American Forts: West

TEXAS

Camp Ball | Fort Bend | Camp Berlin | Post Bernard | Fort Boggy | Box's Fort | Camp Brazos
Camp Brenham | R. Brown's Fort | Camp Buchel (1) | Fort Burleson | Post of the Caddos
Poste des Cadodaquious | Camp Carter | Camp Chambers (2) | Clapp's Blockhouse
Camp Clear Creek | Camp Clever | Post Colorado (2) | Colorado Station (2) | J. Cook's Fort
Fort Crawford | Camp Crump | Fort Le Dout | Dunn's Fort | Fort Duty | Erwin's Fort
Camp Felder | Camp Ford | Fort François | Camp Freeman | French Fort | Camp Groce
Fort Harvey | Camp Hebért | Fort Henderson | Fort Houston (1) | Houston Post (3)
Fort Howard | Jefferson Quartermaster Depot | Fort Kickapoo | Lacy's Fort | Fort Lamar
Camp Lauderdale | Camp Liendo | Camp Logan | Camp Lubbock | Fort Marlin
Marshall Ordnance Works | Fort Milam (1) | Fort Milam (2) | Camp Millican | Fort Mud
Fort Nacogdoches | Fort Nashville | Old Stone Fort (1) | Fort Oldham | Fort Parker
Parker's Fort | Camp Randle | Camp Rusk (2) | Fort St. Louis de Carlorette
Fort San Luiz de Cadodachos | Fort Saline | Fort Sarahville de Viesca | Fort Scott (1)
Fort Sherman | Fort Skerrett | Spanish Bluff Fort | Camp Stroud | Fort Sullivan
Fort Tenoxtitlán | Fort Terán | Presidio of Texas | Fort Turan | Tyler Ordnance Works
Camp Van Dorn | Fort Viesca | Presidio de la Virgen de los Dolores de los Tejas
Walker's Fort | Camp Waul | Post West Bernard Station | Camp Wharton
Fort Wheelock | Woodward's Spring Camp

Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3 | North Central Texas - page 4
Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6 | Southern Texas - page 7
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9

TEXAS HISTORIC SITES ATLAS
LEN KUBIAK'S TEXAS HISTORY

FORT WIKI - TEXAS

Last Update: 12/OCTOBER/2014
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2014 American Forts Network

Post of the Caddos
(1719 - 1767 ?, 1770 - 1773 ?), near Barkman
A French stockaded trading post built by Jean Baptiste Bénard de La Harpe at a Caddo (Nasoni) Indian village somewhere on the south bank of the Red River below Spanish Bluff (about six miles northeast of New Boston). Exact location undetermined. One source speculates possibly at Roseborough Lake, northeast of town, south of Ashdown, Arkansas. Also referred to as Poste des Cadodaquious, after the French pronunciation of "Kadohadacho", the Caddo Indian name for this area. The French maintained control here until after the Louisiana cession to Spain. The Spanish attempted to re-establish the post in 1770 as Fort San Luiz de los Cadodachos. The name Fort St. Louis de Carlorette is an American misnomer.

Fort Mud
(1863), near Clarksville
A CSA river fort. Undetermined location.

Fort Sherman
(Lake Bob Sandlin State Park)
(1838 - 1841 ?), Titus County
A Texas Ranger post located along the Cherokee Trail on Cypress Creek southwest of Mount Pleasant. No remains. The Miller Cemetery (aka Fort Sherman Cemetery) is located on or near the site, within the state park.

Camp Crump
(1862), Jefferson
A CSA cavalry encampment.

Jefferson CSA Quartermaster Depot
(1862 - 1865), Jefferson
A major CSA Quartermaster Supply Depot for northeast Texas. Marker located on 200 block of West Austin.

Marshall CSA Ordnance Works
(1863 - 1865), Marshall
A Confederate ordnance facility built in August 1863 after the loss of Confederate control of central Arkansas. Equipment from the arsenal in Arkadelphia, AR was sent here. A powder mill was in full operation by the summer of 1864. The arsenal (mostly for small arms repair) was completed before May 1865, but was abandoned to Federal forces as they occupied the town, and was soon dismantled. Site was excavated in the late 1970's before highway construction destroyed the site. Marker located on FM 390 one mile west of US 59. From 1863, the town was also the headquarters of the CSA Trans-Mississippi Department Medical Bureau and Postal Service, plus the location of two military hospitals and a commissary.
(thanks to Randy Gilbert for providing additional info)

Fort Crawford
(1839 - 1869), Hallsville
A Texas Ranger post.

French Fort
(18th century), Wood County
An unnamed French fort or fortified trade post was supposedly located on the Sabine River or on Lake Fork Creek. The site is labeled "Le Dout" on an early map. The Woldert Archaeological Site, located on Lake Fork Creek about five miles above the Sabine River, was excavated in 1989 and may be the fort site.

Camp Ford
(1862 - 1865), Tyler
Originally established as the CSA Eastern Camp of Instruction for the State of Texas in April 1862. A POW camp, the largest west of the Mississippi River, was built adjacent to the training camp in August 1863, stockaded in November 1863, and expanded in April 1864 before an influx of thousands of additional prisoners. Over 5000 POWs were held here in the summer of 1864. A marker is on US 271 two miles northeast of town. Now a county park managed by the Smith County Historical Society. See also TexasBeyondHistory.net || CensusDiggins.com

Tyler CSA Ordnance Works
(1863 - 1865), Tyler
Originally established in 1862 as the private firm of Short, Biscoe and Company, it contracted with the Texas Military Board for 500 Mississippi Rifles. The firm had erected buildings and obtained equipment but never went into production primarily due to the inability to obtain sufficient labor. The company was purchased by the C.S. Ordnance Bureau in August 1863, who then began operations in October 1863 as the Tyler Ordnance Works. The workers from the Little Rock Arsenal were transferred here. Under the command of Lt. Col Gabriel Hill, the facility operated reasonably efficiently until it was closed and abandoned in May 1865. During its operations, it produced, among other things, 2,652,601 small arms cartridges, 2,223 long arms, and 12,000 sets of accoutrements. The facility had 17 structures at the main complex, plus two leased buildings on the town square that were used for the office and cartridge laboratory. At the main facility, located at present-day South Robertson and Mockingbird Lane, among other structures was a large 100 x 30 foot two-story brick main building, a two-story “T” shaped frame barracks, and a 20 x 30 foot brick magazine enclosed within a brick wall. At the end of the war, Hill had the foundations built and brick made for an even larger manufacturing building. Nothing remains of the facility. The two buildings on the square were razed in 1978-79. Historical markers are located at 515 Mockingbird Lane, South College Ave. and West 4th Streets, and 106 East Ferguson. Exhibits are on display at the Smith County Historical Society Museum.
(thanks to Randy Gilbert for providing info)

Fort Lamar
(1839 - 1840), near Flint
A Texas Army post built during the 1839 East Texas Cherokee War. It was a stockade around the homestead of Elisha DeBard, located five miles southwest of town on the Neches River in southwest Smith County. Renamed Fort Scott (1) in the spring of 1840, then renamed Fort Skerrett one month later.

Fort Saline (?)
(1839 ?), Henderson County
A Texas Army or Ranger post located on the west bank of the Neches River, opposite Fort Lamar.

Fort Kickapoo ? ?
(1830's), near Cuney ?
Probably the Kickapoo Indian village that was attacked by the Texas Rangers in October 1838, located on Kickapoo Creek.

Mission de Señora de los Dolores de los Ais
(1716 - 1719, 1721 - 1773), San Augustine
A Spanish mission popularly known as the Dolores Mission. Abandoned in 1719 due to a French invasion from Louisiana, it was later restored and became the headquarters of all East Texas missions. The Spanish later abandoned all missions in East Texas in 1773 for San Antonio. Site preserved in a city park located four blocks south of the courthouse, at 701 South Broadway, with a visitor center and library. See also Texas Beyond History
* This entry is listed only for historical interest. *

Presidio of Texas
(1716 - 1719, 1721 - 1729), Nacogdoches
A short-lived Spanish presidio. Its official name was Presidio de la Virgen de los Dolores de los Tejas. It was originally located on the Neches River near Mission Tejas (see below) and protected four missions in the area. Briefly abandoned, but re-established east of the Angelina River to protect seven missions in the area. It was abandoned for Presidio Los Adays in present-day Louisiana.

Old Stone Fort (1) ?
(1789 - 1836, 1861 - 1865), Nacogdoches
A 1936 reconstruction of a Spanish trading post/tavern and jail located on the campus of Stephen F. Austin State University. Originally built by Don Antonio Gil Y'Barbo, the structure was used as the headquarters for four different attempts to establish the Republic of Texas (the 1813 Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition, the 1819 James Long's Republic, the 1826 Fredonian Rebellion, and the 1832 Battle of Nacogdoches). Mexican troops were posted here in 1826 after the failed Fredonian Rebellion. Texas Army troops occupied the fort in 1836. Also known as Fort Nacogdoches, Texas CSA troops occupied the old fort during the Civil War. Federal troops may have used it for barracks during the occupation of the town during Reconstruction (1867 - 1870). The old fort was torn down in 1902. The original site was at the corner of Fredonia and Main Streets. See also Handbook of Texas Online

Camp Freeman
(1819), Nacogdoches
The main encampment of the 300 or so followers of Dr. James Long during his attempt to create an independent Texas, where they established a provisional government. See also The Long Expedition from Handbook of Texas Online

Fort Terán
(1831 - 1834), near Rockland
Established to prevent illegal entry of American settlers into Mexican territory. Located three miles west of town on the south bank of the Neches River, one-half mile below Shawnee Creek. Mostly abandoned after the Battle of Nacogdoches in 1832, a few soldiers remained until 1834. After American settlement began, it was known as Fort Turan. A 1936 monument marks the actual site (requires 4x4 vehicle access).

Martin Lacy's Fort
(1838 - 1842), Alto
A stockaded civilian trading post built by a former Indian agent for the Mexican government. Located two miles southwest of town. Texas Army troops were posted here in 1838 - 1839. Monument (1936) at site.

Roland Box's Fort
(1838 ?), near Alto
A settlers' stockaded log cabin located nine miles west of town along TX 294.

Joseph Cook's Fort
(1839 - 1846 ?), near Rusk
A settlers' fort built for protection from Indians, but never attacked. Texas Rangers were posted here in 1838 - 1839. Site located three miles southeast of town. Monument (1936) at site.

Camp Rusk (2)
(1861 - 1865), Rusk
A CSA training camp located just south of town.

Mission de San Francisco de los Tejas
(Mission Tejas State Historic Park)
(1690 - 1693, 1716 - 1731), near Weches
The first Spanish mission in East Texas, built to thwart French settlement in the region. The French threat disappeared, but the mission was never prosperous. Moved to San Antonio in 1731. A 1934 C.C.C. reconstruction of the log chapel is located in the park. Maintained by the Texas Forest Service from 1934 - 1957 when it became a state park. Admission fee.
* This entry is listed only for historical interest. *

Fort Duty
(1838 ?), near Palestine
A Texas Ranger post, located about three (?) miles east of town on Stills Creek, east of Snake Creek.

Fort Houston (1)
(1836 - 1841), near Palestine
A Texas Army stockaded blockhouse for protection from Indians, built just after the Battle of San Jacinto (April 1836). The site is now part of a historic home (1857) that has taken the fort's name (John H. Reagan's "Fort Houston" estate). Located two miles west of town at the old Houston townsite. Monument (1936) at site. State marker also at the nearby Fort Houston Cemetery.

Reuben Brown's Fort
(1834 - unknown), near Grapeland
A settlers' fortified home on San Pedro Creek, at or near the old townsite of Refuge, east of town.

Capt. Elisha Clapp's Blockhouse
(1836 - 1841 ?), Houston County
A settlers' blockhouse located at "Mustang Prairie" (undetermined location), strengthened by the Texas Rangers in 1836. Clapp and his family moved to another nearby settlement (Alabama, ten miles SW of Crockett on Trinity River) in 1841. A marker for the Clapp Cemetery is located ten miles north of Crockett.

John Parker's Fort
(1834 - 1836), near Groesbeck
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse. Attacked by the Comanche in May 1836 with several settlers taken captive, including Cynthia Ann Parker, who later became the mother of noted Comanche leader Quannah Parker. Reconstructed in 1936, and again in 1967, located three miles north of town, two miles south of the Navasota River. The historic site, once operated by the state, is now operated by the city since 1992. This is NOT located at Fort Parker State Park. See also Handbook of Texas Online

Camp Chambers (2)
(1840 - 1841), near Marlin
A temporary Texas Army encampment on the east side of the Brazos River just west of town, two miles north of present-day TX 7.

Fort Milam (1)
(1834 - 1837 ?), near Marlin
A Texas Ranger post located near the Falls of the Brazos River, four miles southwest of town on the west bank of the river. Originally called Fort Sarahville de Viesca, or Fort Viesca, after the settlement (Robertson's Colony). The fort was renamed in December 1835. Monument (1936) at site.

Located on the east bank of the Brazos River at the falls was the temporary Texas Ranger post Fort Burleson (1839 - 1840), originally known as Fort Milam (2).

Fort Marlin
(1835 - unknown), Marlin
A settlers' fort located about four miles east of the falls and two miles south of town.

Camp Stroud
(1841), near Marlin
A Texas Ranger camp located near Fort Marlin.

Camp Brazos
(1839), Falls County
A Texas Ranger camp located somewhere on the east bank of the Brazos River.

Fort Boggy (State Park)
(1840 - 1841), near Leona
A local militia (Boggy and Trinity Rangers) stockade enclosing several cabins and two two-story blockhouses, built to protect area settlers against Indians, located on the north bank of Boggy Creek, two and one-half miles north of town. Originally known as Erwin's Fort on whose land (John and James Erwin) the fort was built. Monument erected 1936. Became a state park in 1985.

Spanish Bluff Fort
(1805 - 1813), Antioch
The Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition captured the Spanish fort in 1812, but the Spanish recaptured and destroyed it and the town the following year. Located on the Trinity River near Midway.

Fort Henderson
(1837), Robertson or Leon Counties
A Texas Ranger post located on the Navasota River. Abandoned due to supply problems.

Fort Wheelock
(1835 - unknown), Wheelock
A settlers' fort located on the Old San Antonio Road, north of Dunn's Fort. The town was named in 1837.

James Dunn's Fort
(1834 - unknown), near Benchley
A settlers' fort located on the north side of the Old San Antonio Road, south of Wheelock, near "Staggers Point". It was later used as a land office and courthouse.

Fort Sullivan
(1835), Port Sullivan
A fortified trading post built by Augustus Sullivan, located one and one-half miles east of town on the Brazos River, just above the mouth of the Little River.

Fort Nashville
(1835 - unknown), near Port Sullivan
A settlers' fort located on the west bank of the Brazos River about two miles below the mouth of the Little River, at the old Nashville townsite. It was part of the Robertson's Colony settlement.

Fort Tenoxtitlán
(1830 - 1832), near Cooks Point
Built by Mexico on the Brazos River at the crossing of the San Antonio - Nacogdoches Road, to thwart American settlement and trade. Abandoned by Mexican troops in 1832, but the settlers continued to use it intermittently until 1860. The fort no longer exists. Monument (1936) erected at site. A second monument was erected in 1970 five miles east of Caldwell. The history is at the Burleson County Historical Museum in Caldwell. See also Handbook of Texas Online

Fort Oldham
(1836 - 1842), near Cooks Point
A settlers' fort built for protection from Indians. Located on the land of Major William Oldham, about four miles east of town.

Camp Millican
(1861), Millican
A CSA recruiting camp. A marker is located near the town post office on TX 159.

Walker's Fort
(1879 ?), near Washington
Located on the Brazos River at the "La Bahia Road" crossing, below the mouth of the Navasota River.

Camp Lauderdale ?
(1861), near Somerville (?)
No data.

Camp Waul
(1862), near Brenham
A CSA training camp located seven miles north of town on "Old Gay Hill" near New Year's Creek.

Camp Brenham
(1860's), near Brenham
A CSA encampment located three miles southeast of town.

Nearby, or the same site, was Camp Randle and Woodward's Spring Camp.

Camp Berlin
(1861), near Brenham
A CSA training camp for local German settlers. Site located about ten miles from town.

Camp Felder
(1864), near Chappell Hill
A temporary CSA POW camp set up along the Brazos River to avoid a fever epidemic at Camp Groce.

Camp Liendo
(1862 - 1865), near Hempstead
A CSA POW camp located on the Liendo Plantation on the east side of Clear Creek, also known as Camp Groce, on property owned by Col. Leonard Groce. Occupied by the Union in 1865 after the war had already ended.

Camp Hebért
(1861 - unknown), Hempstead
A CSA staging camp located along the railroad east of Clear Creek, near Camp Groce.

Also located somewhere in the vicinity were CSA Camp Carter, Camp Clever, and Camp Clear Creek. The town was used as a supply depot by the Texas Confederates.

Camp Van Dorn
(1861), Houston
A CSA training camp located on Buffalo Bayou at old Harrisburg.

Camp Lubbock
(1861 - 1865), Houston
A CSA encampment originally called Houston Post (3). Central headquarters for all Confederate forces in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Located near Buffalo Bayou at old Harrisburg.

Camp Tom Ball
(1898), Houston Heights
A Spanish-American War muster camp for the Texas Volunteer Infantry. Located east of Heights Blvd..

Camp Logan
(1917 - 1919), Houston
An existing state guard encampment Federalized as a National Guard mobilization center and training camp for the 33rd Division. Later became a demobilization center and hospital after the war. Scene of the "Camp Logan Riot" of 1917 (troubles between Black troops and the local police, with 20 dead). Site mostly now Memorial Park, and a residential area bounded by Washington Ave., Arnot, Haskett, and Durham Streets.

Fort Bend
(1822 - 1838), Richmond
A settlers' two-room log cabin built at the "Bend of the Brazos" by William Little and others from Stephen Austin's original group of 300 settlers. Occasionally used by Texan troops in transit. A replica log blockhouse is at Decker Park. Monument (1936) at site. The town was once known as Fort Settlement.

Post Bernard
(1838), East Bernard (?)
A Texas Army post on the San Bernard River. This was apparently a separate post from West Bernard Station.
(NOTE: the town of East Bernard was originally located on the east bank of the San Bernard River.)

Post West Bernard Station
(1837 - 1839), near Hungerford
A Texas Army ordnance depot on West Bernard Creek. Site excavated in 1982.

Colorado Station (2)
(1837 - 1838), near Egypt
A Texas Army post located at Mercer's Ferry to protect the Colorado River crossing while Houston was the temporary Republic capital. Also known as Post Colorado (2).

Camp Wharton
(1862), Wharton
A CSA encampment. Also called Camp Buchel (1).


NEED MORE INFO: Undetermined locations: Fort François (date ?); Fort Harvey (date ?); Fort Howard (date ?).
Towns:

NOTE: The use of the Texas flag for settler forts before 1836 indicates those settlers of Anglo-American origin, even though Texas did not exist as a separate nation until 1836.

Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3 | North Central Texas - page 4
Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6 | Southern Texas - page 7
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9

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