Canadian Forts


Acton House | Fort Augustus | Berry's Post | Big Bend Post | Boggy Hall Post | Bow Fort
Bow River Post | Fort Brisebois | Buckingham House | Bull's Head Post | Fort Calgary
Canmore Barracks | Conrad's Post | Station at Dickinson's | Fort Edmonton | Edmonton House
Elbow River Post | Fort Ethier | Fort George | Gletchen Post | Fort Hamilton | Henry House
Fort de L'Isle | Island House | Jasper House | Kennedy's Post | Fort Kipp | Kipp's Coulée Post
Kootenay Post | Lac La Nonne Post | Lac Ste. Anne Post | Leavings Post | Lee's Creek Post
Lethbridge Posts | Livingston's Post | Lower Terre Blanche Post | Fort Macleod (2)
Medicine Hat Post | Milk River Ridge Post | Station at Miller's (2) | Miller's Ranch Post (1)
Muskeg Fort | Nelson House | Fort Normandeau | North Kootenay Pass Post
Oldman River Post | Fort Ostell | Paint Earth Creek House | Paint River Post
Fort Pen d'Oreille | Piegan Post (1) | Peigan Reserve Post (2) | Pigeon Lake Post
Pincher Creek Posts | Pot Hole Post | Fort des Prairies | Red Deer Post | Redwater Station
Robber's Roost | Rocky Mountain House (1) | Rocky Mountain House (2) | St. Albert Post
St. Mary's Post (2) | Fort Sanspareil | Camp Sarcee | Fort Saskatchewan | Scarlets Post
Fort Slide-Out | Fort Spitzee | Spitzee Post | Fort Stand-Off | Stimson Post
Stopping House Station | Sturgeon Creek Post | Upper Terre Blanche Post | Fort Vermilion (2)
Fort Victoria | Fort White Earth | White Earth House | Fort Whoop-Up
Willow Creek Post | Writing Stone Post

Northern Alberta - page 2


Last Update: 22/OCTOBER/2012
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2012 American Forts Network

Kennedy's Post
(1880's), near Wild Horse
A civilian trade post located on the Milk River at the international border. Used as a patrol waystation by the NWMP in 1888.

Fort Pen d'Oreille
(1874 ? - 1880's ?), near Pakowki Lake
A NWMP post located on the north bank of the Milk River, south of Pakowki Lake. It consisted of a small log building, 16 x 14 x 9 feet, with a 40-foot square corral. Still in use by 1888.

Willow Creek Post
(1888), near Elkwater
A NWMP patrol post located on Medicine Lodge Coulée (aka Willow Creek) south of town.

Bull's Head Post
(1888), near Elkwater
A NWMP patrol post consisting of six log huts and a garden, located at the head of Bull's Head Creek, about 40 kilometers south of Dunmore. Site located on Eagle Butte Road.

Medicine Hat Post
(1888), Medicine Hat FORT WIKI
A NWMP patrol post at Police Point. Site is marked on the Medicine Hat golf course.

Writing Stone Post
(Writing-On-Stone Provincial Park)
(1887 - 1918), near Milk River
A reconstructed NWMP outpost located within Writing-On-Stone Provincial Park. Public access to the site is restricted to guided tours only.

Milk River Ridge Post
(1888), near Milk River
A NWMP patrol post located on the Milk River below the forks, west of town.

Kipp's Coulée Post
(1888), near Raymond
A NWMP patrol post located on the Benton Trail, near the present-day Milk River Ridge Reservoir.

Robber's Roost
(1871), near Turin
An American traders' outpost of Conrad's Post, located on the Oldman River at the mouth of the Little Bow River. It was simply a one-room shack. A group of North Peigan Indians took over the post at gunpoint demanding all the whiskey. The trader took refuge and was later rescued by Howell Harris. The shack was later abandoned and burned down by Blackfoot Indians.
(thanks to John Dormaar for providing info and location)

Fort Whoop-Up (National Historic Site)
(1869 - 1887), Lethbridge FORT WIKI
A 1967 reconstruction (rebuilt in 1986) of an American civilian trade fort, originally called Fort Hamilton, originally located six km southwest of town at the forks of the St. Mary and Oldman Rivers. These were illegal traders from Fort Benton, Montana, trading guns and whiskey to the Blackfoot Indians for buffalo hides and furs. Originally a collection of log huts, it burned down after six months but was rebuilt as a sturdy log stockade, stacked horizontally, with two square bastions in opposite corners. The North West Mounted Police arrived in 1874 to drive out the notorious bootleggers, and offerred the owners of the fort a buyout but were turned down. After establishing Fort Macleod (2) the NWMP then rented quarters here as a subpost of the new fort. Dave Acres took over the fort in 1876 and lived here until his death in 1892. The fort burned in 1887, and was left in disrepair until it was essentially washed away by a spring flood in 1915. Reconstruction located at Indian Battle Park at 3rd Ave. South and Scenic Drive, the site of the last aboringinal battle in North America (Blackfoot vs. Cree in 1870).

Lethbridge Posts
(1888 - 1946, 1892), Lethbridge FORT WIKI
A NWMP patrol post was located here in 1888. Located at Barracks Square, bounded by Stafford Drive, 6th Ave., 4th Ave., and 11th Street South. A marker is located next to the City Hall at 4th Ave. South. The former Mess Hall is the only remaining original structure, relocated to 1708 10th Ave. South, now in use by various civic organizations.

A Hudson's Bay Co. post was here in 1892.

Pot Hole Post
(1888), near Magrath
A NWMP patrol post located on the Pot Hole River.

Lee's Creek Post
(1888), Cardston
A NWMP patrol post located on Lee's Creek.

St. Mary's Post (2)
(1888), near Aetna
A NWMP patrol post located on the east bank of the St. Mary's River, east of town.

Big Bend Post
(1888), near Hillspring
A NWMP patrol post located on the north bank of the Belly River, just west of Mami Creek and east of Buffalo Creek, along the southern boundary of the Blood Indian Reserve.

Kootenay Post
(1888), near Hillspring
A NWMP patrol post on the Waterton River at Drywood Fork. Site now under the Waterton River Reservoir.

Fort Stand-Off
(1870's), Stand Off
An illegal American whiskey-trading post on the Belly River. Taken over by the NWMP in 1874.

Fort Slide-Out
(1870 ? - 1874), near Fort Macleod
An illegal American whiskey-traders post on the Belly River, south of the old townsite of Pearce.
(thanks to Dave Hull for providing location)

Conrad's Post
(1871 - 1872), near Coalhurst
An illegal American whiskey-trading post, located on the Oldman River about three miles downstream from Fort Kipp, near the present-day Route 509 bridge. The bottomland here was known as "Captain Jack's Bottom". Built by Charles Conrad and Howell Harris for I.G. Baker, it was a palisaded structure about 30 by 50 feet, with a stone fireplace. It burned down in the spring of 1872.
(thanks to John Dormaar for providing info)

Fort Kipp
(1870's, 1888), near Monarch
An illegal American whiskey-trading post. Located on the south side of the Oldman River, near the mouth of the Belly River. Taken over by the NWMP in 1874, a patrol station was later established here by 1888.

Fort Macleod (2) (National Historic Site)
(N.W.M.P. and First Nations Interpretive Centre)
(1874 - 1922), Fort Macleod FORT WIKI
A 2005 reconstruction of a North West Mounted Police post, originally located on the western end of Macleod Island in the Oldman River. This was the first official NWMP post established in the province, and was the first NWMP Headquarters until 1878. Due to major flooding in 1883, the post was rebuilt in 1884 on higher ground about 2.5 miles west of the original site. The post was relegated to a detachment status in 1919, and was closed in 1922. There are three original buildings extant from the second post (FORT WIKI), located at the NWMP Provincial Historic Site at 219 25th Street (Barracks Trail). See also History of the Town of Fort Macleod || Centennial Legacy Project from Town of Fort Macleod

The Hudson's Bay Company had a trade post here in 1887 - 1892.

Peigan Reserve Post (2)
(1888), near Fort Macleod
A NWMP patrol post on Olson's Creek, along the northern boundary of the Peigan Indian Reserve.

Pincher Creek Posts
(1890 - 1892), Pincher Creek
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

A NWMP patrol post was located here at Indian Farm Creek in 1888.

Oldman River Post
(1888), near Cowley
A NWMP patrol post at the forks of the Oldman River.

North Kootenay Pass Post
(1888), near Beaver Mines
A NWMP patrol post at the North Kootenay Pass.

Leavings Post
(1886 - 1903), near Claresholm
A NWMP patrol post located on Willow Creek, in rented quarters at the New Oxley Ranch. An 1884 barn is still extant.

Fort Spitzee
(1870 - 1874), near High River
An illegal American trading post located near the "Medicine Tree", adjacent to an often used ford on the Highwood River. It's founders were "wolvers", not whiskey traders. These men, the "Spitzee Cavalry", were involved in an altercation with the "Whoop-up Boys" in which they marched on Fort Whoop-up after a dispute. The owner of the fort had a cannon trained on the Spitzee men, threatening to blow them all up if they did not leave. They left. The fort (aka Spitzee Post) was abandoned by the "wolvers" just prior to the arrival of the North West Mounted Police. It was then commandeered by the NWMP and became a police outpost.
(thanks to Jim Stangowitz for providing correct location and additional info)

Stimson Post
(1888), near Longview
A NWMP patrol post located on the South Branch High(wood) River.

Miller's Ranch Post (1)
(1888), Okotoks
A NWMP patrol post on Sheep Creek.

Fort Calgary (National Historic Site)
(Fort Calgary Archaeological Site)
(1875 - 1914), Calgary FORT WIKI
A North West Mounted Police post on the Elbow River, originally named Fort Brisebois. The post included men's quarters, a guard room, stables and storage facilities surrounded by a palisade of vertical logs. Most of the original fort was torn down in 1882 and replaced by newer structures to become the district headquarters. The old barracks were burned down in 1887 and replaced in 1888. The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway bought the site in 1914 and demolished most of the remaining stuctures. The 40-acre (12-hectare) site, in the East Village area, became a park in 1975. The Deane House, built in 1906 for the Post Commander, located just across the Elbow River from the baracks, is the last remaining original building from the post. It is now a restaurant and dinner theatre. The Fort Barracks were reconstructed in 2001. Admission fee.

The Hudson's Bay Company established Elbow River Post (1876/1885 - 1913) just upstream on the Elbow River, located at the present Exhibition Grounds (Stampede Park). See also History of the Calgary HBC Store from HBC Heritage

Camp Sarcee
(Sarcee Indian Reserve - Tsuu T'ina Nation)
(1914 - 1998), Calgary FORT WIKI
A Canadian Militia training camp established during WWI, the only such camp in Alberta, on land leased from the Sarcee Indian Reserve. More than 45,000 men from 30 units across the province trained at the camp over the course of the war. It was one of the largest military training areas in Canada at the time. After WWII it was known as Sarcee Training Area, a subpost of Calgary Garrison. An Army Cadet Summer Training Camp (ACSTC) was held here every year between 1940 - 1955. The post later became a component of Canadian Forces Base Calgary, which was finally closed in 1998. The leased land was returned to the Sarcee Indian Reserve. Of interest at the nearby former C.F.B. Calgary - Currie Barracks is the The Military Museums (formerly the Museum of the Regiments until 2006) (admission fee) at 4520 Crowchild Trail SW.
Battalion Park was created in 1991 on Signal Hill. This area of Camp Sarcee was annexed by the city in 1956. See also Battalion Numbers from Canadian Register of Historic Places

Berry's Post ? ?
(unknown dates), Calgary
A trade post located on the north bank of the Elbow River, near the present Glenmore Reservoir in Glenmore Park.

Bow River Post
(1888), near Dalemead
A NWMP patrol post on the Bow River south of town.

Gletchen Post
(1888), Gleichen
A NWMP patrol post near the Blackfeet Indian Reserve.

Livingston's Post ? ?
(unknown dates), near Redwood Meadows
A trade post located on the north bank of the Elbow River. The Notre Dame de la Paix church was (is ?) located here.

Bow Fort
(1832 - 1834), near Morley
A Hudson's Bay Co. post. Also known as Piegan Post (1). Abandoned before the winter of 1834-35 and subsequently burned. Located on the east bluff of Old Fort Creek near its confluence with the Bow River, about ten miles downstream of the Kananaskis River. Stone chimneys were reconstructed on the site in the 1980's after archaeological excavations. Site now Stoney Indian Park (closed ?) on the Stoney Indian Reserve. Permission to access should be obtained from the Stoney (Nakoda) Band Council Office in Morley. (NOTE: The HBC Archives locator map depicts the post below Bow Pass near Bow Lake, at the head of the Bow River.)
(thanks to Peter Allen for providing additional info)

Canmore NWMP Barracks
(1893 - 1929), Canmore FORT WIKI
A NWMP barracks post located at 609 8th Street, on Policeman's Creek. The building was dismantled in 1908 and relocated to a new site. It was expanded in 1920. It is one of only three remaining pre-1905 NWMP barracks in Alberta.

Station at Dickinson's
(1888), near Crossfield
A NWMP patrol waystation.

Scarlets Post
(1888), near Carstairs
A NWMP patrol post.

Stopping House Station
(1888), near Olds
A NWMP patrol waystation on Lone Pine Creek east of town.

Station at Miller's (2)
(1888), near Penhold
A NWMP patrol waystation.

Fort Normandeau
(1885 - 1895), Red Deer FORT WIKI
A 1974 reconstruction of an Alberta Field Force military post, located in Waskasoo Park. In 1884 Robert McClellan built a stopping house at the Red Deer River Crossing to take advantage of the traffic on the Calgary & Edmonton Trail. The next year, with the local settlers afraid of violence during the Riel Rebellion, his hotel was fortified (enclosed by a stockade) by the 65th Mount Royal Rifles, under the command of Lt. J.E. Bedard Normandeau. The Army left after less than two months (May - June 1885). The North West Mounted Police later used the post (aka Red Deer Post).

Rocky Mountain House (1) (National Historic Site)
(Confluence Heritage Society)
(1799 - 1875), Rocky Mountain House FORT WIKI
Site of a North West Co. fur trade post (1799 - 1821) and three separate Hudson's Bay Co. posts (Acton House 1799 - 1834 (FORT WIKI), 1835 - 1861, 1865 - 1875) (HBC records cover 1828 - 1868), each connected by a trail. The post moved south to near Calgary on the Bow River in 1875 after being shut down by the NWMP. Admission fee to the Parks Canada Visitors Centre. Located six km west of town on Highway 11A.

Fort Ostell
(1885), Ponoka FORT WIKI
An Alberta Field Force military post built during the Riel Rebellion, commanded by Capt. John Ostell. In use only 50 days (May - June). Not shown to be in use by the NWMP on an 1888 map. No remains. The town was settled in 1905. Of interest in town is the Fort Ostell Museum, located at 5320 54th Street at Centennial Park (admission fee), with exhibits of the fort.

Fort Ethier
(1885, 1888), Wetaskiwin FORT WIKI
An Alberta Field Force palisaded blockhouse situated on a 0.2 hectare block of land approximately ten kilometres north of town, built on the farm of Samuel Lucas, near the Peace Hills Indian Agency, along the bank of Bigstone Creek. The post was abandoned after only one month (May - June) when the Riel Rebellion was suppressed. The NWMP later used the post as a patrol station by 1888. The site includes a restored log blockhouse featuring three loopholes (or gunports) on each elevation and a pyramidal roof crowned by a central flagpole. Exhibits and artifacts at the Wetaskiwin and District Heritage Museum at 5007 50th Ave. (Main Street).

Jasper House
(Jasper National Park Historic Site)
(1813 - 1861/1884), near Pocahontas FORT WIKI
Originally a North West Co. post located at the north end of Brûlé Lake, briefly known as Rocky Mountain House (2) until 1814, relocated by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1829 (HBC records cover 1827 - 1831). Rebuilt again in 1858. Practically abandoned for all intents and purposes after 1861, not "officially" closed until 1884. Ruins of the last post are located near the mouth of the Rocky River at the north end of Jasper Lake. Parks Canada memorial plaque (1927) is located on Trans-Canada Highway 16 about 35 km east of Jasper. No road access to actual fort site. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places
See also Jasper NP - Fur Trade and Exploration by Jeff Waugh, from Canadian

Henry House
(Jasper National Park Historic Site)
(1811 - 1814, 1820's - 1830's), Jasper FORT WIKI
A North West Co. fur trading post. Exact location undetermined, but probably located on the east side of the Athabasca River, somewhere between Old Fort Point and the Maligne River. A Parks Canada memorial plaque is located on Trans-Canada Highway 16 on the bypass around town.

A fur trade supply depot built by Jasper Hawes was located here in 1801.

Boggy Hall Post
(1807 - unknown), near Lodgepole
A North West Co. post on the North Saskatchewan River at or near the mouth of the Brazeau River, south of town.

Muskeg Fort
(1807 - unknown), near Drayton Valley ?
A North West Co. post on the North Saskatchewan River. ("National Atlas of Canada" (1974))

Nelson House
(1799 - unknown), near Genesee ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on the North Saskatchewan River. Relocated in 1810 in competition with the NWC's Upper Terre Blanche Post. Still shown on an 1888 NWMP map.

Upper Terre Blanche Post
(1799 - unknown), near Genesee ?
A North West Co. post on the North Saskatchewan River in competition with the HBC's Nelson House. Relocated in 1810.

Pigeon Lake Post
(1880's), Mission Beach
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at Pigeon Lake, as shown on an 1888 NWMP map.

Lac Ste. Anne Post
(1889), near Gunn ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on Lac Ste. Anne, near the Lac Ste. Anne Oblate Mission (1842).

Lac La Nonne Post
(1870 - unknown), near Birch Cove ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on Lac La Nonne.

St. Albert Post
(1888), St. Albert
A NWMP patrol post.

Fort Edmonton
(Fort Edmonton Park)
(1795 - 1915), Edmonton FORT WIKI
A Hudson's Bay Co. post, also known as Edmonton House. Also known as Fort Sanspareil. The post was relocated in 1801 and 1812 in competition with the North West Company's Fort Augustus. Relocated a fifth and final time in 1831. The provincial capitol building was built in 1912 on the actual site of the last fort. The HBC continued to occupy the last few remaining buildings here until 1915. The first HBC retail store was built offsite in 1890 (HBC records to 1932). A reconstruction of the fort is located in Fort Edmonton Park on Fox Drive, interpreted to the 1846 period. Admission fee.
See also History of the Edmonton HBC Store from HBC Heritage

The restored Hudson's Bay Company Stables - Ortona Armoury (1914 - 1924) is located at 9722 102nd Street NW. In 1939 it became a Naval Reserve training centre, and in 1965 it became a provincial militia armoury. FORT WIKI

The North West Mounted Police established barracks here or nearby after 1874, in use through at least the 1880's.

Fort Augustus (National Historic Site)
(1795 - 1821), Edmonton FORT WIKI
A North West Co. trading post, established a few months before the HBC established Fort Edmonton. Relocated in 1801 and 1812. Closed with the merger of the two companies.
(NOTE: This NWC post was one of the two "Fortes des Prairies" located on the North Saskatchewan River.)

Fort Saskatchewan
(1875 - 1913), Fort Saskatchewan FORT WIKI
A North West Mounted Police stockaded post, originally named Sturgeon Creek Post. Used through at least 1885, although the NWMP garrisoned the town until 1913. No remains. Reconstructed in 2010 with four buildings at the Fort Saskatchewan Museum and Historic Site, a complex that also includes eight historic buildings interpreted to the 1900 - 1920 settlement period, located at 10006 100th Ave. (admission fee), near Legacy Park.

Redwater Station
(1888), Redwater
A NWMP patrol waystation on the Redwater (Vermilion) River.

Fort Victoria
(Victoria Settlement Provincial Historic Park)
(1864 - 1885, 1887 - 1898), near Smoky Lake FORT WIKI
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records cover 1889 - 1895). Briefly closed after the Riel Rebellion of 1885. The 1864 clerk's quarters is the oldest building in the province still on its original site. The settlement began in 1862 with the establishment of the Methodist mission to the Cree Indians. European settlers came in 1906. Admission fee.
See also River Lot #3 - Victoria Settlement from Canadian Register of Historic Places || See also Métis Crossing

The NWMP had barracks located here by 1888.

Lower Terre Blanche Post
(1810 - 1812), near Pakan
A North West Co. post and a Hudson's Bay Co. post in close proximity to each other within a common outer palisade, located on the North Saskatchewan River west of White Earth Creek, downriver from Smoky Lake. Also known as Fort White Earth or White Earth House. In 1812 the NWC returned to Fort Augustus and the HBC returned to Fort Edmonton.

Fort de L'Isle (Historic Site)
(1800 - 1801), near Myrnam FORT WIKI
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on Fort (Scotland) Island in the North Saskatchewan River, northeast of town. Also known as Island House.

A North West Co. post (1800 - 1801) and an XY Company post (1799 - 1801) were also located on the island. Each post was a separate operation.

Fort George and Buckingham House (Provincial Historic Site)
(1792 - 1800), near Elk Point
Remains of Hudson's Bay Company (Buckingham House) (FORT WIKI) and North West Company (Fort George) (FORT WIKI) posts (HBC records cover 1792 - 1799), both established the same year, located about 500 yards apart. Admission fee.

Fort Vermilion (2) (Historic Site)
(1802 - 1810, 1811 - 1816), Lea Park
A North West Co. post (aka Fort des Prairies) on the North Saskatchewan River in close proximity with the Hudson's Bay Co. Paint Earth Creek House (HBC records cover 1814 - 1821), both within a common outer palisade for mutual defence. Also known as Paint River Post. Briefly abandoned in 1810 for operations at the Lower Terre Blanche site. Located about 15 km northeast of Marwayne.
(NOTE: This NWC post was one of the two "Fortes des Prairies" located on the North Saskatchewan River.)

Northern Alberta - page 2

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