American Forts: West

GUAM

Agana Field | Camp Agat | Agat NPS Unit | Anderson Air Base | Camp Anigua | Fort Apugan
Asan Beach NPS Unit | Camp Asan | Camp Asinan | Brewer Field | Cabras Island Battery
Battery Carmen | Camp Dealy | Fort Guadalupe | Hagatña Fort | Harmon Field
Libugon Radio Station | Camp Manengon | Marine Barracks | Merizo Battery
Mt. Chachao NPS Unit | Mt. Tenjo Redoubt | Naval Base | Naval Magazine
Orote Field | Orote Point Battery | Piti Navy Yard | Piti NPS Unit | Plaza de España
Fort Santa Agueda | Fort Santo Angel | Battery Santa Barbara | Fort Santa Cruz
Fort San Fernando | Fort Santiago | Fort San José | Fort San Luis | Fort San Raphael
Fort Soledad | Sumay Barracks | Tipalao Bay Battery | Camp Witek

Japanese WWII gun emplacement sites are not indexed

SPANISH FORTS OF GUAM
GUAM HISTORIC RESOURCES
GUAM VISITORS BUREAU

Last Update: 30/JUNE/2012
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2012 American Forts Network

Tarague
(Anderson Air Force Base)
(1944), Tarague Beach
A Japanese gun emplacement or pillbox is on the shore here. Located at the east-end of the Tarague Beach picnic area. Public access restricted.

Anderson Air Force Base
(1944 - present), near Yigo
The U.S. Army Air Force built North Field and Northwest Field for B-29 bombers in late 1944, operational in 1945. North Field was renamed Anderson in 1947. During the Vietnam War (1965 - 1972) this was the home base for B-52 bombers. Northwest Field is now an auxiliary field for the Air Force and Navy. Public access restricted.
A lighthouse was built at Ritidian Point in 1932, but it was destroyed during the war. The foundation still exists beneath the platform of the current light station.

Yigo
(South Pacific Memorial Park)
(1944), Yigo
A Japanese command bunker is located here at Mataguac Spring north of the village.

Tanguisson
(1944), near Harmon Village
Two Japanese gun emplacements are located on Tanguisson Beach. An uncompleted Japanese airfield (Dededo Field) is also nearby. A Japanese AA gun emplacement site is located at Hilaan Point.

Tumon Bay
(1944), Tumon
A 200mm Japanese coast defense gun is still emplaced in situ at Gun Beach. A concrete pillbox is also nearby. Numerous other bunkers, pillboxes, and other structures exist along the beach from Gognga Point to Ypao Point. A gun emplacement is next to the Pacific Star Hotel. Japanese 120mm dual-purpose guns are preserved at the Guam Hilton Hotel and the Fujita Guam Tumon Beach Hotel.

Harmon Field
(Harmon Industrial Park)
(1944 - unknown), Tumon
Built by the U.S. Army Air Force for B-29 bombers. The former base is now an industrial park. Two Japanese 120mm dual-purpose guns are on display in front of the Black Construction Company.

Tamuning
(1944), Tamuning
Two Japanese 200mm coast defense guns are on display at the Onward Agana Beach Hotel, formerly emplaced near caves that were destroyed when the hotel was built.

Brewer Field
(Guam International Airport)
(1944 - 1995), Tiyan
Originally built by the Japanese in 1944 as Tiyan Field. Renamed Agana Field and used by U.S. Marine fighter planes in 1945. Renamed Brewer Field in 1949, becoming the Agana Naval Air Station until it was closed in 1995.

Hagatña
(1944), Hagatña (Agaña)
A Japanese gun emplacement is located near the Hagatña Marina and the Guam Fisherman's Co-op. A Japanese pillbox is located near the Hagatña U.S. Naval Cemetery in East Hagatña. Two Japanese mobile 47mm anti-tank guns are located in front of the Guam Police Department. Numerous caves in the cliff face below Hagatña Heights were dug by Chamorro forced labor.

Plaza de España
(1736 - 1944), Hagatña (Agaña)
The Spanish colonial administative area, later the U.S. Navy headquarters and Japanese miltary headquarters. The Governor's Palace, which had been rebuilt in 1885, was destroyed by American bombardment in July 1944. The Guam Insular Guard had made their last stand here before the American surrender to the Japanese on December 10, 1941. Still surviving are an arched gate, a portion of the compound walls, tha Azotea (an open-air terrace porch on the rear of the palace), and the so-called Chocolate House.

The first Spanish fortification in Guam was a coconut log stockade, built here in 1671. Within its walls was the church and mission housing, which had been established in 1668. Two towers were built into the walls, each armed with a small brass cannon. The stockade had a force of thirty-one men armed with bows and arrows and some firearms. For the next twenty-two years the wooden stockade, which was renovated several times, was the main defensive fortification on the island.

A Spanish semi-circular seven-gun stone redoubt was built in 1835 in front of the Governor's Palace, extending into the Plaza. This was the last fortification built by the Spanish. No remains.

Fort Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe
(1693 - unknown), Hagatña
A colonial Spanish bastioned quadrangular stone fort with a 400-man garrison. Replaced by Fort San Fernando which was built in the same vicinity. No remains.

Fort San Fernando
(1751 - 1799), Hagatña
A colonial Spanish stone fort built to replace Fort Guadalupe, located in the same vicinity. Dismantled in 1799 and replaced by Fort San Raphael on the same site. No remains.

Fort San Raphael
(1799 - unknown), Hagatña
A colonial Spanish 17-gun stone fort built to replace Fort San Fernando, located on the same site, near present-day Skinner Plaza. No remains.

Fort Santa Agueda
(1800 - 1898, 1944), Hagatña Heights
Also known as Fort Apugan. This was a ten-gun stone fort that protected the Governor's Palace and Fort San Raphael. This is the only surviving Spanish fort within the city, although only partially. After about 1820 or so the fort was only used for military storage. Became a U.S. Navy signal station in 1900. Became a Naval Government Park in 1933. Used by the Japanese as an AA battery. Located on Route 7 next to the Government House and Latte Stone Park.
See also Hagatña Heritage Walking Trail from Guampedia.com

Adelup
(Adelup Park)
(1944), Adelup
Japanese gun emplacements still exist on Adelup Point.

Asan Beach N.P.S. Unit
(War in the Pacific National Historical Park)
(1944), Asan
Japanese gun emplacements and/or pillboxes are located on Asan Beach, Asan Point, and near Adelup Point, as well as at inland locations. A battery for 200mm coast defense guns is located on the west-side of the Asan Point ridge. A 75mm mountain gun is located in the inland unit of the park. Camp Asan (1944) was established by the Americans for Chamorro refugees after the start of the invasion.

Libugon Naval Radio Station
(1930's - 1941), near Nimitz Hill
Ruins still remain of the American radio intercept station that was used to intercept Japanese communications. Marker located at the DODEA Guam High School.

Piti Navy Yard
(1899 - 1944), Piti
Established by the U.S. Navy after the Spanish-American War. The base was largely still intact when captured by the Japanese in December 1941. The base was completely destroyed by American forces in 1944. It was not rebuilt. The old dock and marine railway still exist, now part of Cabras Lagoon Marina.

Piti N.P.S. Unit
(War in the Pacific National Historical Park)
(1944), Piti
Three Japanese 140mm guns in excellent condition are still located in the hills above the village. They were to defend the Navy Yard during the Japanese occupation. However, the battery was not completed or operational when the Americans invaded in 1944, therefore these three guns were never fired in anger.

Outside of the national park, near the north-side of the mouth of the Sasa River in a dense bamboo grove is a Japanese battery of 60mm guns.

Fort Santa Cruz
(1801 - 1898), near Sumay
A colonial Spanish 11-gun stone fort located on a reef in Apra Harbor, off of Sumay. Formally known as Fort Nuestra Señora de los Delores y la Santa Cruz. It was easily captured by an American landing party in 1898. The small Spanish garrison did not know war had been declared, resulting in a "battle" that lasted only 5 minutes. The fort still existed until after WWII. No remains.

Fort San Luis
(1737 - 1820's), near Sumay
A colonial Spanish six-gun stone fort, located at San Luis Point near present-day Gab Gab Beach. Ruins were reported here in 1898. No remains.

U.S. Marine Barracks
(Marianas Military Museum)
(1901/1921 - 1941), Sumay
The Marines first arrived here in 1901 to protect the Piti Navy Yard. The barracks were rebuilt in 1921, also known as Sumay Barracks. The 153-man Marine garrison was equipped only with several .30-cal. AA machine guns and their own personal weapons to defend themselves. Completely destroyed during the Japanese occupation. A marker is located in front of the Dental Clinic in the Lockwood Terrace housing complex. The original bronze barracks plaque is on display at the Marianas Military Museum located nearby. Also on display here are a Japanese 200mm coast defense gun, two Japanese 47mm anti-tank guns, two Japanese 75mm AA guns, two American 155mm M1A1 Long Tom guns, and two American 3-inch saluting guns.

The Pacific Cable Company established a cable station nearby in 1903 (ruins exist). A Japanese 25mm dual-mount AA gun is located east of the cable station site. Pan-American Airways established a seaplane base here in 1936. Remnants of the seaplane ramp exist, but the Pan-Am Hotel is long gone. The World War Two Memorial Park is located at the old village of Sumay, with two 40mm saluting guns on display. Japanese caves are in the nearby cliffs.
See also Pan-American Flights || Trans Pacific Telecommunications from Guampedia.com

Guam Naval Base
(1905 - 1941, 1945 - present), Apra Harbor
The Guam Naval Station was established primarily as a coaling station for the Pacific (Asiatic) Fleet. A German naval vessel was scuttled in the harbor in April 1917, the wreck still remains. This was the result of gunfire from the Cabras Island gun battery, which fired the first American shot recorded in World War One (April 6, 1917). In December 1941 the two 3-inch guns on the mine-sweeper U.S.S. Penguin (AM-33) were the only large-caliber guns available for island defense, and were soon knocked out by the Japanese, the ship being scuttled off of Orote Point. There were no anti-aircraft batteries set up anywhere, save the two .50-cal. AA MG on the Penguin. The only other American vessels present were two yard patrol craft (YP-16 and YP-17) at the Navy Yard, both destroyed, and the oil depot ship U.S.S. Robert L. Barnes (AG-27), captured. The base's station ship, the U.S.S. Gold Star (AG-12), was away in the Philippines at the time of attack. The base was largely still intact when captured by the Japanese. The oil tank farm and supply warehouses were destroyed. The base was heavily damaged by American forces in 1944. Several Japanese naval and cargo ships were scuttled or bombed in the harbor, several of the underwater wrecks still remain. The base was re-established in 1945 as the Guam Naval Operating Base. Many of the structures built in 1945 still exist. Two American 155mm M1A1 Long Tom guns are on display at the Naval Ship Repair Facility administrative building.
See also U.S. Naval Hospital 1899-1941 || Guam's Role in WWI from Guampedia.com

Orote Peninsula
(1944), Orote Point
Three Japanese gun emplacements are located on Gab Gab Beach facing Outer Apra Harbor. The Japanese originally built Orote Field in 1943, operational in 1944. The U.S. Marines used the field for fighter planes in 1945. Currently Orote Field is used only for Marine helicoptor operations. Three Japanese gun emplacements are located south along Dadi Beach, along with several caves in the cliff face. A Japanese Type C midget submarine is on display in the Lockwood Terrace housing complex, with two Japanese 25mm AA guns nearby.

Fort Santiago
(1721 ? - 1820's, 1898, 1944), Orote Point
A colonial Spanish six-gun fort with a stone magazine and barracks. Also spelled San Iago or Yago in some older sources. The exact date of construction is uncertain. It still had a small garrison in 1898. Stone ruins still exist. The Japanese had an AA battery here in 1944 to protect Orote Field. A Japanese bunker is also nearby. Public access to U.S. Naval Base property is restricted without special permission.


¤ COAST DEFENSES of APRA HARBOR

¤ Orote Point Battery
(1915 - 1920's), Orote Point
An American pre-WWI era gun emplacement (four six-inch naval guns) is located at the western tip of Orote Point beyond old Fort Santiago. Four 3-inch (AMTB and/or AA) guns were also emplaced nearby by 1917. Manned by the Marines during WWI. Japanese WWII AA gun emplacements and a command bunker are also located nearby. Public access restricted.

¤ Cabras Island Battery
(1915 - 1920's), Cabras Island
An American pre-WWI era gun emplacement (two six-inch naval guns) was located at the western end of Cabras Island. Manned by the Marines during WWI. No remains. This battery fired the first shots in anger by the United States in World War One, on April 6, 1917, against the German cruiser Cormorant, which had been interned here since August 1914 seeking shelter against the Japanese Navy. The Germans had prevented the boarding of the ship by the U.S. Navy and blew up the ship to prevent capture. The scuttled ship still remains sunken in the harbor.

¤ Tipalao Bay Battery
(1915 - 1920's), Tipalao
An American pre-WWI era gun emplacement (two six-inch naval guns) was located here on the south side of the Orote Peninsula. Manned by the Marines during WWI. Exact location undetermined.

¤ Mt. Tenjo Redoubt
(War in the Pacific National Historical Park)
(1917 - 1930), near Atantano
An American three-gun 7-inch naval gun emplacement and command post was located here, overlooking the Piti Navy Yard and Apra Harbor. At least two 3-inch AA guns were also here, as well as four 75mm field guns. Manned by the Marines during WWI. The three 7-inch guns were not removed until 1930, the last of Guam's coastal defenses. The concrete bases of the three mounts still remain. The magazines and battery commander's station no longer exist. The ruins of a post-WWII concrete block building is also located nearby. Access is by 1.5 mile hiking trail south from Mount Chachao.

¤ NOTE: A fixed battery of two six-inch naval guns was proposed for Adelup Point in 1915, but it was never built. Additional guns available on Guam in 1917 (not listed above) included one additional 7-inch naval gun, two 8-inch howitzers, two 7-inch tractor-mounted guns, and four 3-inch AMTB/AA guns (locations undetermined). Guam's obsolete coastal defenses were all removed before 1930, per the 1922 Naval Treaty of Washington, but were proposed for replacement in 1938. They never were, and the island remained practically defenseless in 1941.


Mt. Chachao N.P.S. Unit
(War in the Pacific National Historical Park)
(1944), near Atantano
Remnants of Japanese tunnels and a lookout post are here, as well as an American Bomber Command VHF radio station (1945).

Agat N.P.S. Unit
(War in the Pacific National Historical Park)
(1944), Agat
Japanese bunkers, gun emplacements, and pillboxes are located at various beach locations. A Japanese 200mm coast defense gun still exists at Ga'an Point. A Japanese 25mm dual-mount AA gun is also located in the park unit. Bangi Island, south of Ga'an Point, has an extant emplacement built for a 200mm coast defense gun (gun removed). A Japanese tunnel system is at the base of Mt. Alifan behind the town. To the south at Nimitz Beach are several extant concrete mounts for American AA guns (1945). To the north at Apaca Point, just west of the Namo River bridge, was a Japanese fortified position. Camp Agat (1944) was established near Ga'an Point by the Americans for Chamorro refugees after the start of the invasion.

U.S. Naval Magazine
(Naval Ordnance Annex)
(1944 - present), Santa Rita
The U.S. Navy established the ordnance reservation in 1944, encompassing most of the Fena Valley watershed. Many original buildings, structures, and storage yards still exist. The Maanot Water Reservoir was built in 1931. A Japanese 200mm coast defense gun is on display near the Post HQ building. Within the reservation atop Mt. Alifan is the ruins of a postwar American naval communications station, although local legend has it as a Japanese lookout post. No public access.

Batteria Nuestra Señora del Carmen
(1680 - unknown), Umatac
A colonial Spanish five-gun battery located in Umatac village at the mouth of the Salupat River. After 1831 it was referred to as Batteria de Santa Barbara in some reports. No remains.

Fort Santo Angel
(1742 ? - 1810 ?), northern Umatac Bay
A colonial Spanish three-gun stone fort. Rebuilt in 1756. Replaced by Fort San José, but was not dismantled until sometime between 1806 and 1812. Ruins were reported here in 1850. Stone ruins still exist, much overgrown.

Fort San José
(1805 - 1820's), northern Umatac Bay
A colonial Spanish six-gun oval stone fort built to replace Fort Santo Angel. Reported in ruins by 1850. Located on a hill just above and to the north of Fort Santo Angel. Stone ruins still exist.

Fort Soledad (park)
(1803 - 1820's, 1944), southern Umatac Bay
A colonial Spanish seven-gun stone fort located on Chalan Aniti, completed and named in 1810. Fort Nuestra Señora de la Soledad ("Our Lady of Solitude") suffered under American bombardment in 1944. Preserved ruins still exist. The site was used by the Japanese. A gun emplacement is nearby.

Merizo Battery
(1710's ?), Merizo
A colonial Spanish gun battery built to protect a minor ship anchorage. Apparently never formally named, it was involved in a 1724 incident in which it was reinforced with two guns from Umatac. No remains. Exact location undetermined.

Pigua
(1944), Pigua
A Japanese AA gun emplacement is just west of the village, in the hills behind the Merizo Cemetery.

Talona
(1944), Talona
A Japanese gun emplacement or pillbox is on the shore here.

Inarajan
(1944), Inarajan
A Japanese gun emplacement is on the southern shore of the bay entrance.

Talofofo
(1944), Talofofo area
A Japanese gun emplacement is located at Matala Point at the southern entrance to Talofofo Bay, and a gun emplacement is located at Adjoulan Point at the northern entrance to the bay. Another gun emplacement or pillbox is located on the southern shore of the mouth of the Togcha River near Tartuguan Point.

Camp Dealy
(1944 - 1945), Talofofo
A rest and rehabilitation camp for U.S. Navy Pacific Fleet submariners. No remains except guardpost foundation at entrance, and offshore dredged swimming holes at Jones Beach

Camp Witek
(1945 - 1949), Talofofo
A Marine camp. Possibly same as Camp Dealy.

Ylig
(1944), Ylig
A Japanese gun emplacement or pillbox is on the shore south of Ylig Point. A gun emplacement is near the Togcha Cemetery on the south-side of Ylig Point.

Camp Manengon
(1944), near Yona
The Japanese built a concentration camp for 10,000 native Guamanians (Chamorros) in the Manengon River valley west of the village. The guards abandoned the camp just prior to the American invasion.

Yona
(1944), Yona
A Japanese pillbox is located on the north-side of the mouth of the Pago River. A gun emplacement is located south of the river mouth. A lookout post is located on Pago Point.

Camp Asinan
(1944), near Yona
A Chamorro concentration camp on the Pago River north of the village.


NOTE: The Japanese emplaced several varieties of coastal defense guns in various locations, most in early 1944. There were approximately nineteen 200mm guns, eight 140mm guns, twenty-two 127mm guns, six 80mm guns, eight 75mm AA guns, twelve 25mm dual-mount AA guns, and other assorted weapons, although numbers vary in different sources. Japanese troop stragglers were discovered at various locations in 1951, 1960, and 1972.
See also Digital Micronesia - Guam in WWII by Dirk H.R. Spennemann
Pacific Wrecks.com

In addition to the sites listed above, two Japanese 120mm dual-purpose guns are on display at the U.S. Naval Telecommunications Station administrative building near Dededo.

NOTE: Guam was claimed by Spain in 1531, colonized beginning in 1668, ruled as a crown colony by Spain 1736 - 1898, governed by the United States 1898 - 1941, occupied by Japan 1941 - 1944 (renamed Omiya Jima), recaptured by the U.S. 1944 - 1945, and restored to territorial status 1949 - present.

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