Northern Manitoba

Apsley House | Bachelor's Fort | Fort Bourbon (1) | Fort Bourbon (2) | Fort Bourbon (3)
Burntwood Lake Post | Cape Merry Battery | Caribou Post | Carlton House | Cedar Lake Posts
Chatham House | Chipewyan Lake Post | Fort Churchill (1) | Fort Churchill (3)
Churchill Post (2) | Cobham River Posts | Cold Lake Post | Cranberry Portage Post
Cross Lake Posts | Cross Portage Post | Fort Defiance | Duck Portage Post
Flamborough House | French Creek Fort | Gillam Post | Gisipigimack Post | God's Lake House
Gordon's House | Grand Rapids Post (2) | Granville House | Fort Hall | Hulse House
Indian Lake Posts | Island Lake Post | Jack River Post | Knee Lake Post | Lac du Brochet Post
Lake of the Islands Posts | Logan's Depot | Loon River Post | McKay House
Moose Lake Posts | Mossy Portage Post | Muscawegan Post | Fort Nelson | Nelson House (1)
Nelson House (2) | Nelson River House | Nonala Post | Norway House | Oxford House
Paint Lake Post | Fort Le Pas | The Pas Post | Fort Paskoya (1)(2)(3) | Fort Pasquia (1)(2)(3)
Pelican Lake Post | Fort Phélipeaux | Pike Lake Post | Poplar River Posts (1)
Poplar River Post (2) | Port Nelson Post | Portland House | Fort Prince of Wales
Pukatawagan Post | Pukatawagan Lake Post | Rainbow Island Fort | Rat River Posts
Reed Lake Posts | Rock Depot | Rossville Post | Fort Seaborn | Shamattawa Post
Sipiwesk Lake Post | South Indian Lake Post | Split Lake House | Sturgeon River Post
Swampy Lake Post | Three Points Post | Threepoint Lake Post | Thunder Lake Post
Wabowden Post | Wapiscow House | Wegg's House | Wepiskow Lake Post
Windy Lake Post | Fort York | York Factory (1) | York Factory (2)

Southern Manitoba - page 1

MANITOBA HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Last Update: 06/NOVEMBER/2010
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2010 American Forts Network

NOTE: This part of the province north of the 53rd Parallel was once part of the North West Territories until 1912.

Poplar River Post (2)
(1880 - 1941), Poplar River
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the mouth of the Poplar River at Lake Winnipeg.

Thunder Lake Post
(1806 - 1807), near Weaver Lake ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Poplar River.

Poplar River Posts (1)
(unknown dates), near
A Hudson's Bay Co. post and a North West Co. post located several miles up the river near the Ontario border.

Windy Lake Post
(1824 - unknown), near Charron Lake ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located near the head of the Cobham River near the Ontario border.

Cobham River Posts
(unknown dates),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post and a North West Co. post located on the Cobham River near the Ontario border.

Lake of the Islands Posts
(1800 - 1818 ?), Island Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the eastern shore of Island Lake near Sagawitchewan Bay, near the Ontario border.

A North West Co. post was located nearby in 1803.

Island Lake Post
(1818 - 1940), Island Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the village of Island Lake.

God's Lake House
(1825/1828 - 1940), God's Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin 1825) located on Elk Island. Probably rebuilt/relocated in 1828.

Gisipigimack Post
(1938 - 1939),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the God's River.

Shamattawa Post
(1887 - 1938), Shamattawa
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the God's River. Also known as Sturgeon River Post.

Oxford House
(1798 - 1941), Oxford House
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Hayes River at Oxford Lake.

Knee Lake Post
(1815 - 1818), Knee Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Hayes River.

Swampy Lake Post
(1817 - 1819), Swampy Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Hayes River below Knee Lake.

Logan's Depot
(1819 - unknown), near Swampy Lake ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Hayes River below Knee Lake, probably near Swampy Lake.

Gordon House
(1794 - 1821),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Hayes River, below Berwick Falls.

Nearby was located Rock Depot (1816 - unknown) (above the falls ?).

Norway House (Provincial Heritage Site)
(Canadian Register of Historic Places)
(1814 - 1868/1939), Norway House
A Hudson's Bay Co. post and major supply depot. Originally located at Big Mossy Point (Warren Landing) on Lake Winnipeg, relocated up the Nelson River in 1826. Extant structures include the Archway Warehouse (1840 - 1841), Jail (1855 - 1856), and Powder Magazine ruin (1837 - 1838). See also A Brief History of Norway House from Norway House Cree Nation

Rossville Post
(1884 - 1940), near Norway House
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the Methodist mission settlement.
See also Rossville Mission (1840) Manitoba Heritage Council historic marker

Jack River Post
(1801 - 1814), near Norway House
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin 1796), replaced by Norway House.

Cross Lake Posts
(1795 - 1940), Cross Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post. Originally known as Apsley House.

The North West Co. built a post here in 1800.

Sipiwesk Lake Post
(1792 - unknown), Sipiwesk Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Nelson River.

Cross Portage Post
(1885 - 1889), near Thicket Portage
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the portage between Wintering Lake and Landing Lake.

Wabowden Post
(1922/1929 - 1932), Wabowden
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on Setting Lake. The town was created in 1913.

Wegg's House
(1795 - 1796),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Grass River, near Pisew Falls.

Paint Lake Post
(Paint Lake Provincial Park)
(1790 - unknown), Paint Lake
A North West Co. post located on the Grass River. Also known as McKay House.

The Hudson's Bay Co.'s Chatham House was located nearby on Wintering Lake in 1791 - 1792.

Hulse House
(1796 - 1797),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on either the Burntwood or Grass Rivers, near Paint Lake.

Rat River Posts
(1789 - unknown), near Nelson House
A North West Co. post located on the Rat River.

A Hudson's Bay Co. post was also located here (date ?).

Threepoint Lake Post
(1833 - 1856), near Nelson House
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Burntwood River. Also known as Fort Seaborn or Nelson River House. Replaced by Nelson House (2).

Nelson House (2)
(1856 - 1938), Nelson House
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Split Lake House
(1790 - 1941), Split Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Nelson River. Rebuilt in 1810.

Gillam Post
(1927 - 1931), Gillam
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin 1929). An HBC store was in operation here until 1968. See also History of Gillam from Town of Gillam

Flamborough House
(1750 - 1754), near Port Nelson
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Nelson River.

Fort Nelson
(1670 - 1713), Port Nelson
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the mouth of the Nelson River. Abandoned (date ?), then later rebuilt (Fort Nelson II) in 1682 on Woodchuck Creek. Bachelor's Fort was also built nearby in 1682 after the French had built Fort Bourbon (1) in 1682 in view of the British traders. The HBC seized it in 1683. Fort Nelson II was then captured and destroyed by the French in 1683. The French also built Rainbow Island Fort nearby in 1683. The HBC then rebuilt the post yet again in 1683 (Fort Nelson III). The post was again rebuilt by the HBC in 1684, now renamed Fort York, or York Factory (1), a "strong" fort with six guns (HBC records begin 1688), later strengthened with four bastions in 1691. The French also built French Creek Fort nearby in 1684, and re-established Fort Bourbon II in 1685. Fort York was captured by the French in October 1694, renamed Fort Bourbon III. Taken back by the HBC in the spring of 1695. The French captured the fort yet again in September 1697, and was renamed Fort Phélipeaux by 1700. Just offshore from here, in the largest Arctic naval battle in North America, one French ship defeated three British (HBC) ships in September 1697 in a struggle over control of York Factory. The post was finally returned to the British by treaty in 1713 but was not reoccupied. The post was re-established on the Hayes River in 1715 (see below).

Port Nelson Post
(1917 - 1919), Port Nelson
A Royal Canadian Mounted Police patrol post for Hudson Bay. The town was proposed to be the Hudson Bay Railway terminus, but many problems forced its abandonment in favour of Churchill. Site now a ghost town. See also Port Nelson and the Hudson Bay Railway from the Manitoba Historical Society

York Factory (2) (National Historic Site)
(Canadian Register of Historic Places)
(1788 - 1957), York Factory
York Factory II (1715 - 1788) was located at the mouth of the Hayes River. The current post, about eight km up the Hayes River, is York Factory III (HBC records end 1939). It began as an octagonal stone fort in 1788, but was razed by 1831 and replaced by all wooden structures due to permafrost damage. This was the main field headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company until it finally closed in 1957. A depot/warehouse, built in 1832, is the oldest wooden structure still standing on permafrost. Across Sloop Creek are the ruins of a stone powder magazine and an 18th-century cemetery. Admission fee. Access by boat or floatplane only.

The North West Mounted Police made patrols to here as early as 1890, but did not establish a permanent post.

Fort Bourbon (2)
(1741 - 1749), Grand Rapids
A French trade fort located just below the "grand rapids" of the Saskatchewan River, just west of the Lake Winnipeg shore.

Grand Rapids Post (2)
(1877 - 1910), Grand Rapids
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Cedar Lake Post (1)
(1857 - unknown), near Easterville
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located above the "grand rapids" of the Saskatchewan River, near Cross Bay at the narrows into Cedar Lake proper.

Mossy Portage Post
(1880's), near Denbeigh Point
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the northern shore of Lake Winnipegosis at the "Mossy Portage" to Cedar Lake. Shown on an 1888 NWMP map.

Cedar Lake Post (2)
(1881 - 1940), Cedar Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the outlet of the Saskatchewan River on the northwestern shore of Cedar Lake, below the Moose Lake River, as shown on an 1888 NWMP map.

Moose Lake Posts
(1872 - 1918), Moose Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

A North West Co. post was earlier located here in 1819.

Forts of The Pas
(1742 - 1744, 1750 - 1759, 1769, 1879 - 1935), near The Pas
A French trade fort, originally known as Fort Pasquia (Paskoya) (1), was located on what is now Fort Island in the Saskatchewan River delta, just off its outflow into Cedar Lake, in 1742. Abandoned in 1744.

The French next built Fort Bourbon (3) in 1750, at the site of Fort Pasquia (1) or slightly upriver. It was pillaged and burned by Indians in 1758 and not rebuilt.

Meanwhile a second Fort Pasquia (Paskoya) (2) was built further upriver in 1754 by the French, near the present town of The Pas. Also known as Fort Le Pas. It was abandoned in 1759.

An independent British trade post was later established near the site of Fort Pasquia (2) in 1769 (Fort Pasquia (3)).

The Hudson's Bay Co. operated The Pas Post from 1879 - 1935. Also known as Fort Defiance (according to the HBC Archives). The Anglican Mission at Le Pas was founded in 1840. The present town was not formally created and settled until 1906. The Sam Waller Museum (admission fee) at 306 Fischer Ave. has exhibits on the fur trade history of the area.

Cranberry Portage Post
(1804 - unknown), Cranberry Portage
A North West Co. post.

Reed Lake Posts
(Grass River Provincial Park)
(1794 - 1795), Reed Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

A North West Co. post was located nearby (date ?).

Cold Lake Post
(1869),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post, possibly located near Kississing Lake.

Pelican Lake Post
(1793 - unknown),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Burntwood River, south of Burntwood Lake.

Wepiskow Lake Post
(1793 - 1794), Burntwood Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

The North West Co.'s Burntwood Lake Post was also located here (date ?).

Loon River Post
(1798 - 1799),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Churchill River at the mouth of the Loon River, at the Saskatchewan border.

Duck Portage Post
(1795 - 1796),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Churchill River, near Sisipuk Lake or Pukatawagan Lake.

Wapiscow House
(1793 - unknown), near Pukatawagan
A North West Co. post located on Pukatawagan Lake.

Pukatawagan Lake Post
(1793 - unknown), near Pukatawagan
An independent British trade post located on Pukatawagan Lake.

Pukatawagan Post
(1929 - 1941), Pukatawagan
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Carlton House
(1795 - 1797), Flatrock Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Kississing River near its confluence with the Churchill River. Also known as Three Points Post.

Nelson House (1)
(1800 - 1827), Highrock
A Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records begin 1802) located on the Churchill River at Highrock or Nelson Lake.

Muscawegan Post
(1804 - unknown), Granville Lake
A North West Co. post located on the Churchill River at Granville Lake, below Granville Falls.

The Hudson's Bay Co.'s Granville House was located nearby in 1794 - 1796.

Indian Lake Posts
(1803 - unknown), South Indian Lake
A North West Co. post located on the Churchill River at Southern Indian Lake.

A Hudson's Bay Co. post was located here in 1805 - 1824. Also known as South Indian Lake Post.

Chipewyan Lake Post
(1800 - 1801),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Churchill River.

Portland House
(1796 - 1797),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Little Churchill River. Also known as Pike Lake Post.

Fort Prince of Wales (National Historic Site)
(1731 - 1782), near Churchill
A Hudson's Bay Co. post. This is a large partially restored 42-gun stone fort located on Eskimo Point just across the Churchill River from town. It took 40 years to complete and surrendered to the French without firing a shot in August 1782. The French destroyed the fort but left after only three days. The fort was designed for a 400-man garrison, but only had 39 defenders in 1782.

Cape Merry Battery (Historic Site)
(1744 - 1782), Churchill
A stone battery to compliment Fort Prince of Wales. Relocated to its present site in 1747. Reconstructed in 1960. Ruins of the stone powder magazine still remain at the first site. Only one cannon, of six, was ever actually emplaced. Admission fee (part of Fort Prince of Wales NHS). The Parks Canada Visitor Centre in Bayport Plaza has info and displays on the area's fur trade history and HBC posts.

Fort Churchill (1)
(1689, 1717 - 1740's ?, 1783 - 1941), near Churchill
The first Hudson's Bay Co. post (Fort Churchill I) was built about eight km upriver on the west bank, but burned down soon after it was built. Fort Churchill II was built in 1717 on the same site, later replaced by Fort Prince of Wales (date uncertain as it was under construction for so long). The third named post (Fort Churchill III) was built nearby in 1783, in use until 1941.

Churchill Post (2)
(1906 - 1917 ?), Churchill
A Royal North West Mounted Police patrol post for Hudson Bay.

Fort Churchill (3)
(Churchill Rocket Research Range National Historic Site)
(1942 - 1980), Fort Churchill PHOTOS
In 1942 the United States Army Air Force, with Canadian approval, built an airbase, with the infrastructure and quarters to support it, which became known as "Fort Churchill", located about five miles east of the town. It was later to become the support centre for the adjacent Churchill Rocket Research Range, which was established in 1957 about 16 km south of the airbase. It became a logistics and service centre for much of the central Arctic and, at one time, it housed a boarding school where teenage Inuit students were brought to receive higher education. In an attempt to modernize the Churchill townsite, new public housing and infrastructure was created and the population of Fort Churchill was relocated. With the end of government-sponsored rocket launches in 1985, the buildings at the site were demolished. The remnants of the former post are still clearly visible, next to the Churchill Airport. See also Canadian Space Agency - Fort Churchill || History of Churchill from Town of Churchill

Caribou Post
(1930 - 1941), Caribou Lake
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Caribou River at Caribou Lake. The post was relocated 50 miles west to Little Duck Lake in 1941, closed in 1956. Ruins remain of five buildings at Little Duck Lake. The U.S. Army established a weather station at Little Duck Lake in 1943-46.

Nonala Post
(1937 - 1939),
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Hudson Bay just south of the Nunavut border.

Fort Hall
(unknown dates), Fort Hall
No data. A community located on Fort Hall Lake in the far northwest corner of the province.

Lac du Brochet Post
(1872 - 1940), Brochet
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the north shore of Reindeer Lake at Brochet Bay, along the Saskatchewan border.


NEED MORE INFO:
Towns: Fort Hall.

Southern Manitoba - page 1

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com