Northern British Columbia

Alliford Bay WWII Defences | Fort Babine | Barrett Point Battery | Bear Lake Post
Black River Post | Chatham Barracks | Fort Connolly | Dease Lake House | Dease Lake Post
Fort Drew | Fairview Point Battery | Finlay River Post | S. Fraser's Fort | Fort Fraser
Fraser Lake Post | Fort George | Gitlaxdzok Indian Fort | Fort Glenora | Glenora Post
Fort Graham | Fort Halkett | Hazelton Post | Hudson's Hope Post | Fort Kilmaurs
Kitwanga Indian Fort | Kitwanga Post | Klondike Gold Rush NWMP Posts | Laketon Post
Liard Post | Little Bear Lake Post | Lower Post | Fort McDame | McDame Creek Post
Fort McLeod | McLeod Lake Post | Manson Creek Post | Masset Post | Fort Mumford
Nass River Post | Fort Nelson | Fort Nelson River Post | Pine Fort | Pine Creek Post
Prince Rupert Defences | Queen Charlotte Is. Radar Stations | Rocky Mountain Fort
Rocky Mountain Portage Fort | Fort St. James | Fort St. John | Fort Simpson | Fort Stager
Stony Creek Post | Stuart Lake Post | Telegraph Creek Post | Teslin Post | Toad River Post
Trout Lake Fort | Fort Ware

Southern British Columbia - page 1 | Vancouver Island - page 2


Last Update: 22/JULY/2023
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2023 American Forts Network

Fort George (Park)
(1807 - 1915), Prince George FORT WIKI
Originally a North West Co. wintering post. First abandoned in 1808, it was back in permanent operation sometime before 1820 before it was taken over by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821 (HBC records cover 1887 to 1911). Abandoned again in 1824, then re-established in 1829. The post was relocated in 1891 to the mouth of the Nechako River. The town was formally established in 1909. On the site of the original post is the Fraser - Fort George Regional Museum - Exploration Place (admission fee) at 20th Ave. and Gorse Street.

Stony Creek Post
(1886 - 1892), near Vanderhoof
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records cover only 1891) just east of town.

Fort Fraser
(Beaumont Provincial Park)
(1806 - 1915), Fort Fraser FORT WIKI
Originally a North West Co. fur trade post known as Simon Fraser's Fort. Briefly abandoned in 1807, it was back in operation by 1810. Rebuilt in 1818 after it burned down in 1817. Became a Hudson's Bay Co. post in 1822, and completely rebuilt on a new site nearby in 1826, which included a large blockhouse/bastion. Also known as Fraser Lake Post. Briefly closed from 1885 to 1887. The original site of the HBC fort is 4 km to the west of town in Beaumont Provincial Park. In 1911 the post was relocated to nearby Nadleh before it was closed a final time.

Fort St. James (National Historic Site)
(1806 - 1952), Fort St. James FORT WIKI
Originally a North West Co. post known as Stuart Lake Post, then renamed as a Hudson's Bay Co. post beginning in 1822 (HBC records cover 1820 - 1902). The current structure is a reconstruction of the fourth post, from 1896. It also features five restored buildings that date between 1884 and 1889, including the Men's House, Officers' Dwelling, and General Warehouse. This was the headquarters of the HBC's New Caledonia District in 1822. Admission fee.

Fort Babine
(1822 - 1871), Fort Babine
A Hudson's Bay Co. post that was originally located in Old Fort (aka Fort Kilmaurs) located 35 miles southeast, at the "Y" of Babine Lake (east of Smither's Landing), until moved in 1836 to its present location. Possibly moved again (or rebuilt) in 1871. HBC store operations here ended in 1971 (HBC records end in 1923).

Fort Connolly
(1826 - 1878, 1887 - 1892), near Bear Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on the Bear River. Closed in 1878, but re-opened in 1887.

Little Bear Lake Post
(1879 - 1891), near Bear Lake ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Hazelton Post
(1866 - 1868, 1880 - unknown), Hazelton
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records cover 1890 to 1939). The first post was located at Hagwilget but soon closed due to unprofitable business. The HBC returned to the area in 1880 by buying out an independent trader at the forks of the Skeena and Agwilget (Bulkley) Rivers. By 1890 the post was relocated to the south side of the Skeena River about one and one-half miles from the forks. The post was largely destroyed by a flood in 1936, which was then moved across Government Street and rebuilt. The last HBC store on site closed in 1970. The c.1900 Factor's House still remains.

Fort Stager
(unknown dates), Kispiox
A Hudson's Bay Co. post in the Kispiox Valley at the junction of the Kispiox and Skeena Rivers.

Kitwanga Indian Fort
(Gitwangak Battle Hill National Historic Site)
(unknown dates), Kitwanga
A Tsimshian palisade from the late 1600's. It was destroyed in the early 1800's by other tribes.

Kitwanga Post
(unknown dates), Kitwanga
An HBC post or store was located here. It was abandoned and then taken over as a railroad depot by the early 20th-century. No remains.

Gitlaxdzok Indian Fort
(Kitselas Canyon National Historic Site)
(unknown dates), Kitselas
A Tsimshian palisaded village on the Skeena River from the 19th-century.

Harbour Defence of Prince Rupert - FORT WIKI

¤ Barrett Point Battery
(1939 - 1946), Kaien Island
Three 6-inch MK12 guns on MK7 mounts were temporarily emplaced here until 1944, when three 6-inch MK24 guns, two on MK6 mounts and one on a MK5 mount, were emplaced. A 6-pounder Hotchkiss gun was also here, as well as two 40mm Bofors AA guns and two searchlight positions. The battery observation post, plotting room, and magazines still exist, but overgrown with vegetation. At least one searchlight structure still exists, located on the water side of the railroad in front of the battery site. The ruins of the Fire Command post still exist, located on the landward side of the railroad.

¤ Casey Point Battery
(1944 - 1946), Kaien Island
A 6-pounder MK1 twin AMTB battery. Two 25-pounder field-mount guns were also located here, as well as one searchlight position. Emplacement still exists. The anti-submarine net and boom defence was emplaced here and across the sound to Emerson Point on Digby Island.

¤ Fairview Point Battery
(1942 - 1945), Kaien Island
Two American-made 8-inch M1888 M1 guns on M1918 barbette carriages, which were mounted on M1918 M1 rail cars, on a spur of the CN rail line. Gun position no longer exists. Independent fire-control stations for this battery were located on the west side of Digby Island, and on Mount Hayes (ruins extant).

¤ Frederick Point Battery
(1939 - 1946), Digby Island
Two 12-pounder MK1 quick-firing guns on MK1 mounts. Two searchlight positions were nearby. The emplacements and magazines still exist.

¤ Tobey Point Battery
(1942 - 1945), Digby Island
Four 3.7-inch AA guns were located here. No remains.

¤ Dundas Point Battery
(1939 - 1945), Digby Island
A 75mm AMTB battery, with two searchlight positions, to protect the secondary boom defence across Venn Passage. No remains.

¤ Varney Island Battery
(1942 - 1944), Varney Island
A 75mm AMTB battery to protect the boom defence across Venn Passage. No remains.

¤ Pillsbury Cove Battery
(1942 - 1945),
Four 3.7-inch AA guns were located here. No remains.

¤ Seal Cove Battery
(1942 - 1945), Prince Rupert
Four 3.7-inch AA guns were located here to protect the RCAF Seaplane Base. The battery position no longer exists, however the ramp and hangar for the seaplanes still exist, as well as several ammunition magazines.

¤ NOTES: The AA battery on Annette Island, Alaska, was manned by Canadian troops, and was commanded by the Prince Rupert Defence Command. The Naval signal station was located on East Kinahan Island. An anti-submarine magnetic loop indicator station was located on Ridley Island. The Boom Defence Depot was located near Chatham Barracks, the Royal Canadian Navy barracks, near where the present-day cruise ship terminal is located. Chatham Barracks is now the Royal Canadian Legion hall. Twelve mobile 40mm Bofors AA guns were located around the docks. The Federal Building (present-day city hall) was used as the command centre by the Canadian military. Most war-time construction was dismantled soon after the war. The U.S. Army's HQ-Administration Building on First Avenue West near the waterfront docks became an apartment complex after the war (burned down in November 2004). A munitions dump was located behind the city courthouse (site now a sunken garden, two tunnels still extant). A U.S. Army military hospital was built at Miller Bay. Nearby Port Edward was also used by the U.S. Army as an ammunition storage and supply staging area. Twenty ammo magazines were located on Watson Island. A pulp mill is now on the site there.

The Canadian Army operated Armored Train #1 (July 1942 - September 1943) along 80 miles of the Canadian National rail line from the train's base at Terrace to Prince Rupert. It consisted of six modified cars with the engine in the center, two 75mm and four 40mm Bofors AA guns mounted on open flatcars, and two mounted AA searchlights, along with a full company of infantry support troops.

Special thanks to David Morgan and Robert Zink of the Coast Defense Study Group for providing info on the Coast Artillery Defences of British Columbia.

Fort Simpson
(1831 - 1866, 1895 - 1901), Port Simpson
A Hudson's Bay Company stockaded post (HBC records cover to 1926). Originally located near the mouth of the Nass River (aka Nass River Post), it was relocated south in 1834 to Point Maskelyne at the mouth of the Portland Canal. Rebuilt in 1859, closed in 1866. A new post was built in 1895 on the Tsimpsean Peninsula, north of Prince Rupert near Lax Kw'alaams, closed in 1901. An HBC store was later opened here in 1934, closed in 1954.

Masset Post
(1890 - 1897), Masset, Graham Island
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Alliford Bay WWII Defences
(1942 - 1945), Alliford Bay, Moresby Island
A two-gun 75mm AMTB battery and an AA battery to protect the military seaplane base.

Queen Charlotte Islands Radar Stations
(1942 - 1945), various locations
No. 1 Coast Watch Unit RCAF was established in 1942 on the uninhabited west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands to provide visual surveillance. In 1943 when radar coverage permitted, the coast watchers were withdrawn. 1 CWU had eight detachments (each with a "woodsman", two radio operators and a man with "some cooking and camping ability") located (north to south) at Frederick Island, Hippa Island, Kindakun Island, Marble Island, Hibben Island, Tasoo Harbour, Barry Harbour, and Big Bay.

In 1942 construction of a chain of radar stations for surveillance of the Pacific Coast began, implementing the Chain Home Low early warning radars. By November 1943 it was in place. Initially the stations were called "Radio Detachments" and in 1943 the title "Radio Unit" was adopted. The term "RADAR" was not adopted by Canadians until late 1943. The chain ceased operations with the war's end in mid 1945. The RCAF radar sites in the Queen Charlotte Islands were located on Langara Island at Cape Knox, Marble Island in Cartwright Sound (Skidegate Channel), and at Cape St. James on Kunghit Island (now part of South Moresby Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve).

Fort St. John
(1793 - 1823, 1858 - 1923/1950's), Fort St. John FORT WIKI
A North West Co. fur trade post, originally named Rocky Mountain Fort, located on the south bank of the confluence of the Pine and Peace Rivers. It was the oldest white settlement on the BC mainland. It was abandoned in 1805. The NWC then built Pine Fort on the Pine River in 1806, about 500 yards downriver from the Beatton River outflow. The Hudson's Bay Co. took over and rebuilt this post in 1822, renamed it Fort St. John, then later moved the post to Hudson's Hope after Indians killed the traders here in 1823. Fort St. John was re-established in 1858 on the south bank of the Peace River, then relocated upstream on the north bank in 1873 (today's Old Fort area) (HBC records end in 1910). A new store was built in 1925 at Fish Creek, near the present-day community. Of interest in town is the North Peace Museum, at 9323 100th Street (admission fee).

Hudson's Hope Post
(1805 - 1814, 1823 - 1825, 1865 - 1954), Hudson's Hope
Originally located here was a North West Co. trading post known as Rocky Mountain Portage Fort. The Hudson's Bay Co. moved Fort St. John here in 1823, but then closed it in 1825. This post was located on the south side of the Peace River at the east end of the portage. The post was not re-established again until 1865. The name "Hudson's Hope" first appears in 1868. Relocated to the north side of the river in 1897, it was moved again to its present site in 1899 (HBC records cover 1895 to 1907). A new store was built in 1913. A replica of the post is at the Hudson's Hope Museum, which was the former HBC store built in 1942. A log church, trapper's cabin and other buildings are preserved.

Fort McLeod (National Historic Site)
(1805 - 1911), McLeod Lake FORT WIKI
A North West Co. fur trade post, originally known as Trout Lake Fort. Renamed and relocated to a new site by the HBC in 1822. Also known as McLeod Lake Post. Relocated again in 1853. HBC records end in 1911. Several structures from the 1920's and 1940's still remain.

Manson Creek Post
(1935 - unknown), Manson Creek
An HBC retail store to supply local gold miners. The main HBC log building is still extant, as well as several other mining structures and cabins.

Fort Graham
(1870's - 1922), Fort Graham
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin 1890) located near the north-middle of Williston Lake, several miles up from the Peace River junction. Also known as Bear Lake Post. Site is submerged under the waters of the man-made lake since the late 1960's.

Finlay River Post
A Hudson's Bay Co. post. Exact location undetermined, possibly at or near the original Fort Ware location.

Fort Ware
(1870's ? - 1939), near Fort Ware
A Hudson's Bay Co. trade post (HBC records cover 1890 to 1922). Originally located about a mile or so above the White Water River, it was moved several times. The present community was relocated in the 1960's due to the impoundment of Williston Lake.

Fort Nelson
(1805 - 1902/1967), Fort Nelson
Originally a North West Company fur trade post, located about 80 miles up the Liard River from the forks. Attacked and destroyed by Beaver Indians in early 1813. Became a Hudson's Bay Co. post in 1822. Relocated in 1865 to the junction of the Fort Nelson and Muskwa Rivers (HBC records cover 1871 to 1902). An HBC store was established in 1942 near the Alaska Highway, taking the name of "Fort Nelson", which became the nucleus of the present town. The former post site then became known as Fort Nelson River, and was relocated a mile further up the river in 1944. The HBC store there closed in 1967. Of interest in town is the Fort Nelson Heritage Museum operated by the Fort Nelson Historical Society.

Toad River Post
(1867 - 1889 ?), Toad River
A Hudson's Bay Co. post. The town was abandoned by 1890.

Black River Post
(1888 ? - 1892/1898),
An independent trade post operated by Rufus Sylvester until bought out by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1888 (HBC records begin in 1890). The HBC sold the post to private interests in 1892. Located on the north side of the forks of the Black River (aka Turnagain River), near the Dall River, about 70 miles or so upstream from its confluence with the Liard River.

Fort Halkett
(Smith River Falls Provincial Park)
(1829 - 1875), near Smith River
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records end in 1865) originally on the Liard River, near the Fort Nelson River. Relocated in 1831 to the Buffalo River, near the Reindeer River. Relocated again in 1832 to the mouth of the Smith River. The last site is preserved as a protected area within the provincial park.

Liard Post
(1876 - 1911), Lower Post
An independent trade post operated by Rufus Sylvester until bought out by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1888. A new post was built in 1889 (HBC records begin in 1890). The town later became known as Lower Post to distinguish it from Upper Liard (settled 1954) in Yukon Territory. HBC store operations ceased here in the mid 1950's.

Fort Drew
(1850 ? - unknown), near Good Hope Lake ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located south of Lower Post.

McDame Creek Post
(1875 - 1943), McDame Post
An independent trade post operated by Rufus Sylvester until bought out by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1888 (HBC records cover 1877 - 1923), located on McDame's Creek at its confluence with the Dease River, near Good Hope Lake, first established during the Cassiar region gold rush. Also known as Fort McDame. The post was moved in 1890 and again in 1928. The town, formerly named Sylvester's Landing, was abandoned by 1960. Ruins remain.

Dease Lake House
(1837 - 1838, 1875 - 1945), near Dease Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. fur trade post built by Robert Campbell, originally located about 50km north of the Tanzilla River. Abandoned after only a year or so of use due to trouble with the local Indians. Later re-established further south at Laketon (Laketon Post) during the region's gold rush period (HBC records cover 1898 to 1904). Relocated in 1906 to Porter's Landing, just south of Thibert Creek, as Dease Lake Post. Rebuilt/relocated again in 1928. Ruins of the last post still exist.

Telegraph Creek Post
(1902 - unknown), Telegraph Creek
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records cover to 1909). The HBC initially purchased the Casa Trading Company buildings and stock. In 1904 the buildings at the closed Glenora store were relocated here. HBC store operations here ended in 1972. The historic main building (built 1898) is now a lodge and restaurant (Riversong Lodge, Cafe and General Store) since 1977. Gold was discovered on the Stikine River in the 1860's. A telegraph line was connected in 1866.

Fort Mumford ?
(1799 - unknown), near Glenora ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. (?) post on the Stikine River.

Glenora Post
(1874 - 1898, 1899 - 1903), Glenora
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin in 1897) located at Glenora Landing. Also known as Fort Glenora. After the first post was closed and relocated to Teslin Lake, a new store was built in 1899, but then closed in 1903 to consolidate with the post at Telegraph Creek.

Teslin Post
(1898 - 1901), Teslin Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the southern end of the lake, according to the HBC Archives post locator map. Closed in 1901 and the post manager transferred to Liard (Lower Post). Re-established in 1903 at Teslin, Yukon Territory (see also).
NOTE: The NWMP Teslin Post (1906) was in Yukon Territory.

Pine Creek Post
(1904 - 1905), near Atlin
A NWMP post. The former gold-mining community was later named Discovery. Located 8.7 km east of town along Discovery Road.

Klondike Gold Rush NWMP Posts
(Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site)
(1898 - 1899), near Bennett
North West Mounted Police tent camps were located at Lindeman (1898), Bennett, White Pass (1898), Log Cabin, and Chilkoot Pass. These posts were established during the later stages of the Klondike gold rush to control the flow of people and materiél over the border. The NWMP first arrived in the Yukon Territory in 1895. NWMP detachments arrived at Chilkoot Pass in February 1898, just days before the U.S. Army arrived in Skagway, and confirmed this area for Canada when the international boundary was still undetermined. The Chilkoot Pass detachment transferred to Lindeman in July 1898, then left from there in November 1898. The White Pass detachment transferred to Log Cabin. The park is administered by the Yukon National Historic Sites Division of Parks Canada.

Towns: Hyland Post in Spatsizi Plateau Wilderness Park.

Southern British Columbia - page 1 | Vancouver Island - page 2

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at