Canadian Forts


Ash Island Blockhouse | Fort l'Assomption | Fort de Belmont | Berthier Post
Blairfindie Barracks | Fort Boucherville | Carillon Barracks (2) | Fort Carillon (1)
Post at Cedars Rapids (2) | Fort Chambly | Châteauguay Battlefield | Châteauguay Blockhouse
Chaudière River Blockhouse | Fort Contrecoeur | Fort Côte St. Jean | Fort at Coteau du Lac
Fort Crevier | Fort Cuillerier | Fort des Deux Montagnes | Droulers Site | Fort Gentilly
Fort Gervais | Camp at Halfway House | Hochelaga | Fort de l'Île aux Noix
Fort at tip of Île Jésus | Fort at Île Perrot | Fort de l'Île Ste. Hélène
St. Helen's Island Military Depot | Île St. Paul Forts | Fort Île Ste. Thérèse | Fort La Gabelle
Fort La Galleth | Fort La Grande Anse | Fort La Prairie | Fort Le Tremblay
Fort at Les Cèdres (1) | Fort Lachine | Lachine Fur Depot | Lacolle Bridge Blockhouse
Lacolle River Blockhouse | Lake St. Peter Post | Lake of Two Mountains Posts | Fort Lennox
Fort de Long Sault | Fort de la Longue Pointe | Fort Longueuil | Fort des Messieurs
Missisquoi Bay Blockhouse | Fort de la Montagne | Fortress Montréal | Montréal Post
Fort Nouvelle Lorette | Philipsburg Blockhouse | Fort at Pointe Claire | Pointe Fortune Post
Fort Pointe aux Trembles | Fort Pontchartrain (2) | Fort Présentation
Prison Island Blockhouse | Fort Rémy | Fort Richelieu | Fort de la Rivière des Prairies
Fort des Roches | Fort Rolland | Fort Ste. Anne (1) | Fort Ste. Anne (2) | Fort St. François
Fort St. Gabriel | Fort Ste. Geneviève | Fort St. Jean | Fort St. John | Fort St. Lambert
Fort St. Louis | Fort Ste. Marie | Fort Ste. Thérèse | Fort du Sault aux Récollets
Fort Sault St. Louis | Fort Senneville | Fort Sorel (1) | Sorel Post (2) | Three Rivers Post
Fort Trois Rivières | Tsiionhiakwatha | Fort Varennes | Fort Verchères | Fort Verdun
Fort Ville Marie | Lower Yamaska Blockhouse | Upper Yamaska Blockhouse

Québec City - page 2 | Eastern Québec - page 3
Western Québec - page 4 | Northern Québec - page 5

Last Update: 12/NOVEMBER/2014
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2014 American Forts Network

NOTE: This was the heartland and most important region of all New France. Became the British colony of Québec in 1763, renamed Lower Canada in 1791, then joined Upper Canada (Ontario) in 1841 to form the single combined colony of Canada. Provincial status was restored in 1867.

Fort du Long-Sault
(1660, 1690's), near Carillon ? or Grenville ?
An abandoned Indian stronghold on the Ottawa River (?) that was repaired and manned by a small French 18-man patrol and 40 allied Huron Indians, led by Dollard des Ormeaux, as they were ambushed by 200 Onondaga Indians in May 1660. The attacking Indians were soon re-inforced by 500 Mohawks, but each attack was repulsed by the French. In the end, a powder keg exploded which helped wipe out the garrison. The exact location of the fort has been lost to history.

A second fort (same name) was later (1690's) built in the same general area to control illegal trading, manned by a few troops. A companion post was also located on the south bank of the Ottawa River near Pointe-Fortune. Both later became normal trading posts.

Fort Carillon (1)
(unknown dates), Carillon
A French trading post, apparently not the same as above.

Carillon Barracks (2) (National Historic Site)
(Carillon Canal National Historic Site)
(1836 - 1840), Carillon
Originally built as housing for the workers of the Carillon Canal project. Located at 50 Rue Principale (or 44 Route de Long-Sault), this building housed about 100 British soldiers in 1837 during the Patriots' Rebellion. Also known as the Old Barracks (1835), it became a hotel after 1840. Now home of the Argenteuil Historical Society Museum (admission fee), since 1938.

Fort des Deux-Montagnes
(1721 - 1760 ?), Oka
Originally a stockaded French Sulpician mission with a small regular garrison. A stone fort with three bastions was built in the 1740's, enclosing the church and rectory. A palisaded Indian village was adjacent.

Lake of Two Mountains Posts
(1819 - 1860), Lac des Deux-Montagnes
Originally a North West Company post, then becoming a Hudson's Bay Co. post in 1821.

The XY Company had a post here in 1803, and an independent British post was also here briefly in 1821.

Fort at Les Cèdres (1)
(1752 ? - 1760 ?), Les Cèdres
A small French stockade, garrisoned by only seven men in 1752.

Post at The Cedars Rapids (2)
(1775 - 1776), Les Cèdres
An American encampment on the St. Lawrence River above Montréal during the invasion of Canada. It was attacked and captured by the British in May 1776.

Fort at Coteau-du-Lac (National Historic Site)
(1779 - 1780's, 1813 - 1856), Coteau-du-Lac FORT WIKI
An earthwork fort with two wooden blockhouses. A new octagonal stone blockhouse was built in 1813, along with a cloverleaf earthwork bastion, to protect the canal. Restored in 1965. See also Société d'Histoire de Coteau-du-Lac

On nearby Prison Island was Prison Island Blockhouse (1780, rebuilt 1814), used to guard a POW camp during the American Revolution and the War of 1812.

(Droulers - Tsiionhiakwatha Archaeological Site)
(15th-century), Saint-Anicet
A reconstructed 15th-century Iroquois village and museum. Admission fee.

Châteauguay Battlefield (National Historic Site)
(1813), Allan's Corners
Site of a Canadian victory against the Americans (October 1813). Admission fee.

Châteauguay Blockhouse
(1814), Châteauguay
A British wooden blockhouse built after the battle.

Fort at Île Perrot
(unknown dates), Île-Perrot
A French stockaded outpost.

Fort Senneville
(Québec Provincial Historic Sites)
(Montréal Historic Sites)
(1671 - 1760, 1776), Senneville
A French stockaded trading post about one-half mile above the Ste. Anne rapids. In 1686 a large stone windmill was built on a nearby hill, doubling as a watch tower. It had very thick walls with several square loopholes, and downward-facing projections at the top for pouring hot liquids and/or rocks down on attackers. The mill was attacked by Iroquois raiders in 1687. The fort was burned down by the Iroquois in 1691. The fort was rebuilt in 1692 with thick stone walls and corner tower bastions due to constant Iroquois raids in the area. This was Montréal's strongest outlying fort. It was never attacked again. The windmill was rebuilt in 1700, and was probably still in use until the 1780's. The local seigneural manor house was built within the fort in 1706 by Jacques LeBer. Not used by the British as a military post. Briefly occupied by American troops in May 1776, and burned as they retreated south after the Battle of The Cedars. Ruins still remain at Abbott Point. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places || Ancestry

Fort Sainte-Anne (2)
(1683 - unknown), Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue
A French stockaded village. Attacked by Iroquois raiders in 1687.

Fort Sainte-Geneviève
(unknown dates), undetermined location
A stockaded French outpost on the south bank of the Rivière des Prairies, east of Fort Senneville.

Fort at Pointe-Claire
(unknown dates), Pointe-Claire
A French stockaded outpost.

Fort Gentilly
(1674 - unknown), Dorval
A stockaded French fort. Also known as Fort Présentation and Fort La Grande-Anse.

Fort Rolland
(1670 - 1689), Lachine
A stockaded French fur trade post west of Fort Lachine. Garrisoned by colonial troops in the 1680's. Abandoned for Fort Rémy in 1689 after an Iroquois raid on the settlers' village.

Fort Lachine
(LeBer - LeMoyne House National Historic Site)
(1669 - 1695), Lachine
Also known as Fort Rémy after the 1680 arrival of Father Pierre Rémy. Originally consisted of a stone windmill, chapel, trade store, barracks, seigneural house, and other smaller buildings, all within a bastioned palisade. The village (established later outside the fort) was attacked by Iroquois raiders in 1689. The garrison was increased afterwards. The main house was originally built for Jacques LeBer and Charles LeMoyne. They operated the post until 1685. In 1689 the house was damaged by fire in the attack, and its trading location was abandoned in 1695. The house was thereafter used as a private residence until 1946 when it was acquired by the city and renovated. Today the property consists of the house proper, its rear annex and the dependent outbuilding, a separate utility building constructed at the same time as the house. The complex is now part of the Musée de la Ville de Lachine, located at 110 Chemin LaSalle.

Lachine Fur Depot
(The Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site)
(1803 - 1861), Lachine
A North West Co. storage depot, later becoming Hudson's Bay Co. property in 1833. In 1861 it became the property of the Congrégation des Soeurs de Sainte-Anne. The warehouse was then used for a variety of purposes: a dormitory for the young girls, laundry, classroom, and lodging for the workers at the college, before finally becoming a museum in 1984. Located at 1255 Boul. Saint-Joseph. This stone warehouse is the only original HBC fur trade facility still standing in the Montréal region. Admission fee.

Montréal Post
(1814 - 1931), Montréal
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Fort Cuillerier
(1676 - unknown), LaSalle
A stockaded outpost of Lachine built on the land of René Cuillerier.

Fort Verdun
(1662 - unknown), Verdun
A stockaded outpost of Montréal.

Fort Sault-Saint-Louis (National Historic Site)
(1724 - 1760 ?), Kahnawake
A French stockaded guardhouse and troop barracks at the Sault-Saint-Louis rapids to protect the "Christianized" Mohawks of the Saint Francis Xavier / Caughnawaga Mission (relocated here in 1716). The palisade was replaced with stone walls in 1747, but was never completed as the Indians objected to having stone walls face their village, which was palisaded with earthen bastions. Traces of the earthen walls still remain. The remaining section of the stone walls has been restored. The original mission Presbytery (built 1720) still remains. The church was rebuilt in 1845. Located on River Front Road.

Fort La Prairie
(1684 - 1689), La Prairie
A Christian Mohawk stockaded village with two earthen bastions near the river. The village was first settled in 1667 with the establishment of the French Jesuit Saint Francis Xavier Mission. Attacked by English-allied Mohawks, possibly accompanied by New York colonial militia, in 1691. The village was relocated in 1689.

Forts on Île Saint-Paul
(unknown dates), Île Saint-Paul
Two French stockaded outposts were located on the island.

Fort Saint-Gabriel
(unknown dates), Montréal
A French stockaded outpost.

(c. 1535), Montréal
A Huron palisaded village visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535.

Fort de la Montagne (National Historic Site)
(History of the Grand Séminaire de Montréal)
(1682 - 1721 ?), Montréal FORT WIKI
Located at the base of Mont-Royal. Also called Fort des Messieurs and Fort de Belmont, after Father de Belmont and the Messieurs de l'Ordre de Saint-Sulpice. A French Sulpician mission (Notre-Dame-des-Neiges) was built in 1679. After several Iroquois raids, it was fortified in 1682 by a rectangular wooden palisade 230 feet by 114 feet with earthen bastions. A nearby Indian village was also palisaded. In 1685 an 11-foot high, 200 by 140-foot stone wall, with four round stone "turrets" or towers (43 feet high) at each corner, replaced the palisade. The walls and towers had several loopholes. Attacked by Iroquois raiders in 1694. The mission buildings (chapel and priest's house) were rebuilt with stone in 1695. The local Indians were resettled in 1721, and the mission was finally demolished in the 1860's. The two southern towers still remain on the grounds of the Grand Séminaire de Montréal along Rue Sherbrooke Ouest at Rue du Fort. Guided tours available.

Fort Ville-Marie
(1642 - 1672), Montréal
Originally a palisaded Habitation at the mouth of the Rivière de St. Pierre, established by Paul de Chomedey, sieur de Maisonneuve. Earthen bastions were built in 1645 to protect against Iroquois raids. Chomedey's house was also palisaded, and a nearby masonry mill was built with loopholes. The fort was demolished in 1688 as the city expanded northeast. See also Pointe-à-Callière - Montréal Museum of Archaeology and History

Fortress Montréal
(Old Montréal Visitor Info)
(1687 - 1804), Montréal
Originally centered around Place-Royale. The expanded city was palisaded beginning in 1687. It was rebuilt in 1697. There were five gates. A small redoubt was built in 1693 on a hill to the north, and by 1709 it was included within the expanded palisade. It was rebuilt in 1723 as a small citadel and military headquarters. Stone walls and ramparts (18 feet high) were built from 1717 to 1744, mostly following the trace of the old log palisade, running from present-day McGill Street to St. Hubert Street. There were 14 large bastions and eight gates. The city was occupied by British troops from September 1760 to 1872, with the Americans holding it from September 1775 to May 1776. The British demolished the city's walls between 1804 to 1817. The foundations of the Jesuits' Bastion and the Saint-Laurent Bastion have been excavated and preserved in a park (Champ-de-Mars) along Rue Saint-Antoine behind the city hall and courthouse. Located at Place Royale in Old Montréal is the Pointe-à-Callière - Montréal Museum of Archaeology and History (admission fee), with an underground portion of the excavated stone walls on display. A small section of the wall is also on display at the southern end of Place Jacques-Cartier.

Fort Sainte-Marie
(unknown dates), Montréal
A French stockaded outpost.

St. Helen's Island Military Depot
(Parc Jean-Drapeau)
(David M. Stewart Museum)
(1820 - 1872), Île Sainte-Hélène, Montréal FORT WIKI
This was the only British-built defense of the city. Also known as Fort de l'Île Sainte-Hélène. Known locally simply as "The Fort". There are barracks, an armory, arsenal, blockhouse, and two powder magazines on the site. Restored in the 1930's. During WWII Italian POWs were kept here. The Stewart Museum (1955) is in the former Arsenal. Admission fee.
NOTE: the nearby Lévis Tower was built in the 1930's as a water tower and public observation deck. It was not a part of the fort.

Fort Saint-Lambert
(unknown dates), Saint-Lambert
A French stockaded outpost.

Fort Longueuil (National Historic Site)
(1695 - 1760, 1775), Longueuil
The fortified château of Charles Le Moyne. It consisted of a large rectangular two-story high stone wall (226 by 153 feet) with a stone tower at each corner (18 feet in diameter), within which was built the manor house, chapel, stable, barn, and other dependencies. It was completed in 1698. Regular troops were posted here in the early 1700's, but were withdrawn until 1755. American troops occupied the château in 1775. The fort was demolished in 1810, and a church was built on its site. The site extends beneath present-day Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue Cathedral, constructed in 1887, as well as under Saint-Charles Street, Chambly Road, and adjacent buildings. Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue Cathedral contains stone building materials and elements salvaged from the original fort, and from the original church that succeeded it.

Fort Le Tremblay
(unknown dates), Longueuil
A French stockaded outpost located about halfway between Forts Longueuil and Boucherville.

Fort Boucherville
(1668 - unknown), Boucherville
A French stockaded outpost.

Fort de la Longue-Pointe
(unknown dates), Montréal
A French stockaded outpost.

Fort Nouvelle-Lorette
(1696 - 1721), Montréal
A French stone-walled village and Indian mission on the Rivière des Prairies. Also known as Fort du Sault-aux-Récollets.

Fort Pointe-aux-Trembles
(unknown dates), Pointe-aux-Trembles
A French stockaded outpost.

Fort de la Rivière-des-Prairies
(unknown dates), Montréal
A French stockaded outpost.

Fort at tip of Île Jésus
(unknown dates), Laval
A French stockaded outpost at the northern tip of the island.

Fort Côte Saint-Jean
(unknown dates), Montréal
A French stockaded outpost. Also known as Fort des Roches.

Fort Gervais
(unknown dates), Montréal
A small French stockaded outpost across from Île Sainte-Thérèse.

Fort Île Sainte-Thérèse
(unknown dates), Île Sainte-Thérèse
A French stockaded outpost near Montréal.

Fort Varennes
(1693 - unknown), Varennes
A French stockaded outpost. Built on the property of Louis LeDoux. Site near the present-day Basilica of Ste. Anne.
(thanks to Mary Bolton for providing location info)

Fort Verchères
(1670's - 1690's), Verchères
A French stockaded outpost. The town was founded in 1672. In 1690 the settlers repulsed an Iroquois raid. Another raid was also repulsed in October 1692, led by 14-year old Madeleine de Verchères.

Fort Contrecoeur
(unknown dates), Contrecoeur
A French stockaded outpost.

Ash Island Blockhouse
(1814), Ash Island
A British stockaded blockhouse with detached battery, an outpost of Fort Île-aux-Noix. Located on the Richelieu River at the Québec - New York border.

Fort Sainte-Anne (1)
(1665 - 1671), near Lacolle
A French stockaded fort.

Lacolle River Blockhouse (City Park)
(1781 - 1814), Saint-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-Noix FORT WIKI
The blockhouse here is the original structure, the last remaining original wooden blockhouse in Québec. It was regarrisoned in 1812 - 1814, and attacked twice by the Americans. Also known as Lacolle Bridge Blockhouse. Became a private residence after the war, until 1935. Restored in 1975. Operated by the city, located at 1 Rue Principale.

The nearby Lacolle Mill itself was also used as a fortified position in 1814, as it had loopholed stone walls.

Fort Lennox (National Historic Site)
(1819 - 1870/1921), Saint-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-Noix FORT WIKI
French Fort de l'Île-aux-Noix (1759) was the first fort on Île-aux-Noix. It consisted mostly of two irregular lines of entrenchments (200 metres), two redoubts and a blockhouse, with 63 guns emplaced. It was captured by the British in August 1760. The Americans captured the fort in 1775 - 1776 and used it as a base of operations to invade Montréal. The British recaptured the fort, rebuilt it in 1778 as an advance post of Fort St. John (see below), and added a few blockhouses. The current star-shaped fort is the third fort on Île-aux-Noix, built beginning in 1819 to prevent another American invasion. It was completed in 1829. Used by the Canadian Militia after the British left in 1870. The stone barracks (1829) were restored beginning in 1970. Admission fee. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places

There was a British Naval Shipyard on the island from 1812 - 1834.

Fort Saint-Jean (National Historic Site)
(Fort Saint-Jean Museum)
(Corporation du Fort St-Jean)
(1748 - 1780's, 1839 - 1870/present), Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu FORT WIKI
Originally French Fort l'Assomption was here from 1666 - 1671 (undetermined exact location). The second French fort was built in 1748 as a large stockaded supply depot with two three-story tower bastions. The British captured the fort in August 1760, renamed Fort St. John. It was not maintained between 1760 and 1775. It was put under seige by the American Continental Army in September 1775, and after 45 days was captured and held by the Americans from November 1775 to June 1776. (See also Battle of September 6th, 1775 monument located on Jacques-Cartier Street) A blockhouse was later built in 1778 by the British on the other side of the river from the fort for added protection. The present barracks were built in 1839 - 1850. Earthen ramparts still exist from the earlier periods. The fort was used as the campus of the Royal Military College of Saint-Jean from 1952 until it was closed in 1995. The campus was then home to the Canadian Forces Learning and Development Center. The Royal Military College was re-opened in 2008. Aside from the Québec Citadel, this is the only other fortification site continuously occupied by the military since the French Regime. The museum is located in the former Protestant Chapel. Admission fee.

Blairfindie Barracks
(1814 - 1836), L'Acadie FORT WIKI
A British palisaded cavalry barracks and stables (for 80 men and 100 horses) on the L'Acadie River. Previously located here was Camp at Halfway House (1812 - 1814), occupied by Canadian militia. No remains.

Fort Sainte-Thérèse (National Historic Site)
(1665 - 1667, 1747 - 1748, 1760), near Île Sainte-Marie FORT WIKI
Originally a French double-palisaded fort with four bastions. A temporary fortified (stockaded) supply depot was later built here in 1747 when Fort St. Jean was rebuilt. The site was again fortified with a small stockade by the French in 1759-60, but was burned in June 1760 during a British raid, then rebuilt but burned and abandoned by its defenders in August 1760. The British Army then encamped here before capturing Fort Chambly. No remains. The exact site was discovered in 2007, excavated in 2008-11, and is now marked on the bike path of the Chambly Canal National Historic Site. A 1923 stone monument and plaque is located nearby.

Fort Chambly (National Historic Site)
(1710 - 1853), Chambly FORT WIKI
A French stockaded fort named Fort Saint-Louis was originally built here in 1665 to protect Montréal from Iroquois Indians from the south. The fort was repaired and modified in 1693. Burned down by Indians in 1702 and rebuilt soon thereafter much smaller than the first, with an interior magazine and barracks. The present stone fort was built in 1710, modified in 1718, and was briefly known originally as Fort Pontchartrain (2). Became mainly a supply depot after the 1730's. The British captured this fort in August 1760. It was captured and briefly held by Americans in 1775 - 1776. The original guardhouse and other structures remain in town from an 1814 rebuild. Fully restored in 1982. Admission fee. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places

Philipsburg Blockhouse
(1839 - 1847), Philipsburg FORT WIKI
A British log blockhouse built after the Patriot's Rebellion of 1837 to block the flow of arms and supplies from the United States into Canada. Also known as Missisquoi Bay Blockhouse. No remains.

Upper Yamaska Blockhouse
(1781 - 1784), near Saint-Césaire FORT WIKI
A British blockhouse with extensive earthworks, built to keep watch on American military movements. It was to replace the Lower Yamaska Blockhouse (see below), as it was closer to the American border. Located about 21 miles from the Lower Blockhouse, at l'Île à l'Ail, south of town. No remains, site on private property.

Lower Yamaska Blockhouse
(1778 - 1783), Saint-Hyacinthe FORT WIKI
A British blockhouse built to keep watch on the local French inhabitants and American spies. No remains, site on private property on the west bank of the Yamaska River along Rue Girouard-Ouest.

Fort Richelieu
(1642 - 1647), Sorel
A French stockaded fort with barracks and a chapel for a 12-man garrison. Abandoned after Indian troubles, and burned by Iroquois Indians in February 1647.

Fort Sorel (1)
(1665 - 1760), Sorel
A French stockaded fort, 100-feet square with four bastions. Repaired and modified in 1693. Rebuilt with stone in the 1720's or 1730's. A stone windmill was also here.

Sorel Post (2)
(1775 - 1776, 1781 - unknown), Sorel
An American post during the campaign against Québec City. The British later built two blockhouses with barracks to protect a military depot here.

Berthier Post
(1775 - 1776), Berthierville
An American encampment during the campaign against Québec City.

Fort Crevier
(1687 - 1701 ?), near Saint-François-du-Lac
A French stockaded outpost built by Jean Crevier. Also known as Fort Saint-François. Attacked by Iroquois Indians in November 1689, and again in August 1693 when Crevier was killed. Became part of the St. Francis (Odanak) Abenaki Indian Mission/Reserve in 1700.

Lake St. Peter Post
(1781 - unknown), near Louiseville ?
An independent British trading post located on the north shore of Lac Saint-Pierre.

Fort La Gabelle
(1685 - unknown), near Pointe-du-Lac
A French post.

Fort Trois-Rivières ?
(1650 - 1752, 1776 ?), Trois-Rivières
A French fortified town until captured by the British in 1760. The town was first settled by the French in 1634, the second-oldest city in the province. A magazine and gun battery were built by 1636. The town was palisaded beginning in 1650 against Iroquois Indian attacks. A redoubt was added in 1652. A fire destroyed most of the town and wooden fortifications in 1752, and were not rebuilt. The town was unsuccessfully attacked by American troops in June 1776. The Old Town Historic District mostly corresponds with the palisaded area.

Three Rivers Post
(1830 - 1876), Trois-Rivières
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Fort La Galleth
(1755 - 1760 ?), near Trois-Rivières
A French post.

Chaudière River Blockhouse
(1778), unknown location
A British stockaded blockhouse built to guard against another possible American invasion via the Kennebec and Chaudière Rivers, as Benedict Arnold did in 1775. The exact location has been lost to history.

Towns: Portage-du-Fort on the Ottawa River

Information on most of the French forts of the Upper St. Lawrence River Valley gathered from "French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763", 2005, Osprey Publishing, and "The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600 - 1763", 2008, Osprey Publishing, both by René Chartrand.

Québec City - page 2 | Eastern Québec - page 3 | Western Québec - page 4
Northern Québec - page 5

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
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