American Forts: East


1814 Blockhouse | Apalachicola Fort | Autrey's Fort | Fort Bainbridge | Camp Balaam
Fort Bell | Fort Belleville | Fort Bibb | Fort Browder | Fort Burnt Corn | Fort Burrows
Carney's Fort | Cato's Fort | Choctaw Bluff Battery | Fort Claiborne | Fort Coffee
Fort Crawford | Curry's Fort | Fort Cusseta | Fort Dale | Fort Decatur | Camp Defiance
Fort Deposit (a) | Easley's Fort | Fort Eufaula | Gary's Fort | Fort Glass | Gullett's Fort (1)
Fort Gullett (2) | Camp Hardaway | Fort Hawn | Fort Henderson (1) | Camp Herbert | Fort Hull
Indian Palisade (a) | Fort Ingersoll | Fort Jackson | Fort Sidney Johnston (1) | Fort Jones
Landrum's Fort | Lavier's Fort | Mabila | Fort Madison | Camp McClenden | Fort McCrary
McGrew's Fort | Fort Mims | Fort Mitchell (1) | Montgomery Arsenal | Montgomery Defenses
Fort Montgomery | Camp (Fort) Montpelier | Cantonment Montpelier | Fort Moorer
Mott's Fort | Mount Vernon Arsenal | Mount Vernon Barracks | Okfuskee Fort | Okfuski Fort
Fort Opelika | Oven Bluff Battery | Phenix City Defenses | Fort Pierce | Camp Pollard
J. Powell's Fort | Rankin's Fort | Fort Republic | Fort San Estevan | Fort St. Stephens
Santa Cruz de Nanipacana | Sand Fort (1) | Selma Arsenal | Selma Defenses
Selma Naval Ordnance Depot | Fort Shackleford (1)(2) | Camp Sheridan | Fort Sinquefield
Fort Stoddert | Fort Stonewall | Camp Terry | Tohopeka | New Fort Tombécbe | Fort Toulouse
Turner's Fort | Fort Warren | Fort White | Fort Wilkinson

Mobile Bay area - page 2 | Northern Alabama - page 3


Last Update: 07/APRIL/2021
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2021 American Forts Network

Mount Vernon Arsenal
(1828 - 1894), Mount Vernon
A Federal munitions arsenal. Captured by the AL state militia in January 1861. During the summer of 1862 CSA arsenal operations were moved to Selma for better protection. Re-occupied by Union forces in 1864. Camp Terry may have been (?) a Union encampment at that time. Later became Mount Vernon Barracks (1873 - 1894). Became the Mount Vernon State Hospital in 1900, renamed Searcy Hospital in 1919. Nine buildings from the 1830's still exist on the hospital campus, including the Superintendent's House, Library, and the Tower, as well as the original complex wall. This is regarded as the best preserved antebellum arsenal in the South. The state closed the hospital complex in September 2012.

Fort Stoddert
(1799 - 1814), Fort Stoddard
A Federal post that was erected at Mount Vernon Landing soon after the Spanish vacated the northern portion of West Florida. Aaron Burr was held here in 1807 after his arrest for treason. At one time (pre Civil War) the site was reserved as a subpost of Mount Vernon Arsenal. Also spelled Stodderd in some sources. The name of the town was later altered from the original spelling.

Easley's Fort
(1813), Clarke County
A three-acre settlers' fort located on Wood's Bluff on the Tombigbee River, about 100 yards above the bluff landing, in Section 11, Township 11, Range 1 west. Evacuated after the Fort Mims massacre.

James Powell's Fort
(1813), near Carlton
A settlers' stockaded fort located three miles south of Fort Carney, near Oven Bluff, about a mile from the river. Built by James and John Powell, brothers. The settlers moved to Carney's Fort after the attack on Fort Mims.

Fort Sidney Johnston (1)
(1862 - 1865), Oven Bluff
A CSA heavy-gun river defense on the Tombigbee River, west of Carlton. Built to prevent Union gunboats from ascending the river further inland. Constructed in the fall of 1862 as Oven Bluff Battery, formally named in June 1863. Not abandoned until after the fall of Mobile in April 1865, when its magazines were blown up by the garrison.

Josiah Carney's Fort
(1813), near Jackson
A settlers' stockaded fort on the Tombigbee River about six miles south of town. Also known as Fort Hawn.

Curry's Fort
(1813), near Jackson
A settlers' fort located about four miles south of town on the Tombigbee River.

Gullett's Fort (1)
(1813), near Jackson
A settlers' stockaded fort on Gullett's Bluff four miles south of town on the Tombigbee River.

Fort Gullett (2)
(1862 - 1865), near Jackson
A small CSA fort on Gullett's Bluff, built to protect nearby salt works. Supposedly built on the site of the earlier fort (above).

Rankin's Fort
(1813), Washington County
A settlers' stockaded fort somewhere on the west side of the Tombigbee River.

Fort St. Stephens
(Old St. Stephens Historic Park)
(1714, 1789 - 1799, 1803 - 1817), Old St. Stephens
A French trading post may have been located here in 1714. The Spanish built a blockhouse here on Hobucakintopa Bluff in 1789 known as Fort San Estevan. In 1795 the Spanish built New Fort Tombécbe here or nearby (or simply a renaming of the old post) when they were forced south to the new international border at the 31st Parallel (see Fort Tombécbe on page 3). The Americans took control and briefly held the post in 1799, but after determining the actual boundary line was still further south than the Spanish had thought, they built Fort Stoddert instead of holding this fort. The old Spanish fort was garrisoned again by American troops in 1805 - 1808 to protect the Choctaw Indian Agency that was located here (1803 - 1817), part of the Federal Indian Factory trade system. The town's name was changed to St. Stephens in 1811. The town became the Territorial capital in 1817 - 1819. The old town was relocated by the 1830's, the site is now a ghost town and archaeological site, which opened to the public in May 2000. Foundation ruins still remain. Admission fee. See also Encyclopedia of Alabama

Fort Republic (1813 - 1815) was built here by the local militia and/or settlers.

McGrew's Fort
(1813), near Salitpa
A settlers' two-acre palisaded fort in Section 1, Township 7, Range 1 west. Built by William and John McGrew, brothers.

Cato's Fort
(1813), Coffeeville
A settlers' stockaded fort located five miles south of town, on the west side of the Tombigbee River about one mile from its banks. It was soon abandoned.

Abner Turner's Fort
(1813), West Bend
A settlers' stockaded fort with two or three blockhouses, later abandoned for Fort Republic at St. Stephens.

Fort Pierce
(1813), Clarke County
A settlers' fort on the Alabama River two miles southeast of Fort Mims, built by John and William Pierce. Abandoned for Fort Stoddert after the massacre at Fort Mims. Regarrisoned with Federal troops in December 1813.

Fort Mims (State Historic Site)
(Fort Mims Restoration Association)
(1813), Tensaw
Red Stick Creek Indians massacred over 400 people here and burned down the blockhouse in August 1813. The fort was a one-acre stockaded enclosure around Samuel Mims' garrison house and several cabins, manned by 265 militiamen and their families. There were only 36 survivors (including 13 soldiers), and no women or children were among them. The survivors were relocated to Fort Madison. A granite monument marks the approximate location. Site excavated in the 1960's. The stockade walls have been reconstructed on the five-acre site, with future additions planned. See also Encylopedia of Alabama

Fort Montgomery
(1814 - 1818), near Tensaw
A Federal fort located two miles from Fort Mims, opposite the Alabama River "cutoff". Rebuilt in 1817, including a new hospital.

Cantonment Montpelier
(1817 - 1820), near Little River
A Federal camp located seven miles northeast of Fort Montgomery, ten miles from the Alabama River, at the old townsite of Montpelier. Also known as Camp Montpelier and Fort Montpelier in different sources.

Fort Stonewall
(1862 - 1865), Choctaw Bluff
A CSA heavy-gun river defense on the Alabama River, east of Carlton. Built to prevent Union gunboats from ascending the river further inland. Constructed in the fall of 1862 as Choctaw Bluff Battery, formally named in June 1863. Not abandoned until after the fall of Mobile in April 1865, when its magazines were blown up by the garrison.

Fort Claiborne
(1813 - 1814), Claiborne
A temporary Federal post during the Creek War, located on Weatherford Bluff (Alabama Heights) on the Alabama River at Limestone Creek. It was a stockaded enclosure with three blockhouses and a crescent-shaped earthwork battery. The post was later used as a settler refuge until 1818.

Lawson Lavier's Fort
(1813), near Suggsville
A settlers' stockaded fort located southeast of town on the Alabama River. Abandoned for Fort Madison after the attack on Fort Sinquefield.

Fort Madison
(1813), near Suggsville
This was a place of refuge for settlers after the Fort Mims Massacre. It was a 60-square yard log post stockade with trenches, located about 4.5 miles south and 1.5 miles west of town, in Section 1, Township 6, Range 3 east. Built by the GA state militia just before the massacre.

Just 225 yards south of here was Fort (Zachariah) Glass (1813), a settlers' fort garrisoned by state troops. Together they held over 1000 settlers.

Fort Sinquefield
(1813), near Grove Hill
A settlers' stockaded fort on the west bank of Bassett's Creek, five miles southeast of town. Smaller than Fort Madison. Attacked by Red Stick Creek Indians in September 1813 but repulsed by the settlers' dogs, the fort was then abandoned for Fort Madison. A marker (1931) is located east of town on Fort Sinquefield Road off of US 84. The site is managed by the Clarke County Historical Society.

Landrum's Fort
(1813), near Grove Hill
A settlers' stockaded fort, located 11 miles west of Fort Sinquefield, near "Good Springs" in Section 18, Township 8, Range 2 East.

Nearby was another settlers' fort called Mott's Fort (1813).

Fort White
(1813), near Grove Hill
A settlers' stockaded fort located northeast of town. Abandoned after the attack on Fort Mims.

Santa Cruz de Nanipacana
(1560), near Yellow Bluff ?
A short-lived Spanish settlement (February-June 1560) organized under the Luna Expedition to Ochuse (Pensacola, FL), located on the Alabama River at a former Mobile Indian village site (Nanipacana). Between 800-1000 Spanish colonists, including women, soldiers, priests, and Mexican Indians, traveled four or five days north from Pensacola Bay. It was planned to be fortified with four gates, with 140 town lots around a central plaza with a church and monastery, and a separate compound for the Royal Governor's House and arms storehouse. It was abandoned after several months due to heavy rains and short supplies of food and clothing, and the lack of cooperation from the local Mobile Indians, and the settlers returned to Pensacola Bay and eventually back to Cuba. It is not known how much of the planned town was actually built, or its exact location.

Fort Burnt Corn
(1817), near Pine Orchard
A settlers' stockaded fort built by Richard Warren. Also known as Fort Warren. The probable site is located about one-half mile south of the junction of Monroe County Roads 5 and 42.
NOTE: The "Battle of Burnt Corn" (July 1813) was actually fought near Appleton along Burnt Corn Creek in present-day Escambia County.
(thanks to Steve Stacey for providing correct location)

Fort (John) Bell
(1817), Belleville
A settlers' fort located six miles from Fort Autrey. Possibly also known as Fort Belleville.

Alexander Autrey's Fort
(1816), Conecuh County
A settlers' stockaded fort located on the Wolf Trail leading from Burnt Corn to Pensacola, Florida. Later converted to a barn.

Camp Pollard
(1862 - 1865), Pollard
A Confederate camp of observation and supply depot along the railroad, established in May 1862 after the evacuation of Pensacola, Florida.

Fort Crawford
(1817 - 1819), East Brewton
A Federal square stockade with two blockhouses built to protect the area settlers. Located on a bluff above the Aloochahatcha River, the Downing-Shofner Industrial Institute later occupied the site of the fort.

Fort Shackleford (1) (2)
(1813, 1860's), Escambia County
According to local tradition, a settlers' stockaded fort. Also according to local tradition, a CSA work of the same name, at or near the same site. Undetermined location(s).

Fort Bibb
(1818), Pine Flat
A settlers' stockaded fort built by Capt. James Saffold, located 15 miles west of Greenville.

Thomas Gary's Fort
(1818), Butler County
A settlers' stockaded fort.

Fort Dale
(1818), Fort Dale
A settlers' fort built by Col. Sam Dale, located five miles north of Greenville.

Fort Deposit (a)
(1813 - 1814), Fort Deposit
A Federal supply base and hospital built in December 1813 by General Ferdinand Claiborne. Later used as a refuge by area settlers. No remains of the fort except for a few underground brick magazines. See also A History of Fort Deposit from Calico

Camp Hardaway
(1860's), near Glenwood ?
A CSA training camp.

1814 Blockhouse
(1814), near Midland City
An unnamed (?) log blockhouse built by General Jackson's troops at the confluence of the East and West Choctowatchee Rivers. A ferry was later established here. Marker on US 231 west of town erected in 1979.

Fort Eufaula
(1836), Eufaula
A GA state militia stockaded fort.

Fort Browder
(1836), Barbour County
A settlers' stockaded fort also used by the local militia.

Fort Coffee
(1836), Bullock County
A state militia fort. Site located south of Hobdy's Bridge, about 8 miles from Williams. A large group of Creek Indians had encamped at Hobdy's Bridge while enroute to Florida instead of moving west to Indian Territory. The troops were dispatched to deal with them.
(thanks to Marshall Sitrin for additional info)

Fort Henderson (1)
(1836), near Cottonton ?
A settlers' stockaded fort located 15 miles from Fort Mitchell (1).

Sand Fort (1)
(1814, 1836), near Seale
A GA state miltia earthwork on the old Federal Road, located six miles northwest of town. Regarrisoned in 1836 by the GA state miltia and Federal troops to protect Royston's Inn (1830). A post office was established here in 1841. Marker erected in 1988.

Apalachicola Fort
(1689 - 1691), Holy Trinity
A Spanish moated and palisaded fort or stronghouse. Destroyed to prevent British use when the garrison was recalled to St. Augustine, FL. The well-preserved site is on private property. Excavated in 1966. Marker erected in 1986. (see also Coweta Blockhouse in GEORGIA)

Camp Balaam
(1836), Russell County
A temporary camp during the Second Creek War.

Fort Mitchell (1) (Historic Park)
(1813 - 1821, 1825 - 1837 or 1840, 1865), Fort Mitchell
The GA state militia built the original fort during the First Creek War. Became a Federal Indian trading post, or Factory, when the Lower Creek Indian Agency was moved here in 1817, and operated as such until 1821. Federal troops rebuilt the fort in 1825 as a stockade with two blockhouses. The Creek Nation was gathered here in 1836 for the forced removal to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). The site was used again as a CSA defense for Columbus, Georgia during the Civil War, although the original fort was long gone. The original site of the historical fort lies just outside the boundaries of the modern Army post of Fort Benning and the Fort Mitchell VA Hospital. Site excavated in 1971. A marker and modern reconstruction of the fort is located at Fort Mitchell Park. Admission fee. The Chattahoochee Indian Heritage Center is adjacent to the park. See also History of Fort Mitchell from Explore Southern

Fort Ingersoll
(1836), Phenix City
A GA state miltia log stockade.
(NOTE: apparently not the same as Fort Ingersoll in Georgia.)

Civil War Defenses of Columbus, GA
(1863 - 1865), Phenix City
Confederate breastworks and rifle pits from 1865 are still visible by the Chattahoochee River on the north side of town, used in the defense of Columbus, Georgia. Earthwork batteries were also erected on Red Hill in 1865, now the west lawn of the Russell County Courthouse (marker erected in 2004). Another marker (1988) also designates the preserved site of CSA three-gun Fort #5 (1863 - 1865) near the river, a moated 90-foot pentagon. Total number and wherabouts of other numbered works undetermined. The town was originally named Girard during the Civil War.
See also Battle of Columbus from Explore Southern

Fort Cusseta
(1836), Cusseta
A settlers' 16-by-30-foot log fort to protect against the Red Stick Creek Indians. Remnants still exist. A marker (1978) locates the site on County Road 55.

Fort Jones
(1865), Roanoke
A CSA work.

Fort McCrary
(1865), near Roanoke
A CSA work located eight miles north of town.

(Horseshoe Bend National Military Park)
(1813 - 1814), near Dadeville
A fortified Upper Creek Indian village. The Americans under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks here in March 1814.

Okfuskee Fort
(1735 - 1740 ?), near Alexander City
A British stockaded trading post on the west bank of the Tallapoosa River, opposite Sandy Creek, near the Upper Creek (Red Stick) village of Okfuskee, that tried to compete with the French at Fort Toulouse. It lasted only a few years, as the Upper Creeks were generally hostile to the British. Also spelled Okfuski. The actual site, 12 miles west of Dadeville, is now under the waters of Martin Lake.

Fort Opelika
(1865), Opelika
A CSA earthwork fort that was unfinished at the end of the war.

Fort Bainbridge
(1814), near Hurtsboro
A GA state militia (Carolina Brigade) fort and supply post in Macon County 17 miles southeast of Tuskegee. The Lewis Tavern was later built here.

Camp McClenden
(1836), near Society Hill
A temporary GA state militia encampment located 15 miles east of Tuskegee.

Fort Hull
(1813 - 1814), near Tuskegee
A GA state militia fort on the Federal Road five miles southeast of the city.

Camp Defiance
(1794, 1814), Macon County
Site located on Calabee Creek, 48 miles from the Chattahoochee River. The GA state militia abandoned and destroyed the original post in 1794. The site was later used again by the GA militia in the 1814 Creek War as a subpost of Fort Hull. The Red Stick Creeks attacked the post in January 1814.
(thanks to Marshall Sitrin for additional info)

Fort Decatur
(1814 - 1815), near Milstead
A militia fort built by the Carolina Brigade, located on a bluff along the Tallapoosa River. Tennessee hero John Sevier died here in 1815 while surveying the GA-AL border, and was originally buried here. His grave was moved to Knoxville, TN in 1888.

Located on the opposite bank of the river was Fort Burrows, which protected the ferry and military communications on the west side of the river towards Fort Jackson.

Fort Toulouse
(Fort Toulouse-Jackson Historical Park)
(Fort Toulouse-Jackson Living History Groups)
(1717 - 1763, 1814 - 1819), near Wetumpka
The original French fort, formally named Fort Toulouse aux Alibamons, was first constructed in 1717. It was garrisoned by 20-50 men. The fort was rebuilt in 1749-51 about 100 feet south of the first fort. The British held the post in 1763, but hostile Creeks (Red Sticks) prevented the British from actually using the fort. It was in ruins by 1775. American Fort Jackson (1814 - 1819) was built by the Carolina Brigade on the ruins of the first French fort, after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (March 1814). The Treaty of Fort Jackson was signed here in August 1814, ending the Creek threat to settlers. After the war, Jackson Town was settled and became the county seat of Montgomery County. The fort was used as the county jail. The town and fort were abandoned in 1819. The current structure on site is a replica of the second French fort, with the Commandant's House and soldiers' barracks. The actual site of the first French fort has been partially eroded away by the Coosa River. The earthworks and log guardhouse of the American fort have been partially reconstructed. The visitor center is in the Graves House (1825), relocated from Lowndes County. A large Mississippian Indian mound (circa AD 1100) is located at the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers. The park is located three miles south of town. Admission fee. See also Encyclopedia of Alabama

Civil War Defenses of Montgomery
(1865), Montgomery
A line of uncompleted entrenchments and breastworks surrounded the city as the Union army advanced in April 1865.

Montgomery CSA Arsenal and Ordnance Depot
(1861 - 1865), Montgomery
A CSA Arsenal and/or Ordnance Depot was located in the city. Undetermined location.

A brick Powder Magazine (1861) is located at the west-end of Eugene Street in Powder Magazine Park. It was restored in 1978 and 1991. It is owned by the US Army Corps of Engineers as part of the Jones Bluff Dam Project, leased to the city for public park use.

Camp Hilary A. Herbert
(1898), Montgomery
A Spanish-American War muster-out camp located at Riverside Park. The park no longer exists, once located in the northern part of the city along the east bank of the Alabama River, west of the old L&N Railroad, between where 4th and Fowler Streets would extend west.

Camp Sheridan
(Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base)
(1917 - 1919), Montgomery
A Federalized National Guard training encampment and demobilization center for the 37th "Buckeye" Division. Taylor Field was also built nearby. All buildings were removed and the post was abandoned in 1921. Located on the east side of town, this was once a part of the Vandiver Park Lands. The site later became part of the city municipal airport, which became Gunter Army Air Field in 1941, later becoming Gunter Air Force Station, now Gunter Annex, Maxwell AFB, adjacent to Lagoon Park. The rest of the former camp became a residential area.

Ardmont Army Air Depot was built in 1918 as an Army Air Corps engine and repair depot at the site of the Wright Brother's civilian flying school (1910) on the west side of town. It later became an air operations base in 1922 and was renamed Maxwell Field.

Indian Palisade (a)
(1400 - 1550 ?), near Selma
A Late Mississippian Period palisaded Indian village on the Alabama River was visited by Hernando DeSoto in September 1540. Located just west or southwest of present-day Selma.

Civil War Defenses of Selma
(1862 - 1865), Selma
The city was surrounded by a ring of earthworks (mainly infantry parapets and rifle pits), from the west-side of Beech Creek to the east-side of Valley Creek, with 24 numbered batteries for 77 field guns. An inner line of four heavy earthwork batteries was never completed. The city was captured by the Union in April 1865.

Selma Naval Ordnance Works and Arsenal
(1862 - 1865), Selma
A major industrial and munitions supplier to the Confederate military, occupying about 50 acres. The Old Depot Museum (admission fee) is now on the site, a former railroad station that was built in 1890. Monuments at Water Ave. and Church Street, and at Water Ave. and Sylvan Street.

(1400 - 1540), near Old Cahawba ?
A Late Mississippian Period small but heavily palisaded Indian village was probably located here on the lower Cahawba River, although the exact site is undetermined. Visited by Hernando DeSoto in October 1540. The Spanish were ambushed here by the natives, having lost 22 men and seven horses. About 2500 natives were subsequently killed in the "Battle of Mabila". The Spanish then stayed here about one month before burning the village and moving on.

NEED MORE INFO: GA state militia Fort Wilkinson (1813) (location ?); Fort Thomas H. Moorer (date ?) in the town of Fort Deposit.

Towns: Fort Davis in Macon County.

Mobile Bay area - page 2 | Northern Alabama - page 3

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Eastern Forts