six feet high extending into the hill for 40-50 feet. Used as a general store, post office, bank, and stage station. It was restored in 1948.

Fort Laguna de Chapala
(1825 - 1826), near Seeley
A Mexican adobe fort located on the east bank of the New River to protect the road from Sonora, Mexico. It lasted only four months. Attacked by Kumeyaay Indians in April 1826, then abandoned. Records describe it as a 60-foot square. The site was found in the 1950's and revealed a 100-foot square structure. Modern markers describe it as Fort Romualdo Pacheco, after the Mexican commander of the post. State marker

Camp Salvation
(1849), Calexico
A tent camp established by the Army for American emigrants to the region's gold fields. Active for about three months in the autumn. No remains.

Fort Yuma
(Yuma - Quechan Indian Reservation)
(1850 - 1883), Winterhaven
A strategic post on the southern stage and mail routes. Originally established as Camp Independence (1), located less than one mile below the mouth of the Gila River. Relocated west (downriver) to its present site in 1851 and renamed Camp Yuma. Briefly abandoned during the winter of 1851-52, then re-established and redesignated as a fort. Became the Quechan Indian Reservation in 1884. About a dozen original buildings still remain. The Fort Yuma - Quechan Museum is here, operated by the Quechan tribal government. (See also ARIZONA page 2 for Yuma Depot.) State marker

Previously on this site stood the Spanish Mission Puerto de la Purísima Concepción (1780 - 1781), which was attacked and destroyed by Quechen Indians in the July 1781 Yuma Revolt. No remains. Camp Calhoun (1849) was later established here by an American military survey team.

Located about 4.4 miles northeast of Bard is the site of the Spanish Mission de San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer (1781). It was also attacked in July 1781. No remains.

Fort Defiance (1)
(1850), near Algodones, Baja California
A survey party's encampment located near the Colorado River one-half mile above the Mexican boundary, four miles below Fort Yuma.

A stockade was built by civilians on Pilot Knob to the northeast, and soon garrisoned by an 11-man military detachment, also known as Fort Defiance (2).

Camp Fitzgerald (1)
(1852), Imperial County ?
This Dragoon camp lasted only one day in March as an emergency post during an Indian attack. Reportedly located about 20 miles south-southwest of Fort Yuma, it may actually have been in Mexico.

Fort Gass
(1902 ?), near Palo Verde
Although shown on several topographic maps since 1902, Fort Gass was never established as a military installation or civilian trading post. The supposed post was located atop Palo Verde Peak in Imperial County (33 deg. 19' 46" North, 114 deg. 46' 37.5" West).

Camp Gaston (1)
(1859 - 1867, intermittent), near Blythe ?
Located on the Colorado River 45 miles (by land) from Fort Yuma. Built as a supply depot for Fort Mohave, AZ, then served as an outpost for Fort Yuma intermittently until 1867. Sometimes referred to as Fort Gaston (2).


NEED MORE INFO: Camp at Calicienga Ranch (1856) (location ?); Camp La Paz (1847) (location ?).

Special thanks to Dan Sebby, for information from the California State Military Museum website.

Northern California - page 1 | Central California - page 2 | San Francisco Bay Area - page 3
Sonoma-Marin Headlands - page 4 | Southern California II - page 6

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
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