Southwestern Texas

Camp Albert | Camp Baker | Camp Barrell Springs | Camp Bierne | Fort Bliss | Camp Burbank
Camp Cass | Castolon Barracks | Castolon Depot | Fort Cibolo | Relay Station at Fort Cibolo
Fort Cienega | Camp Concordia | Fort Davis (1) | Camp on Dias e Ocho Creek
Camp at Eagle Mountain | Camp at Eagle Springs | Fort El Morito | Post of El Paso
Camp at Escondido | Camp at Faver's Ranch | Camp at Franklin | Camp at Frazier's Ranch
Camp Glenn Springs | Fort Hancock | Camp Holland | Fort Holland | Camp Holmes
Camp Independence Spring | Camp La Moras | Camp La Noria | Fort Lajitas | Camp Lancaster
Fort Lancaster | Camp Langtry (1) | Camp Langtry (2) | Fort Leaton | Camp near Limpia Creek
Camp on Live Oak Creek | Camp Marfa | Camp Melbourne | Camp Melvin | Camp Meyers
Fort Meyers | Camp at Meyers Spring | Fort Moritas | Camp near Mountain Peak
Camp at Neville Springs | Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pilar y Gloriosa San José
Camp at Ojo Caliente | Post Opposite El Paso del Norte | Camp at Pecan Springs
Camp at the Pecos Crossing | Camp Pecos River (1) | Camp on the Pecos River (3)
Post Pecos River (2) | Camp Peña Colorado | Camp Perdido | Pine Springs Camp (1)
Camp Pope | Pope's Camp | Camp at Pope's Well | Camp Presidio (2) | Camp near Presidio (1)
Fort Quitman | Camp Rainbow Cliffs | Camp Relief | Camp Rice | Camp on the Rio Grande (2)
Fort D.A. Russell | Camp Santa Elena | Post of San Elizario | Presidio de San Elizario
Camp at Presidio de San Elizario | Camp Santa Helena | El Fortin de San José
Camp at Seven Springs | Camp Shafter (2) | Camp at Smith's Ranch | Camp Stockton
Fort Stockton | Camp Van Camp (2) | Camp Willow Springs

East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3
North Central Texas - page 4 | Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6
Southern Texas - page 7 | West Texas - page 8



Last Update: 28/JULY/2011
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2011 American Forts Network

Camp on the Pecos River (3)
(1878 - 1880), near Langtry
Located at the mouth of the Pecos River.

Camp Langtry (1)
(1885), Langtry
No data.

Camp Langtry (2)
(1914 - 1917), Langtry
A U.S. Army border patrol post.

Camp Meyers
(1873 - 1885, intermittent), near Dryden
An intermittent outpost of Fort Clark (1) for black Seminole Indian scouts, known as the "Black Watch", located in Meyers Canyon near Meyers Spring. Known as Fort Meyers in one 1878 reference. Mainly a tent camp site, it later consisted of fifteen one-room adobe huts. A settlers' stone house (1884) was also built nearby. The scouts patrolled the area to protect the water supply and area settlers from Indian attack. Ruins remain. Site excavated in 2007-2009 by Texas Tech University. Private property, but annual tours can be arranged through the Rock Art Foundation. See also Rock Art Foundation April 2011 Newsletter

Nearby, or the same site, was Camp at Meyers Spring (1880).

Fort Lancaster (State Historical Park)
(1855 - 1861, 1862, 1867 - 1871, intermittent), near Sheffield
A Federal infantry post on Live Oak Creek, it guarded the Pecos River crossing of the San Antonio - El Paso Road. Originally called Camp Lancaster, renamed in 1856. Intermittently used by the Confederates during the Civil War, and briefly re-occupied by the U.S. in 1867, 1868, and 1871. Ruins remain. See also

One mile from the fort was Camp on Live Oak Creek (1854, 1867).

Camp Melvin
(1868 - 1871), near Iraan
A subpost of Fort Lancaster located on the north or east bank of the Pecos River two miles west of present-day TX 349 in Crockett County. Also known as Camp Melbourne and Camp at the Pecos Crossing. The site was later known by many other assorted names. A stage station operated here from 1868 - 1881.

Camp at Escondido
(1878), near Bakersfield
No data.

Camp Van Camp (2)
(1859), near Fort Stockton
Located about 13 miles northeast of Fort Stockton.

Camp at Frazier's Ranch
(1879), near Fort Stockton
No data.

Camp at Pecan Springs
(1878 - 1880), near Fort Stockton
No data.

Fort Stockton
(1859 - 1861, 1867 - 1886), Fort Stockton
A Federal infantry post at Comanche Springs on Comanche Creek, originally named Camp Stockton until 1860. Named after Navy Commodore Robert F. Stockton who captured California for the United States. This was an outpost on the Butterfield Overland Mail Route. It was abandoned in 1861 when the state seceded. The Confederates then briefly occupied it, but they also soon abandoned it. Re-garrisoned in 1867 by Federal cavalry and rebuilt. Some adobe ruins remain, and three old adobe Officers' quarters are now private residences. Officers' Row and a guardhouse remain on Williams Street between Fourth and Fifth Streets. Admission fee. See also Handbook of Texas Online

Capt. John Pope's Camp
(1855 - 1858, 1868), Loving County
A water drilling camp built by the Army Topographical Engineers, protected by a Dragoon company. It was composed of a star-shaped adobe wall surrounding several adobe/stone buildings. Located 300 yards east of the Pecos River at Red Bluff Springs near the New Mexico state border. Also known as Camp at Pope's Well, Camp Pope, and Post Pecos River (2). Re-occupied again in 1868 as Camp Pope.

Big Bend Military Posts
(Big Bend National Park)
(1903 - 1911, 1916 - 1920), Castolon
First located here was Castolon U.S. Army Depot (1903 - 1911) to supply troops for border patrol duty. Camp Santa Helena (also spelled Santa Elena) was established nearby in 1916 by the U.S. Cavalry. A permanent garrison post for the Army's border patrol operations (Castolon Barracks) was built in 1919. The Mexican border crisis settled down by then, and the post was abandoned without ever being actually manned. The barracks were sold off in 1921 for use as a trading store, which still exists. The rest of the post was sold off in 1925. The National Park was developed in 1944. Several other original buildings still remain.

Also located in the Big Bend area were Johnson's Ranch U.S. Army Aircorps Airfield (1929 - 1943), Camp Glenn Springs (1916 - 1920), and Camp La Noria (date ?), northeast of Rio Grande Village.

Camp at Neville Springs
(1885), Big Bend
A semi-permanent outpost with stone barracks. Located 1.25 miles east of the modern campground in Big Bend National Park.

Fort Lajitas
(1915 - 1920), Lajitas
A U.S. Army border patrol post.

El Fortin de San José
(1773 - 1810), near Presidio
A Spanish outpost which was garrisoned by troops from nearby Presidio Del Norte located in Ojinaga, Chihuahua. (see MEXICO page) It may have become the private residence of Mexican settler Juan Bustillos in 1830. Ben Leaton bought the home in 1848 and then enlarged and strengthened it (see below).

Fort Leaton (State Historical Park)
(1848 - 1875), near Presidio
A fortified settlers' 200-foot square adobe home/trading post built by Ben Leaton, located four miles east of town on the Rio Grande. Intermittently used by Federal troops on occasion. Leaton died in 1851, and his family sold the fort to pay off debts. The next owner was killed by Leaton's son in 1875. The post then fell into disuse, but was still occupied until the 1920's. Renovated in the 1930's, and became a state park in 1968.

Camp La Moras
(1854), near Presidio
Located north of Fort Leaton.

Camp near Presidio (1)
(1880 - 1883), Presidio
Possibly at Fort Leaton.

Camp Presidio (2)
(1914 or 1915 - 1920 ?), Presidio
A U.S. Army border patrol post. Located three blocks north of Main Street.

Camp Shafter (2)
(1916 - 1920), Shafter
Built by the Texas National Guard for border patrol. Two adobe buildings still remain, plus ruins of a few others.

Fort Cibolo
(1857 - 1890's ?), near Shafter
A private quadrangular adobe-walled fort with two circular watchtowers, located on Cibolo Creek four miles northwest of town. Also known as El Fortin de Cibolo, it was the headquarters of Milton Faver's ranching empire that covered much of Presidio County. Intermittently used by Federal troops from Fort Davis, known as Relay Station at Fort Cibolo (date ?), and Camp at Faver's Ranch (1879). Faver died in 1889, and his holdings were passed to his wife and son Juan. Reconstructed and restored, it is a rare example of a private fort in the Big Bend region. Faver also had a trading store at nearby Presidio Del Norte (present-day Ojinaga, Chihuahua).

Other establishments of the Faver ranching empire were Fort Cienaga (aka El Fortin de la Cienaga) (1857 - 1890's ?), located at Cienaga Springs six miles east of town, and Fort Moritas (aka Fort El Morito) (1857 - 1865), near Shafter. Both were constructed similar to Fort Cibolo, and both were also intermittently garrisoned by Federal troops. Fort Moritas was attacked and captured by Apache Indians in or shortly after 1865. Fort Cienaga was unsuccessfully attacked in 1871.

Fort D. A. Russell
(1913 - 1946), Marfa
Originally called Camp Albert, then renamed Camp Marfa in 1914, it was a supply post for the U.S. Army border patrol. This was a cavalry camp during the Mexican Revolution, and became a permanent post in 1929, transferring the name from the closed Wyoming post. Briefly deactivated from 1933 to 1935, it reopened with field artillery units and was used during World War II for chemical warfare training and to house German POWs after 1943.

Camp (Cantonment) Peña Colorado
(1879 - 1893), near Marathon
A Federal outpost originally known as Camp Rainbow Cliffs until 1880. Located about four miles southwest of town, it was established to prevent Indian raids into Mexico and to open a wagon road from Fort Davis (1) to Fort Clark (1). It was raided by Apaches in 1881. In 1893 it was abandoned after western Texas was cleared of hostile Indians.

Camp Perdido
(unknown date), Brewster County ?
Located about 40 miles east of Fort Davis (1).

Camp Willow Springs
(1885), near Alpine ?
Located southeast of Fort Davis (1).

Fort Davis (1) (National Historic Site)
(1854 - 1862, 1867 - 1891), Fort Davis
A Federal infantry post, originally located in the box canyon near Limpia Creek, consisting of a shabby collection of pine-slab huts. A Comanche Indian campsite was previously located here, known as "Painted Comanche Camp" or "Painted Camp on the Limpia". Confederates occupied the post from 1861 to 1862, it then remained mostly deserted for five years, except for Indians and Mexican bandits. A new post on the flat plain at the mouth of the canyon was established in 1867, and completed in 1880, first with stone buildings, then adobe, about 50 buildings total. It was home to the Buffalo Soldiers until 1885. The restored barracks serves as the museum and visitor center. Of interest in town is the Fort Davis Historical Society Museum. See also Handbook of Texas Online
Fort Davis and the Trans-Pecos Trails from

Army camps located in the general vicinity of Fort Davis included Camp Relief (1855), Camp near Mountain Peak (1856), and Camp at Seven Springs (1878 - 1879) (undetermined locations).

Camp near Limpia Creek
(1853, 1855), near Fort Davis
Located about 15 miles north of Fort Davis (1). Also known as Camp Burbank in 1855.

Camp Barrell Springs
(1860), near Toyahvale
Located northeast of Fort Davis (1) near the Barrilla Mountains.

Fort Holland
(1914 - 1918), near Valentine
Located six miles west of town. Built in response to Pancho Villa's raids into Texas. Several buildings still remain. Private property.

Located about six miles west of the fort was the border patrol post Camp on Dias e Ocho Creek (1914 - 1918). There are remains of this post, accessible only with 4x4 vehicles. Private property.

Pine Springs Camp (1)
(Guadalupe Mountains National Park)
(1878), near Pine Springs
A subpost of Fort Davis (1). Located between the upper and lower Pine Springs, near the stone ruins of the 1858 Pinery Butterfield stage station, and near the present-day Guadalupe Mountains National Park visitor center. Site first mapped in 1970, excavated in 2004. See also Buffalo Soldiers, the Apache Wars, and Archaeology from

Camp Holland
(1918 - 1922), Viejo Pass
A U.S. Army border patrol post located on the J.R. Holland Ranch, 12 miles west of town.

Camp at Eagle Mountain
(1880), near Allamoor
No data.

Camp at Eagle Springs
(1854, 1879 - 1880), near Sierra Blanca
Located south of town. Also known as Camp Cass in 1854.

Camp on the Rio Grande (2)
(1880), near Esperanza
Located below Fort Quitman.

Camp at Ojo Caliente
(1880), near Esperanza
Located on the Rio Grande below Fort Quitman.

Fort Quitman
(1858 - 1863, 1868 - 1877, 1881 - 1882), near Esperanza
A Federal infantry post protecting the stage line. Taken over by the Confederates in 1861, and briefly occupied by Union troops from California in 1862 - 1863. Regarrisoned in 1868. Regarrisoned again during Apache troubles. A replica of the fort was once located near McNary. Only the post cemetery remains today. See also

Fort Hancock
(1881 - 1895), Fort Hancock
A Federal cavalry post, initially a subpost of Fort Davis (1), originally named Camp Rice until 1886, that replaced Fort Quitman. In 1882 it moved from its original location (six miles northwest of Fort Quitman) to the Southern Pacific Railroad. Six weeks later it moved again to its present location on higher ground. It became an independent post in 1884.

Presidio de San Elizario
(1773 - 1846, 1847, 1849 - 1851, 1861 - 1862), San Elizario
Formally called Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pilar y Gloriosa San José. Moved to its present site in 1789. An adobe-walled compound, originally located on the south bank of the river, the Rio Grande shifted to the south in 1841 (?), thus creating an "island" where the settlements were located. The presidio remained garrisoned by Mexican troops up until the Mexican-American War. American troops briefly established Camp at Presidio de San Elizario in 1847. The U.S. Army formally established Post of San Elizario here in 1849. Occupied by Confederates in 1861, and by California Union troops in 1862. The chapel is still in use today.

Fort Bliss (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1849 - present), El Paso
Originally called Post of El Paso, or Post Opposite El Paso del Norte, built to protect settlers from Indians and to assert authority over newly acquired Mexican lands. Also known as Camp at Franklin or Camp at Smith's Ranch. The original location was on Coon's (later Smith's) Ranch in Franklin, the site of the present-day Civic Center. Vacated in 1851 for Fort Fillmore, NM, but regarrisoned in 1853 on a new site in Magoffinsville, and renamed in 1854. The Confederates occupied the vacated fort from 1861 to 1862 to carry out their New Mexico-Arizona campaign. California Union troops drove the Confederates out in 1862, but not before the fort was burned and the military stores looted. The fort was not re-garrisoned again until 1865. Camp Concordia was established in 1868 three miles east on the Stephenson Ranch, near Concordia Cemetery, when the old fort was encroached upon by the Rio Grande floodwaters in 1867 and abandoned. In 1869 the new camp was renamed Fort Bliss. Briefly abandoned in 1877. In 1878 the post was moved back towards the river, using rented quarters at the public square (Jacinto Plaza) until yet another site was selected on a bluff overlooking the river on the west side of town (Hart's Mill). The Rio Grande and El Paso Railroad was granted a right-of-way across the parade ground in the 1880's, so a final move occurred in 1893 to its present location on La Noria Mesa. Biggs Army Air Field was built in 1919, formally named in 1925, and is the third longest runway in the United States. The post became an anti-aircraft artillery training center in 1940. Became the headquarters of the Army's Air Defense Command in 1946. The Air Defense Artillery Museum and the Museum of the Non-Commissioned Officer are located on post. A replica of the original adobe fort (four adobe buildings) is located at the Old Fort Bliss Museum, also on post. A stone monument to the original post is located near the 1853 site at Magoffin Ave. and Willow Street. The original name of the settlement in 1848 was Franklin, and in 1853 it was renamed Magoffinsville.

Other camps associated with Fort Bliss were Camp Owen Bierne (1916 - 1919), a border patrol post located eight miles east of town on the current military reservation, and Camp Newton Baker (1916 - 1920), located three miles northeast of town, which served as a mobilization center for border patrols, and as an Army Signal Corps training camp (1917).

The old Spanish Presidio of El Paso del Norte (1683 - 1773) was located across the river in El Paso del Norte, now present-day Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (renamed in 1888), which protected the Guadalupe Mission. (see MEXICO page) Other Spanish missions in the area include Nuestra Señora del Carmen (1681), renamed Corpus Christi de la Ysleta in 1690, located on the 100 block of Old Pueblo Road, which was once on the Mexican side of the river before the river changed course; and Nuestra Señora de la Concepción del Socorro (1682) in Socorro, originally located 12 leagues from Guadalupe and 7.5 leagues from Ysleta, but moved to one league from Ysleta after an Indian revolt in 1683, and was also once on the Mexican side of the river. The Chamizal National Memorial (Mexico's El Chamizal National Park) denotes the 1964 border adjustment made by President Lyndon Johnson. This parcel of land was originally part of Mexico after the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, but the river changed its course in 1864, leaving this section on the American side of the river. It was claimed but never formally annexed by the United States. This is the only piece of territory ever given back to Mexico after the Mexican-American War.

Camp Holmes
(1856), El Paso
Located on the Rio Grande about 12 miles upstream from old Magoffinsville. The Rio Grande no longer flows within its original channel through this area due to past flooding.

NEED MORE INFO: Undetermined locations: Camp Pecos River (1) (1849, 1854); Camp Independence Spring (1856) possibly located on Independence Creek in Pecos County (?).

East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3
North Central Texas - page 4 | Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6
Southern Texas - page 7 | West Texas - page 8

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