Fort Anáhuac |
Arkokisa Trade Post (1) |
Post at Arkokisa (2) |
Champ d'Asile |
Camp Austin (2) | Fort Bankhead | Camp Beaumont | Camp Barnard Bee | Camp Bernard
Fort Bernard | Brazos Dam Battery | Camp Buchel (2) | Fort Caney | Camp Cedar Bayou
Camp Cedar Lake | Fort Chambers | Camp Chemical | Post Colorado (1) | Colorado River Station (1)
Fort Crockett (1) | Fort Crockett (2) | Fort Eagle Grove | French's Trade Post | Galveston Barracks
Galveston Post (1) | Post of Galveston (2) | Fort Green | Fort Griffin (2) | Fort Grigsby | Fort Hawkins
Camp Hawley | Fort Hebért | Camp Hulen | Fort Jackson | Fort Las Casas | Fort Magruder
Fort Maison Rouge | Fort Manhassett | Fort Matagorda | Fort Moore (2) | Fort Mud Island | Camp Nellie
Fort Nelson | Presidio del Orcoquisac | Camp Palacios | Fort Point | Camp Port Arthur
Fort Quintana | Camp Riche | Fort Rugely | Fort Sabine (1) | Fort Sabine (2) | Sabine Pass Res.
Presidio de San Agustín | Fort San Bernard | Fort San Jacinto | Fort San Luis Pass | San Luis Pass Res.
Fort Sandcliffe | Fort Scurry | Fort Sidney Sherman | Camp Slaughter (1) | Fort Ashbel Smith
South Battery | Camp Spindletop | Fort Sulakowski | Texas City Encampment | Fort Travis (1)
Fort Travis (2) | Fort Velasco | Fort Virginia Point | Camp Wallace
East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas II - page 3 | North Central Texas - page 4
Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6 | Southern Texas - page 7
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9
TEXAS HISTORIC SITES ATLAS
FORT WIKI - TEXAS
(1862 - 1864), Beaumont
A CSA encampment located on Spindletop Hill near Sulphur Drive and Highland Avenue, near the campus of Lamar University. Also called Camp Spindletop. A major oil discovery was made on Spindletop Hill in 1901.
A two-gun CSA battery was also emplaced on the Neches River three miles downriver from town.
John French's Trading Post
(1845 - 1865), Beaumont
A civilian trading post. The main house remained in the French family until 1940. Owned by the Beaumont Heritage Society, it was restored in the 1970's. Located on French Road.
(1862 - 1863), Port Neches
A CSA two-gun battery built with timber, mud and oyster shell, with a magazine and bombproof, located on Grigsby's Bluff near present-day Port Neches Park. It was built after the capture of Fort Sabine (2) by Union forces. It was abandoned after Fort Manhassett was built.
Fort Sabine (1)
(1836 - 1838), Sabine
A Federal work protecting the newly established border between the United States and Mexico/Texas after a boundary adjustment. Technically this post was on foreign soil at the time.
Fort Griffin (2)
(Sabine Pass Battleground State Historical Park)
(1863 - 1865), Sabine Pass
Originally here was Confederate Fort Sabine (2), located just north of old Fort Sabine (1). It was captured and destroyed by the Union in September 1862. A new CSA six-gun fort was built one mile further north in March 1863. This second fort was not yet finished at the time of the battle naval in September 1863. Forty-six men were garrisoned here who held off 18 Union troop ships and four Union gunboats with only six cannon. The fort was held by the CSA until the end of the war. The actual site of the fort eventually eroded into the ship channel. See also The Battle of Sabine Pass from Handbook of Texas Online.
¤ COAST and TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of SABINE PASS
¤ Sabine Pass Military Reservation
(Texas Point National Wildlife Refuge)
(1898 - 1945), Sabine Pass
Located on Texas Point were three unnamed coastal defense batteries from 1898-1899 (one M1888 8-inch BL gun on modified 15-inch Rodman carriage, two 5-inch guns, and two 7-inch guns) all destroyed or buried; a 1917-1918 two-gun 5-inch gun battery; and a two-gun 155mm battery on Panama mounts from 1942-1944, which replaced a temporary field-positioned 105mm howitzer battery. The two Panama mounts and four concrete ammo magazines from WWII still exist. The WWII ammo magazines are located at the Sabine Pass Battleground State Park.
Eight 37mm AA guns were located in Port Arthur (1942 - 1944), four at the Gulf Oil Company, and four at the Texas Oil Company. Camp Port Arthur (1917 - 1918) was located in Port Arthur.
(some info provided by Bill Gaines of the CDSG)
(1863 - 1865), near Sabine Point
Originally a CSA work consisting of three 60-foot square two-gun redoubts and two flanking lunettes or redans, located about six miles west of the point along the Galveston Road, guarding the land approach to the Pass. Largely unfinished before captured by the Union in September 1863, and named for a Union coal steamer that had sunk off the beach. Re-occupied by the CSA and held to the end of the war.
(1830 - 1832, 1835 - 1836), Anahuac
Ruins remain of a Mexican adobe two-gun fort built to halt American immigration into Texas. The garrison's barracks were located in town, which were also later used as a jail. Attacked by Texan rebels in June 1832, then abandoned the next month. Briefly regarrisoned in 1835 by Mexican customs agents and an armed guard detail before captured by Texan forces under William Travis in June 1835. Later dismantled by settlers for the bricks. The town had earlier become a port-of-entry for American settlers in 1821. Recent excavations have unearthed the 30-by-40-foot foundations. Site is now a municipal park about one mile south of town at Perry's Point on TX 563. See also Handbook of Texas Online.
(1862 - 1865), Anahuac
A CSA two-gun mud battery located between old Fort Anáhuac and the town.
Presidio de San Agustín de Ahumada
(Wallisville Heritage Park)
(1756 - 1771), Wallisville
Built to block French activities in the area and to protect its companion mission, Mission de Nuestra Señora de la Luz del Orcoquisac (1756). Also called Presidio del Orcoquisac because of its location at the Indian village of El Orcoquisac. Originally built on the site of a French trade post built in 1754 by Joseph Blancpain (Arkokisa Trade Post (1)). The Spanish captured Blancpain in 1756 and destroyed his post. The presidio was relocated a few miles east in 1766 after being damaged by a hurricane. The second site was excavated in 1965. Located on the east bank of the Trinity River 13 miles east of Baytown, about five miles upstream from Trinity Bay, near Eminence. See also Handbook of Texas Online.
Post at Arkokisa (2)
(1804 - 1805), Wallisville
A Spanish garrison post was here at the old Orcoquisac village.
(1818), near Liberty
A French armed encampment and planned settlement (aka Camp Asylum) for 150 or so Napoleonic War veterans and refugees led by Baron Henri Lallemand, located on the lower Trinity River near the old Spanish village Atascosito. The French left for New Orleans, LA about six months later after Spanish and American authorities pressured the French exiles to leave the region.
Texas City Encampment
(1913 - 1915), Texas City
An assembly point and training area for the U.S. Army's Second Division, the advance guard of the American Expeditionary Force that was poised for possible intervention in the Mexican Revolution. The division consisted of ten regiments of infantry in three brigades (4th, 5th, and 6th), the 6th Cavalry, the 4th Field Artillery, the 1st Aero Squadron, an engineer battalion, a signal company, an ambulance company, a field hospital, and assorted headquarters and service troops, in total approximately 14,000 men and 3,000 pack animals. A hurricane in August 1915 destroyed the camp and devastated the Galveston - Texas City area. The Army then moved to the San Antonio area to regroup. President Wilson never sent in troops to Mexico until the "Punitive Expedition" of 1916 (save for the U.S. Navy's occupation of Veracruz in April 1914).
(Jack Brooks Park)
(1941 - 1946), Hitchcock
A Coast Artillery anti-aircraft artillery training center. It became a Naval Training Center in 1944. Site now Jack Brooks Park.
Historic Photos from University of North Texas collections.
Located nearby was the Hitchcock Naval Air Station (1943 - 1945) used for blimp patrols.
Fort Las Casas
(1819 - 1822), Port Bolivar
Established on the bay-side of Point Bolivar as a base of operations for Texas liberation troops under Dr. James Long. The post was held by Long's wife and a few men for a short while after Long was captured and later killed on an expedition in 1821.
Mexican earthwork batteries were previously here in 1815 - 1817, built by rebel leader Francisco Xavier Mina and pirate Louis-Michel Aury.
Fort Maison Rouge
(1817 - 1818), Galveston
A two-story blockhouse with earthworks built by Jean Lafitte, located at Fort Point near the present-day St. Mary's Infirmary (1417 Avenue "A"). It was painted red, hence the name. It was destroyed by a hurricane. Lafitte left for the Yucatan in 1820.
Mexican earthwork batteries were previously here in 1815 - 1817.
Fort Travis (1)
(1836 - 1844), Galveston
A Texas Army octagonal earthwork located on the east-end of the island at Fort Point. It was armed with guns taken from the Texas Navy vessel CAYUGA.
Galveston Post (1)
(1836 - 1837, 1846 - 1848), Galveston
Garrison post for the Texas Republic Army and Navy after the Battle of San Jacinto (April 1836), and later used by U.S. Army forces as a supply depot during the Mexican War.
Civil War Defenses of Galveston
(1861 - 1865), Galveston
Several Confederate earthwork forts and batteries were located around the island. These included:
Fort Green (1864 - 1865) (five guns), at Point Bolivar in Port Bolivar,
Fort Jackson (five guns) at Pelican Spit on Pelican Island, partially built by the U.S. Army beginning in 1859. The CSA finished it after the state seceded. The Union recaptured it in 1862.
Fort Crockett (1), near the western end of the present-day seawall, at the site of later Fort Crockett (2),
Fort Point, an eight-gun work at Fort Point, renamed Fort Sulakowski in 1864,
Fort Bankhead, a two-gun sand battery near the quarantine station west of Fort Point,
Fort Hebért (aka Fort Virginia Point) (four guns) on the mainland in Texas City, opposite Galveston Island (renamed Fort Nelson by the Union in 1862),
Fort Magruder, a three-gun sand battery facing the Gulf at the foot of Church Street,
Fort Moore (2) (aka Fort Eagle Grove) (1863 - 1865), a four-gun battery about four miles west of the city proper on Galveston Island, opposite Fort Hebért,
Fort Scurry (built 1863, named 1864) near City Hospital,
South Battery (renamed Fort Sidney Sherman in 1864), a three-gun sod redoubt facing the Gulf at the foot of 21st and 22nd Streets, with two additional guns mounted on rail cars,
Redoubts No. 1, 2, and 3 (three guns each) were located west of the city proper,
Galveston Barracks (1861 - 1870), also known as Post of Galveston (2), was the main cantonment and headquarters of the coastal defense batteries during the war and during Reconstruction.
The city and environs changed hands several times during the Civil War: CSA April 1861 - Sept. 62, USA Sept. 62 - Dec. 62, CSA Jan. 63- May 65, and USA May 65.
A Spanish-American War temporary camp used for the overflow of Army Regular troops coming into town. Located on the beach south of Avenue Q between 23rd and 24th Streets. Another source indicates the town ballpark.
¤¤ HARBOR DEFENSES of GALVESTON
Harbor Defense of Galveston - FORT WIKI
¤¤ Fort Travis (2)
(1898 - 1947), Port Bolivar
Coastal defense batteries located here on Point Bolivar include Battery Kimble (1922 - 1943) guns transferred to Fort Moultrie, SC, Battery Davis (1900/1911 - 1917), Battery 236 (1944) never armed, and Battery Ernst (1900 - 1946). An SCR-296A radar (1943) was also once here. This area has been a county park since 1976. Nearby at Bolivar Beach were once three fire-control towers. The seawall was originally built in 1903, and today incorporates Batteries Davis and Ernst. Another website from CrystalBeach.com
¤¤ Fort San Jacinto
(1895 - 1947), Galveston
Located on Fort Point on Galveston Island, across from Fort Travis. Coastal defense batteries here included Battery Mercer (1898/1911 - 1942) converted to Harbor Entrance Control Post (HECP) (1943 - 1945) and partially buried, Battery Heileman (1899/1911 - 1943) destroyed, Battery 235 (1944 - 1946) partially buried, Battery Hogan (1898/1911 - 1917) mostly destroyed, converted to Navy Radio Compass Station (1925 - 1946) (US Radio Compass Station in 1950), Battery Croghan (1898/1911 - 1946), and Anti Motor Torpedo Boat (AMTB) Battery 4 (1943 - 1946) destroyed. A four-gun 155mm mobile battery with a fire-control tower was once located on the seawall. Two 180-degree Panama mounts were built on the seawall near Battery Mercer in the late 1930's. Also here were an SCR-296A and an SCR-582 radar during WWII. A fire-control tower was also once located at Stewart Beach. Most of the former reservation is currently used for storing fill from the channel dredging projects.
¤¤ Fort Crockett (2)
(NOAA Fisheries Service - Galveston Lab)
(Texas A&M University - Galveston)
(1897 - 1947), Galveston
Headquarters for the Galveston harbor defenses. Coastal defense batteries here included Battery Hoskins (1921 - 1946, casemated in 1943) built over by a modern hotel (The San Luis Resort and Conference Center), Battery Izard (1902 - 1943) destroyed, Battery Hampton (1899/1911 - 1943) destroyed, and Battery Laval (1902 - 1946) partially covered. An SCR-296A radar was also once here in WWII. Eight 37mm AA guns were located here from 1942 - 1944. The former reservation is now owned primarily by the National Marine Fisheries Service (since 1956), and also used by Texas A&M University - Galveston and Galveston Community College (since 1977). A Spanish-American War muster encampment named Camp Hawley (1898) was located on the reservation, east of 53rd Street between Avenues T and U, on what was then called the "Denver Resurvey" or the "gun club grounds". U.S. Marines were stationed at the fort in 1917 to train on the artillery. See also Handbook of Texas Online.
WWII fire-control towers were once located at Galveston Beach West (no remains), two at the Galveston Causeway (no remains), and four on the roof of the American National Insurance Company (ANICO) building (no remains of towers). Eight 37mm AA guns were located in Baytown (1942 - 1944) to protect the San Jacinto Ordnance Works.
(some additional info provided by Bill Gaines of the CDSG)
¤¤ NOTE: All three forts were severely damaged in the 1900 hurricane, and all the batteries then built or under construction were rebuilt by 1906, and the forts regarrisoned in 1911. See also The 1900 Hurricane by the Galveston Daily News. The Galveston seawall was first built in 1906, and later incorporated several of the batteries of Fort Crockett in the 1950's, now called Fort Crockett Seawall Park.
(Thanks to Andy Bennett of the Coast Defense Study Group for providing websites and info.)
Camp Barnard Bee
(1864 - 1865), East Columbia
A CSA encampment located on the Brazos River, just east of West Columbia.
Located nearby was CSA Camp Slaughter (1) (1863), a barracks and hospital post.
Fort San Luis Pass
(1860's), Mud Island
A CSA one-gun earthwork protecting the "backdoor" into Galveston Bay. Also called Fort Mud Island.
(1832, 1836, 1863 - 1865), Surfside Beach, Quintana
Fort Velasco (1832) was located on the north-side of the mouth of the Brazos River, at the old town of Velasco. It was originally a Mexican work to prevent entry of new American colonists and to protect the Mexican customs house built the previous year. It was abandoned after it was attacked by Texan forces under John Austin in June 1832. Rebuilt by Texan forces in 1836. Rebuilt again by Confederate forces in 1863-1864 as a six-gun battery.
Confederate two-gun earthwork Fort Quintana was directly opposite across the river mouth. Further upstream was CSA Brazos Dam Battery, built by slave labor during the Civil War.
¤¤¤ COAST and TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of FREEPORT
¤¤¤ San Luis Pass Military Reservation
(1917 - 1918, 1942 - 1944), Surfside Beach, Quintana
A WWI battery of two 5-inch guns was originally here. In WWII a two-gun 155mm battery with one 180-degree and one 360-degree Panama mount was located here, which had replaced a temporary field-positioned 105mm howitzer battery. Two 50-foot tall fire-control towers were also built, one near the old Surfside Hotel, the other near the Boilers. The 180-degree Panama mount was rebuilt in 1943 as a 360-degree mount. This battery was later replaced with two 6-inch naval guns, which were located in Quintana.
Eight 37mm AA guns were located in Freeport. Two were located at the Dow Chemical Company plant, two at the Freeport Sulphur Company, and four were located on other Federal property. Camp Chemical (1942 - 1944), a base camp for the garrison, was located at Dow Co. Plant A. It was razed after the war.
(some additional info provided by Bill Gaines of the CDSG)
(1862 - 1864), near Rivers End
A CSA four-gun work located on the east bank of the mouth of the San Bernard River. Also called Fort San Bernard, and Camp Bernard. Attacked by Union gunboats in 1864.
(1863 - 1864), Matagorda County ?
A CSA post. Probably located near the Cedar Bayou.
Camp Cedar Bayou
(1863 - 1864), near Cedar Lake
A CSA encampment on Cedar Lake Creek. Also called Camp Buchel (2).
Camp Cedar Lake
(1863 - 1864), Cedar Lake
A CSA post, apparently not the same as above.
(1864 - 1865), near Sargent
A complex of three CSA redoubts and one battery (five guns total) protecting the mouth of Caney Creek, later renamed individually as Fort Ashbel Smith, Fort Hawkins, Fort Rugely, and Fort Sandcliffe.
Camp Austin (2)
(1863), near Matagorda
A temporary CSA "summer fever" post. Located on Lake Austin southeast of Wadsworth.
(1861 - 1865), Matagorda Peninsula
A CSA work protecting the inlet to Matagorda Bay.
Colorado River Station (1)
(1836 - 1837), Bay City
A Texas Army post located at Thomas Cayce's Ferry to protect the Colorado River crossing while Columbia was the temporary Republic capital. Also known as Post Colorado (1). The post was moved upstream to Mercer's Ferry when Houston became the capital.
(1925 - 1965), Palacios
A TX National Guard summer encampment originally known as Camp Palacios until 1930. Federalized in 1940 as a Coast Artillery anti-aircraft training center. The AA firing range was located at Indianola Beach / Wells Point, with the ammo dump located at Olivia. Became a German POW camp in 1944. Reverted to the TX National Guard in 1946, but slowly sold off piece by piece. A portion of the site is now used by the Texas State Marine Education Center, a unit of Texas A&M University. The Army airfield became the Palacios Municipal Airport. Historical Marker | 1940 PHOTOS from Texas Military Forces Museum.
NEED MORE INFO: Beaumont had a Spanish trading post(s) in the early 1800's.
NOTE: The use of the Texas flag for settler forts before 1836 indicates those settlers of American origin, even though Texas did not exist as a seperate nation until 1836.
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
Updates @ NorthAmericanForts.com