Cavite Navy Yard |
Fort Drum |
Fort Frank |
Camp Hay |
Fort Hughes |
Post of Manila
Mariveles Navy Base | Fort McKinley | Fort Mills | Ogonbolo Battery | Olongapo Navy Yard
Pettit Barracks | Fort Santiago | Fort San Antonio de Abad | Fort San Filipi | Fort San Pedro
Saysain Point Battery | Silanguin Fort | Spanish Manila Bay Defenses | Fort Stotsenburg
Other American Posts
MUOG - SPANISH COLONIAL FORTIFICATIONS IN THE PHILIPPINES
¤ HARBOR DEFENSES of
Corregidor: Then and Now by the Corregidor Historic Society
¤ Fort Drum
(1902 - 1945), El Fraile Island
A Spanish two-gun battery (4.7-inch Armstrong QF BLR from the gunboat Lezo) was located here in 1898. It fired the first shots of the Battle of Manila Bay. American fortifications were built between 1909 and 1919. The fort was named in 1909. The tiny island was cut down and covered in a concrete shell. This nearly impregnable fortress resembles a battleship, hence the popular name "Concrete Battleship". Alone the stronghold remained effective until the moment of Corregidor's surrender in 1942. Batteries are Battery Wilson (1918 - 1942, 14-inch two-gun turret), Battery Marshall (1918 - 1942, 14-inch two gun turret), Battery Roberts (1918 - 1942, two 6-inch guns), Battery McCrea (1918 - 1942, two 6-inch guns) mostly destroyed, Battery Exeter (1934 - 1942, two 3-inch AA guns transfered from Fort Mills, replaced in 1941) destroyed, and New Battery Hoyle (1941 - 1942, one 3-inch gun transferred from Fort Frank) base remains. The gun tubes still remain on the first three listed batteries. The gun from Battery Hoyle was removed by the Japanese and emplaced in the Malinta Tunnels on Corregidor. The fortress still lies abandoned as it was since 1945. No effort was made to restore the fortress after the war. Shell damage and magazine explosions from the American recapture in 1945 are still very evident. No general public access to interior.
(website courtesy of Richard Johnsen)
¤ Fort Hughes
(Corregidor Philippine National Shrine)
(1902 - 1946/present), Caballo Island
A Spanish three-gun battery (6-inch Armstrong BLR from the cruiser Velasco) was located here in 1898, behind a stone parapet on the eastern end of the island. It was not in action during the American Navy's attack. American fortifications were built between 1904 and 1919. Fort was named in 1909. Batteries are Battery Woodruff (1914 - 1942, one 14-inch gun), Battery Gillespie (1914 - 1942, one 14-inch gun), Battery Craighill (1919 - 1942, four 12-inch mortars), Battery Leach (1914 - 1942, two 6-inch guns) partially destroyed and built on, Battery Fuger (1914 - 1942, two 3-inch guns) buried, Battery Williams (1942, two 155mm guns on Panama mounts), Battery Idaho (1941 - 1942, four 3-inch AA guns), and Battery Hooker (1942, one 155mm gun on Panama mount). The guns still remain on the first three listed batteries. There were two searchlight stations and 15 fire-control stations located on the island. The fort still lies abandoned as it was since 1945. Battery Fuger's two guns were removed by the Japanese and emplaced in the Malinta Tunnels on Corregidor. Battery Idaho's four AA guns were removed by the Japanese and emplaced at Clark Field on the mainland. Battery Leach was destroyed by American bombardment in 1945. One gun tube still remains. One Japanese 120mm gun remains on the island. The island was handed over to the Philippine government in 1946, and is currently a Philippine Naval Ammunition Depot. Restricted access.
¤ Fort Mills
(Corregidor Philippine National Shrine)
(1902 - 1946), Corregidor Island
Corregidor was nicknamed "The Rock". The island is divided geographicly into "Topside", "Middleside", "Bottonside", and the "Tail". A Spanish bastioned three-gun battery (aka Spanish Fort) (8-inch Armstrong MLR) was once located at Punta Talisay (Battery Point) in 1898. A second battery, Bateria Bocana (one 6-inch gun), was located just west of Malinta Hill on the southern shore. Several field guns were located near the hospital and the wharf. The Spanish garrison was quartered at San Jose on "Bottomside". The Lighthouse was used by the Spanish as a signal station and command post.
Most of the island's American fortifications were built between 1904 and 1919. The fort was named in 1908. Camp Avery (1908) was located on the plateau overlooking "Bottomside" (the "Stockade Level"), near the old Spanish "fort". The camp was used by the Philippine Scouts to guard the convict labor used to build the military structures. The camp's buildings survived until destroyed by the Japanese in 1942. Kindley Field was located on the "Tail". The "Mile-Long Barracks" and the Parade Ground were on "Topside". Additional barracks were on "Middleside". The wharves and docks, and the mining facilities were located on "Bottomside". The civilian community lived at San Jose on "Bottomside". A massive tunnel complex was built into Malinta Hill from 1931 - 1934. The Mine Casemate was located in James Ravine. A casemated Army Radio Station (1933) was located near Battery Geary. A casemated Navy Radio Intercept Station (1936) was located on Monkey Point. Batteries on the island include Battery Hearn (1921 - 1942, one 12-inch gun, still exists), Battery Smith (1921 - 1942, one 12-inch gun, still exists), Battery Way (1910 - 1942, four 12-inch mortars, still exists), Battery Geary (1911 - 1942, four 12-inch mortars) mostly destroyed, Battery Cheney (1910 - 1942, two 12-inch guns, still exists), Battery Wheeler (1910 - 1942, two 12-inch guns, one remains), Battery Crockett (1910 - 1942, two 12-inch guns, still exists), Battery Grubbs (1911 - 1942, two 10-inch guns, still exists), Battery RJ-43 (1941 - 1942, one 8-inch railway gun), Battery Morrison (1910 - 1942, two 6-inch guns, still exists), Battery Ramsey (1911 - 1942, three 6-inch guns, parts exists) partially destroyed, Battery James (1910 - 1942, four 3-inch guns), Battery Keyes (1913 - 1942, two 3-inch guns), Battery Cushing (1919 - 1942, two 3-inch guns) boat access only, Battery Hanna (1919 - 1942, two 3-inch guns), and 155mm batteries Battery Martin (1937, two guns on blocks), Battery Hamilton (South) (1941 - 1942, three guns PM), Battery Kysor (North) (1938 - 1942, two guns PM), Battery Rock Point (1937 - 1942, two guns PM), Battery Sunset (1937 - 1942, four guns PM), Battery Stockade (1941 - 1942, two guns field), Battery Monja (1936 - 1942, two guns casemated), Battery Concepcion (1937 - 1942, three guns PM), Battery Levagood (1941 - 1942, three guns PM), and Battery Ordnance Point (1941 - 1942, four guns PM). Battery Morrison Hill (1921 - 1934, two 3-inch AA) was the only anti-aircraft battery before the war to have guns emplaced. Its guns were transferred to Fort Drum. Eight additional AA batteries were built 1919 - 1921, but were never armed. Three 75mm field guns were casemated on Malinta Hill. Seventeen more were located along the shoreline for beach defense, as well as a number of 37mm guns. There were eight searchlight stations and numerous fire-control stations (about 40) located throughout the island.
In 1941 new mobile four-gun AA batteries were emplaced, including Battery Denver, Battery Chicago, Battery Flint (1942, from Bataan), Battery Boston, Battery Hartford, and Battery Globe (1942, three guns, from Mariveles). Four mobile .50-cal. AA machine gun batteries were named in 1941, including Battery Indiana, Battery Kingston, Battery Lansing, and Battery Mobile. Twelve of the previously emplaced 155mm guns were taken from their mounts in 1941 and were "roving" batteries until the surrender in 1942. They were Battery Byrne (one gun), Battery Dawes (one gun), Battery Ek (one gun), Battery Farris (one gun), Battery Fulmer (two guns), Battery Gulick (two guns), Battery Lehr (one gun), Battery Rose (one gun), and Battery Wright (two guns).
The Japanese reclaimed three 3-inch guns from Fort Drum and Fort Hughes and emplaced them in the searchlight tunnels in Malinta Hill. One 3-inch AA gun from the Corregidor wharf was moved to Clark Field on the mainland. The Japanese, with American POW help, also put back into action Battery Crockett #2 gun, Battery Wheeler #1 gun (in #2 pit), Battery Cheney #2 gun, Battery Hearn (spare), Battery Way (one mortar), Battery Ramsay (all three guns), Battery James #3 gun, and Battery Hanna (one gun). Five Japanese 120mm guns still remain on the island, four of them on display in Peace Park.
¤ Fort Frank
(1902 - 1949), Carabao Island
Built between 1908 and 1919. Named in 1909. Batteries here are Battery Greer (1913 - 1942, one 14-inch gun) partially destroyed, Battery Crofton (1913 - 1942, one 14-inch gun) partially destroyed, Battery Koehler (1913 - 1942, eight 12-inch mortars) partially destroyed, Battery Hoyle (1919 - 1941, two 3-inch guns) gun blocks remain, Battery Ermita (1941 - 1942, four 3-inch AA guns) destroyed, and Battery Frank (North) (1937 - 1942, four 155mm guns on Panama mounts) destroyed. One gun from Battery Hoyle was transferred to Fort Mills in the 1930's, and the second gun was transferred to Fort Drum in 1941. There were also three 75mm field guns emplaced for beach defense in 1941. There were three or four searchlight stations and twelve fire-control stations located on the island. The Japanese may have put Battery Greer back in action. The fort still lies abandoned as it was since 1945. Most of the guns survived the war intact, but all were salvaged for scrap iron in the 1970's. The Philippine government took control of the island in 1946 and occupied it for a short time.
¤ Saysain Point Battery
(1941 - 1942), near Bagac
A prepared emplacement for an American 8-inch railway gun. No remains.
¤ Ogonbolo Battery
(1937 - 1942), Ogonbolo
A four-gun 155mm battery on Panama mounts.
¤ Cavite Navy Yard Defenses
(1940 - 1941), Cavite
Originally established by the Spanish in the 19th century. The American Navy base was established in 1901. Location of the U.S. Marine Barracks, the U.S. Naval Hospital, and the nearby Naval Air Station on Sangley Point. The Marines defended the base with four four-gun 3-inch AA gun batteries which were located at the Canacao Golf Course on Sangley Point (Battery A), at Carridad (Battery B), Binacayan one mile south (Battery C), and at the Naval Ammunition Depot (Battery E). Batteries A, B, and C were each supplemented with five .50-cal. AA machine guns (Battery D). Two additional .50-cal. AA MG were located on the Guadalupe Pier near the Navy Communications building (Battery F). There were probably more AA MG in other positions. The base was bombed out by the Japanese, and only four 3-inch AA guns and nine .50-cal. AA MG were transferred to Mariveles in December 1941. The rest of the surviving Marines were then redeployed to Bataan with the U.S. Army ground forces. (NOTE: Cavite is pronounced CAV-EE'-TEE)
¤ Mariveles Naval Section Base Defenses
(1941 - 1942), Mariveles
Location of the Mariveles Quarantine Station, the Dewey Dry Dock, and a PBY seaplane base. The bay was protected by anti-submarine nets. Marines and Sailors emplaced four 3-inch AA guns, transferred from the Cavite defenses in late December 1941, in an abandoned rice paddy between the Navy base and the town. Nine .50-cal. AA MG were emplaced at the Quarantine Station. Most of the troops withdrew to Corregidor in February 1942. Bataan finally fell to the Japanese in April 1942.
¤ ALSO: There were six additional 155mm guns with the Bataan field forces in 1941 (eight if including two from Fort Wint). One gun was reclaimed by the Japanese at Olongapo.
Two fire-control stations were located on the north-west tip of Limbones Island. Another fire-control station was located at Mariveles, and another at Cochinos Point on Bataan. La Monja Island and Santa Amalia Island were reserved by the military, but were never fortified.
In December 1941 the infant Aircraft Warning Service had early-warning radar stations set up at Burgos (mobile SCR-270, non operational, destroyed by crew after Japanese landed at Lingayen Gulf); Iba (mobile SCR-270, fully operational, destroyed by Japanese air raid in December); Manila (fixed SCR-271 in storage, destroyed on site by Quartermaster Corps); Nasugbo (mobile SCR-270, fully operational, initially on Wawa Beach, then on Tagaytay Ridge, redeployed to Bataan in January 1942, destroyed by crew in April 1942; and a mobile SCR-268, fully operational, redeployed to Bataan in January 1942, destroyed by crew in April 1942); Paracale (fixed SCR-271 in storage, destroyed on site by Corps of Engineers; and a mobile SCR-270, non operational, destroyed by crew on the retreat to Bataan). There was one additional mobile SCR-268 in storage at the Cavite Navy Yard, which was destroyed by Japanese bombs. Ten sites were selected for fixed SCR-271 radar stations, only Bataan, Paracal, and Lubang Island sites were started before war began.
U.S. Navy "contact" minefields were set up between Mariveles Bay and La Monja Island, and between Corregidor and Carabao Islands. U.S. Army "controlled" minefields were set up between Corregidor and La Monja Islands, and between Corregidor Island and the Bataan Peninsula east of Mariveles Bay.
Additional material for the Harbor Defenses of Manila Bay was gathered from "American Defenses of Corregidor and Manila Bay 1898 - 1945" by Terrance McGovern and Mark Berhow, 2003, Osprey Publishing.
(1571 - 1945), Manila
This fort was used as the seat of the colonial government during the Spanish and American periods. It is located in Intramuros, the old walled city. The British occupied the city from 1762 to 1764. American headquarters of the Post of Manila. Elsewhere in the city was Sternberg Army General Hospital. The American 31st Infantry Regiment provided security, and was billeted in the Cuartel de España and the Estado Mayor. One Japanese 120mm gun is on display here.
Fort San Antonio de Abad
(1896 - 1898), Manila
Located to the south of Intramuros. In 1898 Spanish trenches and blockhouses surrounded the city and were protected by barbed wire. Spanish batteries associated with this fort include South Morehead Battery, South Bastion Battery, and Malate Battery south of the city. There were a total of 12 coastal defense guns in these positions.
Fort San Filipi
(unknown dates), Cavite
A Spanish fort protecting the Spanish Navy base at Sangley Point. Not mentioned in 1898 reports.
Other Spanish Harbor Defenses of 1898
(1898), Manila Bay
The Spanish had 20 total coastal defense guns emplaced at Cavite (a walled city) with Sangley Point Battery (two 15cm Ordonez Hontoria BLR) and Canacao Battery (one 12cm Canet BLR); Salinas Tower; Kalibuyo Tower; an unnamed battery on the mainland south of Caballo and El Fraile Islands; Punta Restinga Battery (three 16cm MLR); Limbones Point Battery; Mariveles Battery (aka Sisimán Battery (three 17.3cm Armstrong MLR) at Punta Gorda; and Lasisi Battery (three 16cm MLR) east of Mariveles. The Spanish had attempted to mine the Boca Chica channel; only eight contact mines were laid but all were reported sunk or inoperative by the time the American fleet arrived.
¤¤ HARBOR DEFENSES of SUBIC BAY
¤¤ Fort Wint
(1902 - 1946/1992), Grande Island
Spanish batteries (four 15cm Ordonez Hontoria BLR guns) were originally located around Subic Bay. However, they were not yet completed in 1898 so the Spanish decided to abandon them. American fortifications were built between 1907 and 1910. The fort was named in 1908. Batteries here are Battery Warwick (1910 - 1941, two 10-inch guns) the only battery to survive intact, Battery Woodruff (1910 - 1941, two 6-inch guns) partially destroyed and built on, Battery Hall (1910 - 1941, two 6-inch guns) partially destroyed, Battery Flake (1910 - 1941, four 3-inch guns, two removed in 1930's), Battery Jewell (1910 - 1941, four 3-inch guns, two removed in 1930's), Battery Subic (1941, two 155mm guns on field mounts, transferred to Bataan in 1941), and Battery Cebu (1920 - 1941, four 3-inch AA guns, transferred to Bataan in 1941). There were two searchlight stations and five fire-control stations located on the island. The island fort was abandoned in December 1941, and suffered little damage from the Japanese. Battery Hall was destroyed during American bombing in 1945. Its two guns still remain. The magazines of Battery Woodruff were destroyed after the war. Battery Warwick's two guns, as well as the four remaining 3-inch guns were transferred to the State of Washington (to Forts Casey and Flagler) in the 1960's. The fort was closed and transferred to the Phillipines in 1992.
¤¤ Olongapo Navy Yard Defenses
(1940 - 1941), Olongapo
Originally established by the Spanish in the late 1880's. The American Navy base was established in 1901. Later known as Subic Bay Naval Station. During the opening days of WWII the base was defended by Marines with apparently only thirty-six .30-cal. AA MG as the heaviest weapons. The base was captured by the Japanese in December 1941. The naval base and U.S. Marine Barracks were closed and transferred to the Phillipines in 1992.
(unknown dates), near Subic Bay
A Spanish fort located at Silanguin Point west of Subic Bay.
Fort San Pedro
(unknown dates), Iloilo, Panay Island
A Spanish fort, occupied by American troops after 1898.
Other American Posts
(1898 - 1942), various locations
Other American posts were located throughout the archipelago, mostly in use during the Philippine Insurrection (1900 - 1905), or as a result of. Unless the dates indicate otherwise, all were discontinued before 1920. There may be other posts not listed here.
Camp Santa Mesa (1898 - 1899), located three miles northeast of Manila.
Camp Dewey (1898 - 1899)
Camp Hughes (1898 - 1899)
Camp Wallace, located at Bauang ?
Camp John Hay (1905 - 1941), located at Baguio. Garrisoned by a battalion of Philippine Scouts. Served as the Rest and Recuparation Center for all American officers and their families. The city had offices for both the American Embassy and the Philippine Commonwealth government. The Philippine Military Academy is located nearby.
Camp Gregg (1914 - ?), located at Dagupan ?
Camp (Fort) Stotsenburg / Clark Field (1899 - 1942), located seven miles from Angeles. The Japanese had emplaced a five- or six-gun AA battery here, using reclaimed American 3-inch AA guns from Fort Hughes and Fort Mills.
Fort William McKinley / Nichols Field (? - 1942), located in southeast Manila overlooking Laguna de Bay and the Pasig River. The home station of the American Infantry and Air Corps.
Camp Eldridge, located at Calamba ?
Camp McGrath, located at Lemery ?
Camp Wilhelm, located at Rosario ?
Regan Barracks, located at Lagazpi ?
Camp Bumpass, located at Tacloban.
Warwick Barracks (1908 - ?), located at Cebu City.
Augur Barracks (1904 - ?)
Camp Overton (1909 - ?)
Lake Lanao Post
Ludlow Barracks (1905 - ?)
Pettit Barracks (1905 - 1941), located at Zamboanga City. Two infantry companies of Philippine Scouts.
NOTE: The Philippines were ruled by Spain (1565 - 1898), the U.S. (1898 - 1942), occupied by Japan (1942 - 1945), and governed by the U.S. again (1945 - 1946). It became an independent country in 1946.
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