DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Anacostia Indian Fort |
Camp Anderson |
Fort Baker |
Camp Barclay |
Camp Barry | Battery Bayard | Fort Bayard | Benning's Bridge Gate | Camp Brightwood
Battery Broad Branch | Camp Buford | Fort Bunker Hill | Fort at Buzzard's Point
Camp Cadwallader | Camp Caldwell | Battery Cameron | Camp Cameron | Camp Capitol Hill
Battery Carroll | Fort Carroll | Carver Barracks | Chain Bridge Battery | Fort Chaplin
Camp Chase | Fort of Circular Form | Cliffburn Barracks | Camp Cochran | Fort Craven
Fort Davis | Fort DeRussy | Camp Doubleday | Camp Duncan | Fort DuPont | Camp Fenton
Camp Franklin | Camp Frieze | Camp Fry | Fort Gaines | Georgetown Fort
Georgetown Powder House | Fort Good Hope | Camp Graham | Battery Greble | Fort Greble
Camp Greene | Fort Greenhow | Fort at Greenleaf Point | Camp Harlan | Camp Holt
Fort Humphreys | Camp James | Jersey Camp | Fort Kearny | Battery Kemble
Kennedy's Hill Fort | Camp Keystone | Battery Kingsbury | Camp Lacey | Camp Leach
Lincoln Barracks | Fort Lincoln | Camp Lochiel | Lowell Barracks | Camp Lyon | Fort McNair
Battery Mahan | Fort Mahan | Camp Marks | Camp Marshall | Fort Massachusetts
Camp Meagher | Camp Meigs | Battery Morris | Nacotchtanck | Navy Yard Bridge Gate
Camp Ordway | Battery Parrott | Fort Pennsylvania | Camp Rapp | Camp Relief | Battery Reno
Fort Reno | Reynolds Barracks | Fort (Battery) Ricketts | Battery Rock Creek
Rock Creek Fort | Battery Rossell | Fort Saratoga | Fort Scaggs | Battery Martin Scott
Camp Winfield Scott | Sedgwick Barracks | Fort Sedgwick | Camp Shearer | Battery Sill
Camp Simms | Fort Slemmer | Fort Slocum | Battery Smead | Fort Snyder
Camp at the Soldiers' Home | Camp Sprague | Stanton Barracks | Fort Stanton | Camp Stetson
Fort Stevens | Camp Stoneman (1) | Camp Stoneman (2) | Camp Sullivan | Camp Tennally
Battery Terrill | Fort Thayer | Todd Barracks | Battery Totten | Fort Totten | Battery Vermont
Fort Wagner | Washington Arsenal | Washington Barracks | Post at Washington
Washington's Cold War AAA Defenses
NOTE: The District of Columbia, originally a 10-mile square, once encompased Arlington County and the city of Alexandria until retroceded to Virginia in 1846. Georgetown and Washington City were separate political entities until 1871. Washington City consolidated with Washington County in 1878. Briefly became the Territory of Columbia in 1874 - 1876.
Civil War Defenses of Washington
(NPS Historic Resource Study)
Washington, DC Civil War Defense System - FORT WIKI
(1861 - 1866)
Overview: Work on the defenses first began only as soon as Alexandria and Arlington Heights in Virginia were occupied by military forces. The first works erected north of the Potomac River were begun after the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas). After the Second Battle of Bull Run, the existing forts were enlarged and strengthened, and many more were built. By the end of 1862, 53 forts and 22 batteries were built, with 718 guns and mortars actually emplaced. By the end of 1864, there were 68 enclosed armed forts, 93 unarmed open field batteries, and three self-contained blockhouses, all linked together by 20 miles of rifle pits/trenches and 32 miles of newly-built military roads, in addition to the existing city streets. In 1864 Washington was the most heavily defended location in the Western Hemisphere as it was bristling with 905 actual emplaced guns and mortars (1521 emplacements built). The majority of works were dismantled by the fall of 1865, although some were retained until the summer of 1866. Except for those located in formal park settings, the vast majoritiy of these works no longer exist. [* = National Park Service sites]
NOTE: For info about the forts just outside the District, please see the pages for VIRGINIA and MARYLAND.
Fort Greble (*park) (17 guns), located on Elmira Street at Martin Luther King, Jr. Ave., near Hadley Memorial Hospital. Remained in use after the war as an ordnance depot, then as a Signal Corps training ground. Formally transferred to the Signal Corps in 1868, then finally abandoned in January 1869. (327 yard perimeter) Trace remnants still exist, no marker.
Battery Greble (four vacant platforms), an outwork to the south of Fort Greble. No remains, no marker.
Another vacant field battery was located to the south.
Camp Stoneman (1), a cavalry depot located at Giesboro Point, now on the grounds of Bolling Air Force Base. Public access restricted. In 1863 a shore battery with two "heavy guns" was called for at this location. It is unclear if they were ever actually emplaced.
Fort Carroll (14 guns, eight vacant platforms), located about one-half mile north of Fort Greble at 3720 Martin Luther King, Jr. Ave.. (340 yard perimeter) Transferred to the Signal Corps in 1866. No remains, no marker.
Battery Carroll (*park) (four vacant platforms), an outwork of Fort Carroll, located at 3720 Horner Place. Remnants still exist.
Fort Snyder (eight guns), located near 14th Place and Congress Place. (210 yard perimeter) No remains, no marker.
Navy Yard Bridge TÍte-du-Pont, a fortified infantry post in Uniontown protecting the southern bridgehead across the Anacostia River (11th Street).
Fort Stanton (*park) (16 guns, eight vacant platforms), the major work protecting the approach to the Washington Arsenal and Navy Yard, located on Erie Street near Fort Place. (322 yard perimeter) Still exists.
Fort (or Battery) Ricketts (*Fort Stanton Park) (four guns), located at Fort Place and Bruce Place. (123 yard perimeter) Still exists. Exhibits are located nearby at the Smithsonian's Anacostia Neighborhood Museum on Fort Place.
Fort Wagner (five guns), located on the grounds of Stanton Elementary School, at Alabama Ave., Good Hope Road, and 25th Street. Also known as Fort Good Hope. (166 yard perimeter) No remains, no marker.
Fort Baker (22 guns, three vacant platforms), located between Forts Meigs and Stanton one mile east of Uniontown at Fort Baker Drive and 30th Street. (492 yard perimeter) No remains, no marker.
Fort Davis (*park) (12 guns, two vacant platforms), located north of Pennsylvania Ave. at Alabama Ave.. (220 yard perimeter) Still exists.
Fort DuPont (*park) (nine guns, six vacant platforms), located on Alabama Ave. near Burns Street. (200 yard perimeter) Still exists, but greatly eroded in places. See also Fort DuPont Park
Kennedy's Hill Fort (unarmed), located at Chaplin Street and Hilltop Terrace. Also known as Fort Sedgwick. It was never completed. No remains, no marker.
Fort Chaplin (*park) (one gun, 11 vacant platforms), located one mile southeast of Benning's Bridge, near Texas Ave. and "C" Street. It was never garrisoned by troops. Still exists, no marker.
A vacant field battery was located to the west of Fort Carroll.
Camp Shearer, located near Fort Baker.
East of the Anacostia River:
Fort Scaggs (six vacant platforms), a circular work located at 3950 Ames Street. Listed in official reports as Fort of Circular Form. Also known as Fort Craven. It was never completed. No remains, no marker.
Fort Mahan (*park) (22 guns, two vacant platforms), located at 3938 Benning Road, near 41st Street. (352 yard perimeter) Remnants still exists, no marker.
Battery Mahan (four vacant platforms), an outwork to the west of Fort Mahan. No remains.
Benning's Bridge TÍte-du-Pont, a fortified infantry post protecting the eastern bridgehead across the Anacostia River (Benning Road).
Camp Franklin, a labor camp located about 400 yards to the rear of Fort Mahan.
West of the Anacostia River:
Fort Lincoln (34 guns), located on the grounds behind the present-day Fort Lincoln Elementary School on Commodore Joshua Barney Drive, off of Fort Lincoln Drive, it protected the approach of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the Baltimore (Bladensburg) Pike. (466 yard perimeter) No remains, no marker. Scant traces of the outer batteries may still exist on lower ground to the northwest and northeast.
Fort Thayer (eight guns), a lunette between Forts Lincoln and Bunker Hill, located south of Irving Street between 24th and 25th Streets. (180 yard perimeter) No remains, no marker.
Battery Morris (seven vacant platforms), located on 20th Street at Fulton Place and Rhode Island Ave.. No remains, no marker.
Fort Saratoga (eight guns, one vacant platform), a minor lunette between Forts Lincoln and Bunker Hill, located in a present-day recreational area behind 1821 Jackson Street. (153 yard perimeter) No remains, no marker.
Fort Bunker Hill (*park) (13 guns), located on the east side of 13th Street between Perry and Otis Streets. (205 yard perimeter) Scant traces remain, no marker.
Fort Slemmer (four guns), located near Marist Hall on the grounds of Catholic University, off of Harewood Road. (93 yard perimeter) Scant traces remain, no marker.
Fort Totten (*park) (20 guns), located on Fort Place near Crittenden Street and Fort Totten Drive. (272 yard perimeter) Still extant.
Battery Totten (*Fort Totten Park) (guns included above), an outwork of Fort Totten located just west. Still exists within the park.
A six-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Lincoln (scant traces may still exist). A seven-gun battery was located in front of Fort Lincoln (scant traces may still exist). A three-gun battery was located to the left of the Bladensburg Turnpike. A three-gun battery was located to the right of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and a seven-gun battery on the left. A three-gun battery was to the right of Fort Thayer at Irving Street and South Dakota Ave.. A four-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Saratoga. A 12-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Saratoga. A seven-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Bunker Hill at 12th and Perry Streets. A seven-gun battery was located in front of Fort Bunker Hill at 1330 Perry Street. A nine-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Bunker Hill at 15th and Monroe Streets. A six-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Slemmer. Privately preserved and marked rifle pits are located at the Brookland Ridge Apartments on Taylor Street, just to the left of Fort Slemmer. A five-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Slemmer. A two-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Totten (still exists on Fort Totten Drive at Bates Road).
Camp Barry, an artillery camp located near Bladensburg Pike and Benning Road.
Camp Capitol Hill, located on Capitol Hill (near Union Station ?).
East of Rock Creek:
Fort Slocum (*park) (25 guns, 15 vacant platforms), located on Kansas Ave. at Nicholson Street. (655 yard perimeter) No remains. Within the park near Madison Street and 2nd Place are the eroded remnants of a four-gun field battery and rifle pits.
Fort Stevens (*park) (19 guns, three vacant platforms), originally named Fort Massachusetts until enlarged in 1863, located at Piney Branch Road / 13th Street and Fort Stevens Drive. Partially restored in 1937. (375 yard perimeter) The original eastern portion of the fort is now the site of Emory United Methodist Church (Georgia Ave. at Quackenbos Street). The "Battle of Fort Stevens" occurred here northward to the grounds of the former Walter Reed Army Medical Center in July 1864. See also Battleground National Cemetery (1864) from NPS
Battery Sill (*Rock Creek Park) (nine vacant platforms), located within the park on the east bank of Rock Creek, behind 1615 Manchester Lane. Scant trace remnants, no marker.
A six-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Slocum. A four-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Slocum (still exists in Fort Slocum Park (see above)). A two-gun battery (at Quackenbos and 7th Streets) and an eight-gun battery (on Oneida Place at 8th Street) were located to the right of Fort Stevens. A three-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Stevens (on Rock Creek Ford Road at 14th Street).
Camp Anderson (1861 - 1865), located at Franklin Square (Park), on "K" Street between 13th and 14th Streets.
Camp Barclay (1861), a cavalry camp located on Meridian Hill.
Camp Barker (1862 - 1863) a contraband camp established for runaway and newly freed slaves from Maryland and Virginia crossing Federal lines, and others confiscated by the Army from Southern owners. Located along Vermont Ave. north of Logan Circle, and near Garrison Elementary School on "S" Street. An archaeological survey at Garrison Field was done in 2012.
Camp Brightwood (1861), located near Fort Stevens.
Camp Cadwallader, located on Kalorama Heights.
Cliffburn Barracks, located at Mount Pleasant. A military hospital was also located here.
Camp Doubleday, located near Fort Stevens.
Camp Fry, located near George Washington University.
Camp Graham, located near Capitol Hill.
Camp Greene (1863 - 1865), located on Mason's Island (*Theodore Roosevelt Island). A recruitment and training camp for the 1st United States Colored Troops, later becoming a Freedman's Camp after the war. No remains.
Camp Harlan, located on North Seventh Street (Georgia Ave.).
Jersey Camp, located on Meridian Hill.
Camp Relief, located on 7th Street, probably near Mount Vernon Square.
Reynolds Barracks and Hospital (1866 - 1868), south lawn of the White House.
Camp Winfield Scott at Franklin Square (Park).
Camp Stetson, located near Fort Stevens.
Camp Stoneman (2), located on Meridian Hill.
West of Rock Creek:
Battery (Left) Rock Creek (*Rock Creek Park) (six vacant platforms), preserved remnants located on Ross Drive near Joyce Road, on the west bank of Rock Creek. No marker.
Battery Kingsbury (*Rock Creek Park) (nine vacant platforms), located east of Fort DeRussy along the west bank of Rock Creek. Scant trace remnants, no marker.
Fort DeRussy (*Rock Creek Park) (11 guns, two vacant platforms), located near Oregon Ave. and Military Road. (190 yard perimeter) Still extant.
Battery Smead (four guns, four vacant platforms), located at St. John's College High School on 27th Street / Utah Ave.. Remains were leveled in 1958 on the present athletic grounds. (170 yard perimeter) No marker.
Battery (Right) Broad Branch (*Rock Creek Park) (three vacant platforms), remnants located within the park behind 5301 29th Street / Jenifer Street. No marker.
Battery Terrill (seven vacant platforms), remnants located north of Fort Kearny, at 3001 Garrison Street on the grounds of the Peruvian Embassy. No marker.
Fort Kearny (10 guns, one vacant platform), located between Forts Reno and DeRussy, at 4900 30th Place. (320 yard perimeter) No remains, no marker.
Battery Rossell (eight vacant platforms), located between Forts Reno and Kearny, at Fessenden Street and Connecticut Ave.. No remains, no marker.
Fort Reno (*park) (21 guns, six vacant platforms), originally named Fort Pennsylvania until 1863, located at Chesapeake Street and Fort Drive. (917 yard perimeter) No remains.
Battery Reno (seven guns, three vacant platforms) was located 300 yards north in the vicinity of Gramercy, Garrison, and 39th Streets, connected to Fort Reno by rifle trenches and a covered way with several gun emplacements. No remains, no marker.
Fort Bayard (*park) (six guns, two vacant platforms), an elliptical work located at River Road and Western Ave.. (123 yard perimeter) No remains. Friends of Fort Bayard Park
Battery Bayard (three vacant platforms), an outwork of Fort Bayard. No remains, no marker.
Fort Gaines (six guns, one vacant platform), located at Ward Circle on the grounds of American University's Katzen Arts Center. (171 yard perimeter) No remains, no marker.
Battery Vermont (three guns, one vacant platform), located either at Palisades Lane and Manning Place, or at MacArthur Blvd. and Loughboro Road on the grounds of Sibley Memorial Hospital. No remains, no marker.
Chain Bridge Battery (two guns, with separate blockhouse), located at the foot of Chain Bridge.
Battery Martin Scott (three guns), located above Chain Bridge at 5618 Potomac Ave.. Trace remnants still exist on the west side of the street, no marker.
Battery Kemble (*park) (two guns), located on Chain Bridge Road near the north park entrance. Still extant.
Battery Parrott (two guns), located at 2300 Foxhall Road (west side). Still exists, no marker.
Battery Cameron (four guns), located at 1900 Foxhall Road (west side), on the grounds of the German Embassy. Trace remnants exist, no marker.
A two-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Bayard. A five-gun battery and a two-gun battery were located on the Potomac River above Three Sisters Island (near Clark Place and Potomac Ave. NW), overlooking the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, opposite Fort C.F. Smith, serving in a coastal (riverine) defense role.
Camp Frieze (1862), located in Tennallytown (Tenleytown).
Camp Keystone, located between Tenleytown and American University.
Camp Lochiel, located on Red Hill in Georgetown.
Camp Lyon (1861), located near the Chain Bridge.
Camp Tennally, located in Tennallytown (Tenleytown).
Unknown regions: (locations unknown or undetermined)
Camp Buford (1863)
Carver Barracks (1861 - 1862)
Camp Holt (1862)
Camp James (1861)
Camp Lacey (1861)
Lincoln Barracks and General Hospital
Lowell Barracks (1866)
Camp Marshall (1863)
Camp Rapp at Kendall Green (?)
Camp Sprague (1861)
Stanton Barracks and Hospital, located at New Jersey Ave. and "I" Street (NW ? or SE ?).
Post at Washington a general reference to the Army field headquarters for the city defenses.
(c. 1600, 1620 - 1653), Anacostia
A major Nacostan Indian town on the Anacostia River, directly opposite present-day Fort McNair on Greenleaf Point, as noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Possibly palisaded, it was a major fur trade center. The English later anglicized the name to "Anacostia". Shortly after the 1622 Massacre in Virginia, the Anacostia Indian Fort was raided and looted by Virginian Ralph Hamor and 50 Patawomeck warriors for foodstuffs. In 1624 Capt. Henry Spelman and 19 other Virginians were killed here on a trading mission. Henry Fleet was the sole survivor, held captive for five years. Probable site is now the Anacostia Helicopter Facility.
Rock Creek Fort
A Maryland colonial militia (Maryland Rangers) fort was located somewhere along Rock Creek during Indian troubles in the 1690's. No viable sites were found during the 2003-07 archaeological excavations overseen by the NPS. See also Archaeology in Rock Creek Park from NPS
Fort Lesley J. McNair (U.S. Military Reservation)
(National Defense University)
(1791 - present) §National Archives MAP§
This is the third oldest continuously occupied U.S. Army post in the nation, after West Point, NY, and Carlisle Barracks, PA. Originally known as Washington Arsenal. It was first fortified in 1793 with a one-gun earthwork battery, and sometimes referred to as Fort at Greenleaf Point or Fort at (Turkey) Buzzard's Point. It was refortified with 10 guns in 1814 as the British approached the city. It was destroyed by the British along with other sites in the city. In 1826 the first Federal prison was built here. President Lincoln's conspirators were tried and executed here in 1865. In 1881 the Arsenal closed and was transferred to the Quartermaster Corps. The post was then renamed Washington Barracks. About 90 percent of the present buildings on the post's 100 acres were built, reconstructed, or remodeled by 1908. The Army War College was founded here in 1901. It was reorganized as the Army-Navy Staff College in 1943, and became the National War College in 1946. The Army Industrial College was founded here in 1924. It later became the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. The two colleges became the National Defense University in 1976. An Army General Hospital was here from 1898 - 1909, which was the predecessor to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. The post was briefly renamed Fort Humphreys in 1935 - 1939. Renamed Fort McNair in 1948. It now serves as the Headquarters of the Military District of Washington since 1966.
A small earthwork with two bastions and two redoubts defending the upriver approach to the town. The site was on a bluff now occupied by the U.S. Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, located between the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and the State Department. It is unclear if this fort was ever actually built, but it is featured on the same map by Pierre L'Enfant as the Fort at Greenleaf Point (Fort McNair).
Georgetown Powder House
(1821 - 1876), Georgetown
A brick powder magazine was once located on Georgetown Heights west of St. Alban's Church, now the present-day Westchester Apartments complex.
The popular name of the home of Mrs. Rose O'Neal Greenhow, famous Confederate spy, and her daughter. She was kept under house arrest for several months, along with several other "disloyal" women of the city. She was later transferred to the Old Capitol Prison. Located at 16th and "H" Streets NW, across from St. John's Church. Site now the Hay-Adams Hotel.
Camp at the Soldiers' Home
A proposed mobilization encampment for the DC militia at the beginning of the Spanish-American War. Located on North Capitol Street NW. The troops instead were sent to Camp Harries in Virginia.
There was a temporary tent camp at the Center Market Armory on Constitution Ave. between 7th and 9th Streets NW. The "Federal Triangle" and the National Archives buildings were later built there beginning in 1931.
(1917 - 1919)
A training camp for specialized Army Engineers, and later Chemical Warfare units. Site was 11 acres on the American University campus.
(1917 - 1919)
A mobilization center for the DC National Guard, originally named Camp Ordway. Renamed in 1917 and became a Quartermaster Corps training center. Became a separation center for the National Guard after the war. Site was 81 acres at Florida Ave. and 5th Street NE.
Cold War AAA Defenses of Washington
(1952 - 1956)
Several permanent sites were established for the Army's Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) Gun Site Program, the precursor to the NIKE missile defense program. Four 90mm AA guns were positioned at each site, with troop barracks and other support buildings. Known sites include:
Brookland (1952 - 1956): group headquarters only, at 12th and Kearny Streets NE.
Fort Reno Park (1951 - 1953): 35th AAA Brigade headquarters June 1951, later co-headquarters for 36th AAA (90mm) and 70th AAA (120mm) Battalions from Sept. 1952 to March 1953. Five houses (since demolished) along the north side of Chesapeake Street, NW included within 4.83 acre reserved site.
There were no NIKE missile defense sites located within the city limits.
(See also the MARYLAND and VIRGINIA pages)
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