American Forts: West


Fort Alden | Fort Alder | Alexander's Blockhouse | American Camp | Anderson Island Post
Camp Angeles | Bahokus Peak Radar Station | Belle Vue Farm | Fort Bellingham
Black River Blockhouse | Blyn Radar Station | Bradley Blockhouse | Cape Flattery Res.
Cape George Res. | Camp Casey | Fort Casey | Chambers' Blockhouse | Fort Collins
Connell's Prairie Blockhouse | Cook's Blockhouse | J. Crockett's Blockhouse
W. Crockett's Blockhouse (a) | W. Crockett's Blockhouse (b) | J. Davis' Blockhouse
Fort Decatur | Fort Dent | Fort Discovery | Fort Duwamish | Fort Eaton
J. Ebey's Blockhouse | Fort Ebey (1) | Fort Ebey (2) | English Camp | Camp Ephraim
Camp Ferry | Fort Flagler | Friday Harbor Radar Station | Camp Green | Camp Hayden (1)
Fort Hayden (2) | Fort Hays | Fort Henderson | Fort Hicks | Fort Kitsap
Fort Lander | Camp Lawton | Fort Lawton | Camp Lewis | Fort Lewis | Fort at Lone Tree Point
Fort McAllister | Fort Malikoff | Fort Maloney | Fort Mason (2) | Middle Point Res.
Fort Miller | Camp Moore | Camp Muckleshoot Prairie | Camp Murray
Neah Bay Radar Station | Fort Nesqually | Fort Nisqually | Nisqually House | Fort Nugent
Nuñez Gaona | Olympia Blockhouse | Camp Osoyees | Fort Patterson | Camp Pickett
Fort Pike | Point Wilson Res. | Fort Posey | Fort Preston | Post on Puget Sound
Fort Puyallup | Fort Raglan | Camp Reynolds | Roberts' Redoubt
Camp Rogers | Fort Rupert | Fort Sales | Camp San Juan Island | Post of San Juan Island
Seattle Blockhouse | Fort Skookum | Fort Slaughter | Fort Smalley | Camp Stanley
Camp Steele | Fort Steilacoom | Fort Stevens | Striped Peak Res. | Fort Thomas | Fort Tilton
Fort Townsend | Fort Ward | Fort White | Fort Wilson | Fort Worden

Seattle's Cold War AAA Defenses

Eastern and Southern Washington - page 2


Last Update: 20/MAY/2016
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2016 American Forts Network

Nuñez Gaona
(1791 - 1792), Neah Bay
A fortified Spanish settlement that lasted only five months. This was the first white settlement in the state. Site located just north of the main part of town.


¤ Fort Hayden (2) (Cape Flattery Military Reservation)
(Makah Indian Reservation)
(1941 - 1943, 1950 - 1952), Cape Flattery, near Neah Bay
Batteries planned here were Battery 132, Battery 133, Battery 250 on Kaitlah Point, and Battery 251. Land was cleared and graded for each site, but the project was canceled early and very little was actually built. The HDCP/HECP is near the Battery 251 site. A trail leads to the Battery 132 site, where a modern U.S. Coast Guard radar is currently located.

Nine sites were established for fire-control and searchlights east and south of the cape (at Knob, Lower Agency, Upper Agency, Waadah Island, Wat, North Portage Head, South Portage Head, Point of Arches, and Duk). One or two completed fire-control stations may still exist within the Makah Indian Reservation land.

The Army Signal Corps operated an early warning air defense radar at the Neah Bay Radar Station (1942 - 1945), also known as Station J-55 (SCR-516 radar), one of 65 stations on the Pacific Coast. In 1950 the Air Force operated AN/TPS-1B and AN/TPS-10A radars at Neah Bay, replaced by AN/CPS-4 and AN/CPS-5 radars in 1951. This was LASHUP Site L-34. The Neah Bay station was replaced by the Bahokus Peak Radar Station (Makah AFS) in 1952, which is still in use today by the Air Force and the FAA. There may have been an Army radar station at Bahokus Peak before 1944, or possibly it was an alternate name for the Neah Bay station.


¤¤ Camp Hayden (1) (Striped Peak Military Reservation)
(Salt Creek Recreation Area)
(1941 - 1948), Crescent Beach PHOTO GALLERY
Located here are Battery 131 (proposed name Battery Whistler) (1944 - 1948), and Battery 249 (proposed name Battery Peace) (1945 - 1948). A concrete fire-control station is located nearby on Tongue Point. Also once here were an SCR-296A fire-control radar and a Harbor Entrance Control Post (HECP) with an SCR-682 harbor surveillance radar. This HECP was secondary to the Puget Sound HECP at Fort Worden.

¤¤ Camp Angeles
(Lower Elwha Indian Reservation)
(1942 - 1944), Angeles Point
To the east of Camp Hayden (1) was a four-gun 155mm battery (1942 - 1944) on Panama mounts (still exists). Other support structures also still exist.

¤¤ ALSO: Located in Port Angeles were two 8-inch railway guns (1942 - 1944), sited at the west end of present-day 6th Street. Located at Ediz Hook and White Creek were 37mm AMTB batteries.

¤¤ NOTE: Additional fire-control stations associated with this defense are still located at Pillar Point, Twin, Majestic (two radar towers were also here), Gettysburg (private property), Agate Rock, and Angeles Point (two, one now gone). This Harbor Defense was not a separate entity, but a sub-group of Harbor Defenses of Puget Sound. It operated as a joint U.S.-Canadian command, which also included Coast Artillery Defences, Victoria-Esquimalt Harbours in British Columbia (see also).

Blyn Radar Station
(1942 - 1944), near Blyn
A WWII early warning air defense radar station. It was no longer listed as operational after 1944.

Fort Discovery
(1838), Discovery Bay ?
A base of operations for the U.S. Navy's Wilkes Expedition charting the waters of Puget Sound. Exact location undetermined.

Fort Townsend (State Park)
(1856 - 1861, 1874 - 1895), Port Townsend
A U.S. Army post located on the bay about two miles south of town. The entire garrison was transferred to San Juan Island in 1859 during the border dispute, but later returned. The abandoned post was used as a marine hospital during the Civil War. Reactivated after the war. Destroyed by fire in late 1894 and then abandoned. Site retained on the Army rolls until WWII, when it was used as a munitions defusing station. Became a state park in 1953.

Fort Wilson
(1855 - 1856, or 1898), Port Townsend
A U.S. Army defense on Point Wilson north of town. Possibly a blockhouse or gun battery during the 1855-56 Indian War, or an unnofficial name for the Point Wilson Military Reservation established in 1898, which was renamed Fort Worden in 1900 (see below).

Fort Mason (2)
(1857), Port Townsend
A small log hut located at Point Wilson.

English Camp
(San Juan Island National Historical Park)
(1860 - 1872), near Roche Harbor, San Juan Island
Located on Garrison Bay south of town. Four restored buildings remain including a blockhouse. This was the last place within the present-day United States to fly the British flag.

Also on the island was the Hudson's Bay Company's Belle Vue Farm (1853 - 1862), near Cattle Point. An official British presence of one form or another had been on the island since 1846.

American Camp
(San Juan Island National Historical Park)
(1859 - 1874), near Friday Harbor, San Juan Island
An Army post located near Cattle Point south of town. It was renamed Camp Pickett, then Post of San Juan (1863), then Camp Fred Steele (1867), and then to Camp San Juan Island (1868). Another name found in records is Camp Reynolds (date ?). Only two of the original 29 buildings still remain. It was established near the Hudson's Bay Company's Belle Vue Farm when the island was the center of a border dispute. Aside from the shooting of a pig at the farm, which caused the "Pig War" (1859), no actual violence took place. Lt. Henry Roberts' Redoubt (1859) was built on the ridge slightly east of the camp, using eight naval guns that were carried off of the U.S.S. Massachusetts.

Friday Harbor Radar Station
(1942 - 1944), Friday Harbor, San Juan Island
A WWII early warning air defense radar station. It was no longer listed as operational after 1944.

Fort Bellingham
(1855 - 1860), Bellingham
Originally a settlers' blockhouse located about three miles northwest of the mouth of Whatcom Creek. Federalized in 1856 to protect local coal miners, and enlarged to a 215-feet square stockade with two blockhouses. Troops from here were sent to San Juan Island in 1859. Site now a greenhouse and garden center off of Marine Drive. The George Pickett House still stands at 910 Bancroft Street. The town's original name was Whatcom.

Fort at Lone Tree Point
(1856), near La Connor
A WA Volunteers blockhouse located about three and one-half miles northwest of town. Abandoned after only a few months.

Whidbey Island Blockhouses
(Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve)
(1855), near Coupeville, Whidbey Island
At least 11 blockhouses were built here by settlers for defense against the Haida Indians. Four are still extant and have been restored. These include:
James Davis' Blockhouse (1), moved in 1915 to Sunnyside Cemetery, now also known as Cook's Blockhouse after a later owner. Restored in the 1930's by the Ladies of the Roundtable.
Jacob Ebey's Blockhouse, one surviving blockhouse of a four-blockhouse stockaded complex (not to be confused with Fort (Isaac) Ebey (1) on Ebey Island). Jacob was the father of Isaac. Restored by the Platt family on their farm property.
John Alexander's Blockhouse, a stockaded two-story blockhouse later moved to its present site at the Island County Historical Society Museum. Restored by the American Legion.
John Crockett's Blockhouse, once located on the farm of John Crockett. No remains. Site located near Terry Road and Fort Casey Road just south of town.
Col. Walter Crockett's (Sr.) Blockhouse (a), located on Fort Casey Road near Fort Casey. Re-sited and restored in 1938 by the WPA, it was originally located several hundred yards north of Crockett's Lake. There were originally two blockhouses, built on the diagonal corners of Crockett's house and connected by a pole fence palisade, and thus enclosing Crockett's house. The other blockhouse was sold in 1908 to Ezra Meeker and moved to Seattle for the 1909 Alaska-Yukon Pacific Exposition, purportedly used as the entrance to a restaurant, and then later moved to Point Defiance Park in Tacoma (see below).
(thanks to Lance D. Loomis for providing corrected info)
Fort Nugent, a settlers' log blockhouse once located west of Oak Harbor (Fort Nugent Park). No remains.

Information is needed for any additional blockhouses not listed.

Photo Gallery of Puget Sound's Coastal Defenses by Dan Rowbottom
Harbor Defense of Puget Sound - FORT WIKI
Puget Sound Seacoast Defense by Andy Rohde

¤¤¤ Fort Whitman
(Skagit Wildlife Area)
(1909 - 1947), Goat Island
Located in Skagit Bay west of La Connor, off the Swinomish Indian Reservation. Located here is Battery Harrison (1911 - 1943). A 37mm AMTB battery was here in WWII. A mine observation station still remains. Deception Pass was mined in WWI and WWII.

At the southern shore of Deception Pass on Whidbey Island, within present-day Deception Pass State Park, was located Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 1A (1942 - 1944). Another 37mm AMTB battery was located on Whidbey Island at Dugualla Bay.

¤¤¤ Fort Ebey (2) (State Park)
(Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve)
(1942 - 1946), San de Fuca, Whidbey Island
Battery 248 (proposed name Battery Merriam) (1943 - 1946) is located here. To the south of here, between Fort Ebey and Fort Casey, was Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 2 (1943 - 1946) at Ebey's Landing. It is now buried, and is on private property. Two fire-control stations still remain, another lies in ruins on the beach. An SCR-296A radar was once here. Another FC station located at Swantown was destroyed by storm erosion in 2009. The post was transferred to the Navy in the 1950's, then to the state in 1968. The park was open to the public in 1981.

¤¤¤ Fort Casey (State Park)
(Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve)
(1897 - 1953), Keystone, Whidbey Island
Batteries located here are Battery Schenck (1899 - 1942), Battery Seymour (1899 - 1942), Battery Kingsbury (1902 - 1942) modified into AA (1942 - 1945), Battery Moore (1904 - 1942) modified into AA (1942 - 1945), Battery Worth (1898 - 1942) (current guns from Phillipines in 1963), Battery Parker (1905 - 1918), Battery Valleau (1907 - 1918), Battery Turman (1901 - 1918), Battery Trevor (1905 - 1933) (current guns from Phillipines in 1960), and Battery Van Horne (1905 - 1945). The Admiralty Head Lighthouse was built in 1901, replacing the original 1858 light. Several fire-control stations still remain. Became a state park in 1956. Seattle Pacific University currently owns most of the old cantonment area, known as the Camp Casey Conference Center, which also includes the Fort Casey Inn, a converted former Officers' Quarters.

¤¤¤ Fort Worden (State Park)
(Friends of Fort Worden)
(1898 - 1953/1969), Port Townsend
Originally the Point Wilson Military Reservation until 1900. Batteries here are Battery Brannon (1901 - 1943), Battery Powell (1901 - 1943), Battery Ash (1900 - 1942), Battery Kinzie (1910 - 1944), Battery Benson (1907 - 1943), Battery Quarles (1900 - 1941), Battery Randol (1900 - 1918), Battery Stoddard (1906 - 1917), Battery Tolles (1905 - 1943) two guns removed in 1918, Battery "Tolles B" (1937 - 1946) two guns from Willapa Bay, Battery Vicars (1902 - 1917), Battery Putnam (1907 - 1945), Battery Walker (1907 - 1946), and AMTB Battery Point Wilson (1943 - 1946) one gunblock is now in the surf. Three 3-inch anti-aircraft fixed-gun emplacements, operational by 1920, are also here. Four mobile 3-inch AA guns were also located on post. The Point Wilson Lighthouse is also here on post, built in 1913. This fort was the headquarters for the Puget Sound Defenses in WWI and WWII, with the HDCP and HECP located here. Harbor mines, anti-submarine nets, and anti-motor torpedo boat booms went across the strait to Fort Casey and Fort Flagler. The park also includes the Puget Sound Coast Artillery Museum in Building #201, the Commanding Officer's Quarters Museum (operated by the Jefferson County Historical Society), and a Balloon Hangar (1924) that was used for observation balloons. Became an Engineer training post in 1947. The U.S. Navy built and used a separate HECP for harbor defense from 1943 - 1959. The Navy Reserve continued use of the post until 1969. The Army returned with a NIKE missile radar station from 1957 to 1961 (S-93 R), located at Battery Benson. Most of the main post was transferred to state ownership in 1955. The main cantonment area became a State Juvenile Diagnostic Center from 1958 to 1970. Artillery Hill was transferred to the state in 1970. The combined parcels became a state park in 1973. The movie "An Officer and a Gentleman" (1982) was filmed here. Most of the restored quarters and barracks on Officers' Row are available for overnight and short-term stays. Admission fee. A 37mm AMTB was located at Hudson Point. An FC station is still located at Tibbals Bluff. Other FC stations were once located at Beckett Point and at Middle Point (north of Cape George).

¤¤¤ Cape George Military Reservation
(1938 ? - 1944), near Port Townsend
A firing position for a four-gun 12-inch mortar railway battery (emplacement cuts still remain), and another firing position for four 8-inch railguns (Tibbals Bluff). Two FC stations are still here. This was a subpost of Fort Worden.

¤¤¤ Fort Flagler (State Park)
(1897 - 1953), Nordland, Marrowstone Island
Batteries here are Battery Bankhead (1902 - 1942), Battery Wilhelm (1898 - 1942), Battery Rawlins (1899 - 1918), Battery Revere (1899 - 1941) modified into AA (1942 - 1945), Battery Calwell (1904 - 1918), Battery Grattan (1905 - 1918), Battery Lee (1901 - 1918), Battery Downes (1905 - 1946), Battery Wansboro (1906 - 1946) (current guns from Phillipines in 1960), and AMTB Battery Marrowstone (1943 - 1946) mounts in surf. Three 3-inch AA guns were also here. A 37mm AMTB was once located at Portage Canal. Placed in caretaker status in 1937, but reactivated in 1941. Became a state park in 1955. Some of the restored quarters on Officers' Row are available for overnight stays. The nearby Marrowstone Point Lighthouse was built in 1918.

¤¤¤ Fort Ward
(Bainbridge Island Metro Park)
(1901 - 1934/1958), South Beach, Bainbridge Island
Batteries here are Battery Nash (1903 - 1918) private property, Battery Warner (1903 - 1925) private property, Battery Thornburgh (1903 - 1920), and Battery Vinton (1903 - 1920). The post was transferred to the Navy in 1938. Part of the original post later became a state park in 1960. The state park was transferred to Bainbridge Island Metro Parks in June 2011. Several private homes have now been built here outside the park boundary. The mine wharf remains, and the mine-loading room has been relocated.

Several 37mm AMTB batteries were located at Beans Point (nearby) and at Agate Point (at the northern tip of the island across from Suquamish) during WWII.

¤¤¤ Middle Point Military Reservation
(Manchester State Park)
(1901 - 1928, 1942 - 1958), near Manchester
Actually a portion of Fort Ward, located on the Bremerton Peninsula across the Rich Passage. Located here is Battery Mitchell (1903) never armed. A torpedo (mine) storeroom (1901) and mine casemate are also here. Transferred to the Navy in 1938, the post was reactivated and converted to a Navy Supply Depot in 1942. Closed in 1958, part of the reservation later became a state park and part still belongs to the Navy.

A 37mm AMTB battery was located at nearby Orchard Point in WWII.

¤¤¤ Fort Lawton
(Fort Lawton Historic District)
(Fort Lawton BRAC Process)
(1898 - 1967/2011), Seattle
Originally known as Camp Lawton until 1900, located on Magnolia Bluff. Temporary shore batteries were built in 1898, located where the modern wastewater treatment plant is presently situated at West Point. Became an assembly camp in 1900 for the Boxer Rebellion in China. Redesignated an Infantry post in 1902. Became an Engineer training post in 1927. Became part of the Seattle Port of Embarkation in WWII. As many as 20,000 troops were staged there at a time and a total of 1.1 million troops passed through the installation during and after the war. Some 1150 German POWs were housed there (some are buried in the cemetery), and 5000 Italian POWs passed through on their way to confinement in Hawaii. An SCR-268 radar was located here in WWII. Became regional headquarters of the Puget Sound NIKE missile defense sites 1954 - 1967 (S-90 DC). A 90mm AA gun battery may have been located here in 1952 - 1954. The Air Force also operated air defense radars here in 1960 - 1963. Became a subpost of Fort Lewis in 1968 as an Army Reserve command headquarters. Most of the former post became Discovery Park in 1973. The remaining portion of the military post was finally closed in 2011. Twenty-six of the Historic Quarters and Barracks on Montana Circle and Officers' Row came under private ownership in 2015. Most of the other military buildings have since been demolished. The military cemetery still remains. The FAA still operates an air traffic control radar here. The West Point Lighthouse was built in 1881. See also Seattle Now and Then: Fort Lawton Barracks || Fort Lawton: Snapshot in Time from Magnolia Historical Society

¤¤¤ ALSO: Several 3-inch anti-aircraft guns were located in the Seattle area at the Highland Park playground in West Seattle, and at the Jefferson Park golf course on Beacon Hill. Anti-aircraft searchlights were emplaced at Woodland Park, Fort Lawton, Jefferson Park, Laurelhurst Playground, Froula Playground, and the Grand Army of the Republic Cemetery near Volunteer Park. A barrage balloon battery was at the Delridge Playground in West Seattle. A 40mm AA gun was placed on the tower of the Sears Building on 1st Avenue South.

Fort (Isaac) Ebey (1)
(1855), near Everett
Located on Ebey Island on the Snohomish River eight miles from its mouth, and/or, located one mile upstream from Lowell. A single-story log blockhouse built by WA Volunteers who later transferred to Fort Alden.
(not to be confused with Jacob Ebey's Blockhouse on Whidbey Island)

Fort Malikoff
(1853 - 1858), Port Gamble, Bainbridge Island
A two-story octagonal community blockhouse erected at the Puget Mill Company settlement. Attacked by Indians in November 1856.

Fort Kitsap
(1855), Port Madison, Bainbridge Island
A WA Volunteers blockhouse.

Fort Decatur
(1855 - 1856), Seattle
A two-story two-gun blockhouse, also called Seattle Blockhouse, was built by Marines from the U.S.S. Decatur. Attacked by Indians in January 1856. Site located at 1st Avenue (Front Ave.) and Cherry Street. A marker is located at 3rd Ave. and Jefferson Street.

A second blockhouse built by the Marines was located further north on Elliot Bay. A palisade and breastworks connected the two blockhouses.

Fort Duwamish
(1855), South Seattle
A settlers' two-story log blockhouse once located on the Duwamish River at the base of the Seattle Peninsula, on the property of Luther Collins, just south of the modern Georgetown Steam Plant. Located about six miles upriver from the Seattle Blockhouse, north of the old town of Duwamish, now within the modern Georgetown area of the city at Corson Ave. South and South Shelton Street. A palisade stretched across the peninsula.

Camp Moore
(1889), Seattle
A temporary WA National Guard camp established after the massive city fire of June 1889.

Cold War AAA Defenses of Seattle
(1952 - 1957), Seattle area
Several permanent sites were established for the Army's Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) Gun Site Program, the precursor to the NIKE missile defense program. Four 90mm AA guns and/or four 120mm AA guns were positioned at each site, with troop barracks and other support buildings. Known sites include:
Fort Lawton (1952 - 1954) 120mm guns (battery headquarters only ?), (1952 - 1954) 90mm guns: on post (S-90).
Bainbridge Island (Winslow) (1952 - 1957 ?) 90mm guns: undetermined.
O'Brien (date ?) (guns ?): undetermined (S-41).
Bellevue (Phantom Lake) (date ?) (guns ?): at the Boeing Plant (S-12).
Seattle (date ?) (guns ?): undetermined (S-71).
Seattle (date ?) (guns ?): undetermined (S-60).

NIKE missile defense sites (1955 - 1974) are beyond the scope of this website.

Fort Lander
(1856), Sea-Tac
Originally only a blockhouse built by WA Volunteers. Later moved upriver on the south bank of the Duwamish River, and enclosed by a 98-by-58-foot bastioned stockade. Site located one-quarter mile south of the King County Airport administration building.

Black River Blockhouse
(1856), near Sea-Tac
An otherwise unnamed Federal blockhouse located on the Black River. Undetermined exact location.

Fort Dent (park)
(1855), Tukwila
A Federal blockhouse was once here. Marker at site. Site became a county park in 1968. Operated by the city since 2002.

Fort Henderson
(1856), near Fall City
A temporary blockhouse built by WA Volunteers from Fort Tilton. Located on the Snoqualmie River at Patterson Creek. Also called Fort Patterson.

Fort Tilton
(1856), near Fall City
A temporary blockhouse and supply depot built by WA Volunteers. Operated as Northern Battalion headquarters for about one month. Site located three miles below the Snoqualmie River falls, at the head of canoe navigation. A marker at the site, near SE 49th Street and SE Fish Hatchery Road, was lost by a flood in 2009.

Fort Alden
(1856), Snoqualmie
A temporary blockhouse built by the WA Volunteers, located about two miles above the falls of the Snoqualmie River in the Meadowbrook area of the city. Jeremiah Borst used the abandoned blockhouse as his home in 1858. Misspelled Alder in some sources.

Fort Smalley
(1856), North Bend
A WA Volunteers outpost of Fort Tilton.

Fort Thomas
(1855), Kent
A temporary Federal two-story blockhouse on the land claim of John Thomas. Located on the the south bank of the Green River, opposite the town, about 260 feet east of Auburn Way (83rd Ave. South).

Camp Muckleshoot Prairie
(Muckleshoot Indian Reservation)
(1856 - 1857), near Newaukum
A Federal two-bastioned stockade with two blockhouses located on the White River northeast of Lake Tapps. Possibly also known as Camp (Silas) Casey. Renamed Fort (William) Slaughter. Site located 280 feet south and 140 feet east of the intersection of present-day Ray Road and the old McClellan Military Road.

Fort Hays
(1856), near Bonney Lake
Also called Connell's Prairie Blockhouse. Actually two blockhouses on a hill overlooking the prairie. Built by WA Volunteers. The original fort site has been preserved, located southeast of Lake Tapps, on the south side of the White River.

Fort McAllister
(1855 - 1856), South Prairie
A WA Volunteers blockhouse.

Fort Posey
(1855 - 1856), near Buckley
A WA Volunteers blockhouse located at the White River crossing. Possibly a companion post to Fort Pike, or the same.

Fort Pike
(1855 - 1856), near Buckley
A WA Volunteers blockhouse located at the White River crossing. Possibly a companion post to Fort Posey, or the same.

Fort Maloney
(1856), North Puyallup
A Federal two-story blockhouse at the Carson Ferry crossing, located on the north bank of the Puyallup River at North Meridian Ave. (Highway 161). Monument at site on North Levee Road.

Fort Puyallup
(1856 ?), near Puyallup ?
Located on the military road between Seattle and Vancouver, which was completed in 1860.

Fort White
(1855 - 1856), Puyallup
A WA Volunteers blockhouse located at the emmigrant crossing of the Puyallup River (South Prairie Crossing ?).

Fort Sales
(1855 - 1856), Parkland
A settlers' log cabin that was garrisoned by a detachment of WA Volunteers. Located on Sales Road just south of the Tacoma city line.

Fort Hicks
(1855 - 1856), Spanaway
A WA Volunteers blockhouse located about 12 miles east of Fort Steilacoom on the old military road, near Spanaway Lake. Originally named Camp Montgomery.

Fort Nisqually
(Fort Nisqually Living History Museum)
(Point Defiance Park)
(1833 - 1862), DuPont, Tacoma
A Hudson's Bay Co. stockaded post (spelled Nesqually until 1843) originally located at the mouth of the Nisqually River near DuPont (HBC records after 1842). The fort was rebuilt in 1843 by the Puget Sound Agricultural Company (an HBC subsidiary), at a new location about two miles northeast of the original spot. Sometimes also known as Nisqually House. The U.S. government purchased the company land in 1867. By 1934 only the Factor's House and Granary (1850) had survived, and were moved to Point Defiance Park in Tacoma and later restored. The bastioned stockade and all other buildings were reconstructed. Admission fee. The history of the fort is told at the DuPont Historical Museum at 207 Barksdale Ave. in DuPont. The 1833 site, now a golf course at Old Fort Lake, was the first European settlement on Puget Sound. The 1843 site is owned by the Archaeological Conservancy, with the full outline of the fort marked on the ground with logs, located on Center Drive just south of Sequalitchew Creek (limited public access). See also Encyclopedia of Washington State History

The Walter Crockett (Sr.) Blockhouse (b), originally from Whidbey Island (see above), was also moved to Point Defiance Park about the same time (1930's), but apparently no longer exists.

Camp John R. Rogers
(1898), Tacoma
A Spanish-American War state muster camp. Located south of the city, site now the Pierce County Transit garages and maintenance yard.

Fort Steilacoom
(1849 - 1868), Fort Steilacoom
The first Federal fort on Puget Sound, originally called Post on Puget Sound. Built on land then still owned by the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Nisqually. Thirty wood frame buildings were erected in 1857 - 1858 to replace the original log buildings, enlarging the post to a 600-foot square complex. In 1861 the garrison left to fight in the Civil War, leaving the Territorial Militia in charge of the fort. The reservation was transferred to the state in 1874. Four original restored Officers' quarters remain, located on the grounds of Western State Hospital at 9601 Steilacoom Blvd. in Lakewood. See also Encyclopedia of Washington State History

Bradley Blockhouse
(1855 - 1856), Lakewood
A settlers' fortified log barn (1840's) on Flett Creek. The Flett House was built on the site in 1889, but was moved 300 feet north in the 1950's for a gas station. Monument erected in 2002 at the corner of Custer Road West and Bridgeport Way West.

Camp Murray (State Military Reservation)
(1890, 1892, 1894, 1898, 1902, 1903 - present), American Lake
Originally a WA National Guard summer training area. Named Camp Ferry in 1890 after the then sitting state governor. Formally purchased by the state in 1903, and named in 1915. Became a mobilization center and training area for Army Engineers in 1917. Still in use as the present headquarters of the WA National Guard. Of interest on post is the Washington National Guard Museum (aka "The Arsenal"). See also 1904 American Lake Maneuvers from Encyclopedia of Washington State History

Camp David S. Stanley
(1917), American Lake
The original proposed site for Fort Lewis. A new site was chosen two and one-half miles southeast two weeks later.

Fort Lewis (U.S. Military Reservation)
(Joint Base Lewis - McCord)
(1917 - present), Tillicum
A National Army cantonment training area and demobilization center for the 91st Division. Originally named Camp Lewis until 1927. Several WWI era warehouses still survive. The Red Shield Inn (1918) was built at Camp Green (North Fort Lewis) as a Salvation Army guesthouse, but was bought by the U.S. Army in 1919 and used as an inn until 1972, becoming the Fort Lewis Army Museum in 1973. Gray Army Airfield was originally established in 1921, enlarged and formally named in 1938. The Mt. Rainier Ordnance Depot was established in 1942, closed in 1963. It is now the Fort Lewis Logistics Center. The Army post was combined with McCord USAF Base in 2010. See also History of Fort Lewis from the Encyclopedia of Washington State History

Anderson Island Trading Post
(1841 - unknown), Anderson Island
A Hudson's Bay Company trading post.

Fort Stevens
(1855 - 1856), Yelm
A WA Volunteers stockaded blockhouse and supply depot located on Yelm Prairie.

Fort Preston
(1855 - 1856), near LaGrande
A WA Volunteers stockaded blockhouse located on Michel (Mashel) Prairie on the Michel Fork Nisqually River, west of Eatonville.

Fort Raglan
(1855 - 1856), unknown location
A WA Volunteers blockhouse located on the Nisqually River at Packard's Ferry (location ?), on the Joel Myers land claim.

Fort Eaton
(1855), near Lacey
A WA Volunteers stockaded fort with 16 log buildings, built on the property of Nathaniel Eaton, four miles southwest of the Nisqually Flats at Eaton Prairie on Eaton Creek. A monument (1932) is located on Yelm Highway just east of Meridian Road.

Fort Miller
(1855), near East Olympia ?
A WA Volunteers blockhouse and quartermaster depot located on Tanalquot Prairie (location ?), about 12 miles southeast of Olympia.

Olympia Blockhouse
(1856), Olympia
A large blockhouse built by WA Volunteers. Became the city jail after 1857. Site located at Capital Park at Main and 6th Streets.

Andrew Chambers' Blockhouse
(1855), Olympia
A settlers' blockhouse, located at present-day 6909 Rainier Road SE. Site marked by a D.A.R. plaque in 1929.

Fort Skookum
(1856), near Arcadia ?
A WA Volunteers stockade with two blockhouses and five houses. Located on a point of land at Skookum Bay (Big Skookum / Hammersley Inlet ?).

Fort Collins
(1855), near Arcadia
A blockhouse located at Hungerford Point, on the north bank of Big Skookum (Hammersley) Inlet, opposite Arcadia, about ten miles east of Shelton.

NEED MORE INFO: Undetermined locations and dates: Camp Ephraim, Camp Osoyees, Fort Rupert.

NOTE: According to Robert Frazer's "Forts of the West" (1965), during the 1855-1856 Indian troubles there were a total of 23 settler blockhouses/stockades, 35 Washington Territorial Militia blockhouses/stockades, and 7 U.S. Army blockhouses/forts. Additional information is needed for those posts not listed here.

Eastern and Southern Washington - page 2

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