Lower St. Johns River Area

Camp Augusta | Camp Baldwin | Fort Barrington | Fort Bayard | Black Creek Arsenal
Camp Browne (1) | Fort Brown | Fort Buena Vista | Fort Caben | Fort Caven
Camp Cooper | Camp Cuba Libre | Camp Finegan | Camp Foster | Fort Foster (3) | Fort Gale
Garey's Ferry Depot | Fort at Garey's Ferry | Fort Gates | Fort Hanson | Fort Hatch
Fort Heileman | Fort Heilman | Fort Higginson | Fort Hudson | Fort Hunter
Camp Jackson (3) | Camp Jackson (4) | Jacksonville Defenses | Fort Jacksonville
Camp Johnston | Camp Langford | Fort Lawson (1) | Fort Louthers | McCormick's Blockhouse
Fort McIntosh | Camp at Magnolia (1) | Fort Magnolia | Fort Mandarin | Camp Milton (1)
Fort Moccasin Branch | Fort Montgomery | Fort New Buena Vista | Camp New Hope (1)
Fort New Switzerland | Fort Palatka | Camp Panama Park | Fort Picolata | Post at Picolata
Camp Pinckney | Camp Reynolds | Rose's Bluff Camp | San Vicente Ferrer Battery
Fort St. Francis de Pupo | Fort San Francisco de Pupo | Fort San Nicolas | Fort Sanderson
Fort Searle | Fort Shannon | Spalding's Lower Store | Fort Stallings | Fort Tonyn (2)
Fort Weadman | Fort Weedman | Camp Wells

Northeast Coast - page 1 | Eastern Florida - page 3
Middle Florida - page 4 | Central Florida - page 5
Southern Florida - page 6 | Western Florida - page 7
Pensacola Bay - page 8



Last Update: 25/MAY/2020
Compiled by Pete Payette - 2020 American Forts Network

Rose's Bluff Camp
(1778, 1811 - 1813), Nassau County
A Loyalist militia camp during the American Revolution. Also used as a base for the East Florida "Patriots" against the Spanish during the "Patriots' War" of 1811. Located on the Bells River near its confluence with the St. Mary's River, across from Saint Marys, GA.

Camp Cooper
(1861 - 1863), near Becker
A CSA camp located near the head of Lofton Creek.

Fort Tonyn (2)
(1776 - 1778), near King's Ferry
A British fort located on the St. Mary's River about one mile east of Mills Ferry (Kings Ferry). Evacuated and partially destroyed by the retreating British, it was captured by Patriot forces the next day in June 1778. A great quantity of stores and munitions were recovered for the American cause.
(thanks to Michael Higgins for providing correct location)

Fort Barrington
(1765 - unknown), King's Ferry
A temporary British post on the St. Mary's River.

Fort McIntosh
(1777 - 1780 ?), near King's Ferry
A British fort located south of King's Ferry on the Oakland Plantation. The "Battle of Cabbage Swamp" was fought here in June 1778.
(NOTE: not to be confused with Patriot Fort McIntosh on the Satilla River in GA)

Camp Pinckney
(1864), Nassau County
A temporary CSA post and storage depot located on Little Front Creek, near the St. Mary's River, between Orange Bluff and Calico Hill.

Camp Jackson (3)
(1864), Nassau County
A temporary CSA post located at an old railroad trestle across the St. Mary's River (near St. George, GA ?), west of Jacksonville.

Camp Baldwin
(1862 - 1864), Baldwin
A CSA camp.

Camp Milton (1)
(Camp Milton Historic Preserve)
(1862 - 1864), near Whitehouse
A CSA fortified camp established on McGirt's Creek, 12 miles west of downtown Jacksonville. Evacuated twice, it was finally destroyed by Union troops in July 1864. Some earthworks still remain. Site has recently become a public park managed by The Preservation Project North Florida. Nearby will soon be built the Florida Civil War Center at Jacksonville.

Camp Finegan
(1862 - 1865), near Normandy
A major CSA encampment. Abandoned when outnumbered by advancing Union troops in February 1864. Renamed Camp Shaw by the Union. Reoccupied by Confederates in March 1864. Located near junction of Lenox Ave. and Normandy Blvd..

Camp Langford
(1861 - 1862, 1864), Duval County ?
A CSA cavalry camp under Capt. Dickison, located somewhere near Jacksonville.

Moloa Mission
(1590's ?), Duval County
A Spanish Franciscan mission at the Timucua-Saturiwa Indian village of Moloa, located on the St. Johns River east of downtown Jacksonville (undetermined location). It was not known to be fortified, and lasted only a few years.
* Listed here for historical interest only. *

San Vicente Ferrer Battery
(1793 - 1800 ?), East Jacksonville
A Spanish gun battery on the south bank of the St. Johns River, near Chaseville, with two barracks and a powder magazine. Undetermined exact location. Apparently abandoned before the "Patriots' War" of 1811.

Fort San Nicolas
(1740 - 1763, 1784 - 1820's), South Jacksonville
A Spanish blockhouse built in anticipation of a British attack. Located at the foot of present-day Liberty Street, about a mile east from the old ferry landing ("Cowford"). Probably not used at all by the British. Rebuilt by the Spanish in 1784, with a 100-foot square moat. The barracks and Officers' quarters were located outside the moat. Attacked by the Georgia state militia in 1796, but later rebuilt. With a garrison of only three men, it was captured and destroyed by American troops in March 1812 supporting the "Patriots' War". Rebuilt again later (after 1813) by the Spanish. Maintained for a few years by the Americans after 1821 to prevent smuggling. A stone monument is located three miles east of US 1.

Camp New Hope (1)
(1812 - 1813), South Jacksonville
A GA militia camp at the Hollingsworth Plantation near the "Cowford" crossing on the St. Johns River. Established in October 1812 and used in support of the short-lived "Republic of East Florida" during the "Patriots' War".

Civil War Defenses of Jacksonville
(1863 - 1864), Jacksonville
Fort Montgomery (March 1863), a temporary Union post guarding the railroad terminal in the city.
Fort Higginson (March 1863), a temporary Union post guarding the railroad terminal in the city. Located at Broad and Bay Streets.
Fort Foster (3) (March 1864) a Union fort. Location undetermined.
Fort Hatch (March 1864), a Union fort. Location undetermined.
Jacksonville Defense Line (March - July 1864) a line of breastworks was constructed by the Union after retreating to the city after the February 1864 "Battle of Olustee". Located from Hogan's Creek to near Union and Beaver Streets, then west to Davis Street, then southwest to McCoy's Creek. There were seven batteries built within the line: Redoubt Sammon (four guns), Battery Myrick (field guns), Redoubt Fribley (five guns), Redoubt (Battery) McCrea (two guns), Redoubt Reed (four guns), Battery Hamilton (nine guns), and Redoubt Moore near the cemetery.

The city was evacuated by the Union in July 1864.

Camp Cuba Libre
(1898 - 1899), Jacksonville
A Spanish-American War assembly and staging camp, originally located between Ionia Street and the railroad, and between 3rd and 8th Streets. Originally named Camp Springfield. Typhoid fever and flooding forced the relocation to 5th and Silver Streets. Overcrowding then forced the relocation again to near Phoenix Park and Cummer's Mill, north of a cemetery. Camp Reynolds and Camp Jackson (4) may have been other names for these new camps.

Camp Panama Park was six miles north of downtown on the Trout River. It was relocated to Pablo Beach (aka Jacksonville Beach) southeast of the city. It was then relocated again due to flooding to the Fairfield area.
Camp Wells was the rifle range for Camp Cuba Libre, located at Panama Park, three miles north of downtown.

Camp Joseph Johnston
(Jacksonville Naval Air Station)
(1917 - 1939/present), Jacksonville
A Quartermaster Corps training encampment and mobilization center at Black Point on the St. Johns River near Yukon. Previously the site of a Florida National Guard summer encampment area. Reverted back to state control in 1920 and renamed Camp Clifford Foster as a state guard training area. Became part of Jacksonville Naval Air Station in 1939.

Fort Stallings
(1812), near Bayard
A GA militia blockhouse on Big Davis Creek used in the "Patriots' War".

Fort Magnolia
(1864 ?), Magnolia
A Union fort located on Magnolia Point, about one-half mile north of Green Cove Springs.

St. Johns River Ferry Forts
(1700 - 1780 ?, 1812, 1836 - 1842, 1864), Picolata, Walkill
Fort Picolata (1700 - 1780 ?), at Picolata, and Fort San Francisco de Pupo (aka St. Francis de Pupo) (1714 - 1783 ?), near Walkill on Bayard Point, were built opposite each other across the St. Johns River at the site of an old Indian crossing, and the crossing of the Spanish Camino Real from St. Augustine to the Apalachee Province (Tallahassee). Both forts were attacked and destroyed by the Georgia colonial militia in January 1740. Both were rebuilt in 1743 as 30-foot two-story square coquina towers, palisaded and moated, with eight guns each on the open top story. Occupied intermittently by British troops after 1763. The Picolata tower, although seemingly no longer in use by the Spanish, was later occupied by local "Patriots" and GA militia in late 1812 during the "Patriots' War".

Picolata was again occupied in 1836, with the building of a wooden blockhouse, supply depot, and hospital near the original site (Post at Picolata (1836 - 1842)), about one mile north of Magnolia Landing. The Union occupied and enlarged the post in 1864.

The Spanish Franciscan Tolomato Mission (1) (1656 - 1706) was located at Picolata until relocated to St. Augustine. Salamototo (1), palisaded in 1704, was also located in the vicinity until 1706 when relocated to St. Augustine. San Francisco de Potano (3) was relocated to Salamototo (1) briefly in 1706 before relocating again to St. Augustine. San Diego de Heleca (1620's - 1656 ?) was probably located at or near Tocoi. This area was part of the Spanish Agua Dulce Province, that area around the lower St. Johns River from Lake George to Jacksonville.

Fort Buena Vista ?
(1812), near Orange Mills
A settlers' blockhouse located six miles north of Rollestown, one mile south of General Joseph Hernandez's Little Grove Plantation.

Spalding's Lower Store
(1763 - 1784), near Stokes Landing
A British trading post/store built by James Spalding and Roger Kelsell, located on the St. Johns River south of Palatka above Murphy's Island, opposite Stokes Island on the west bank. Managed by trader Charles McLatchie as a distribution point for Spalding's Upper Store located south of Lake George, and inland trading houses at the Creek/Seminole Indian villages of "Cuscowilla" (present-day Micanopy) and "Talahasochte" (Ross Landing on the Suwannee River). Taken over in 1776 by William Panton of the Panton, Leslie, and Company outfit headquartered in Pensacola. See also Travels of William Bartram in East Florida 1774 from Florida Museum of Natural History

Mission de San Antonio de Enecape
(Mt. Royal Archaeological Site)
(1595 - 1656 ?, 1680 ? - 1701 ?), near Georgetown
A Spanish Franciscan mission in the Agua Dulce Province. Located at the Timucua-Outina Indian village of Enecape, it was not known to be fortified. It seems to have been abandoned during the Timucua Rebellion of 1656, although it may have been re-established in 1680 (here or at another site) and still existed until 1701. See also History of Mt. Royal Air Park
* Listed here for historical interest only. *

Seminole Wars Forts
(includes those forts and posts not already listed above)
Tour of Florida Territory During the Seminole Wars by Chris Kimball

Duval County:
Fort Louthers (1837), north of Jacksonville (undetermined location).
Fort Jacksonville (1836 - 1851), a settlers' log blockhouse located at Ocean and Monroe Streets. Used as a church after the Seminole Wars.
James McCormick's Blockhouse (1840), about ten miles west of Jacksonville. A settlers' blockhouse, attacked at least once.
Fort Mandarin (1837), Mandarin. An Army blockhouse manned by the Florida Volunteers.

St. Johns County: (west of I-95)
Fort New Switzerland (1835), Switzerland. A settlers' blockhouse.
Fort Searle (1839 - 1841), near Bakersville, six miles east of Picolata.
Fort Weedman (1837 - 1840), located about seven miles west of St. Augustine. Attacked in May 1840. Also spelled Weadman.
Fort Moccasin Branch (1837), on Moccasin Branch Creek, north of Federal Point between Deep Creek and McCullough Creek. Possibly near Armstrong (?)
Fort Hanson (1838 - 1840), located 13 miles southwest of St. Augustine, at the headwaters of Deep Creek (near Byrd ?). Burned by Seminoles after it was abandoned.

Flagler County:
Fort Caben (date 2nd SW), on Crescent Lake, two miles west of St. Johns Park. Built before 1840. Sometimes misspelled Caven.

Putnam County:
Fort Gates (1835), Fort Gates, on the west side of the St. Johns River opposite Fruitland, four miles south of the mouth of the Ocklawaha River. A supply depot.
Fort Gale (unknown dates), south of Palatka (undetermined location). (Probably a misspelling of Fort Gates)
Fort Lawson (1) (1839), four miles southwest of Palatka (near Mud Lake ?). A stockade with one blockhouse.
Fort Shannon (1838 - 1843), Palatka. (FORT WIKI) A major Army Quartermaster Depot and headquarters of the Central Florida District, with eight blockhouses, several barracks, a hospital, and stables for 400 horses. Possibly also known as Fort Palatka. A settlers' trading post was originally established here in 1821, and the Army built several storehouses in 1827, all burned by Seminoles in 1836. A fire in 1855 destroyed five of the blockhouses. One of the Officers' Quarters still exists, originally located at 224 North First Street, relocated to 110 Madison Street, now the Putnam County Historic Museum.
Fort Hunter (1840), Rollestown, on the east side of the St. Johns River at Denys Rolle's plantation, between present-day East Palatka and San Mateo.
Fort New Buena Vista (1836), East Palatka, a settlers' blockhouse.
Fort Hudson (date 2nd SW), located near Orange Mills. Apparently burned by the Seminoles before 1840.
Fort Brown (1840), ten miles northeast of Palatka on the St. Johns River. The troops transferred to Fort Searle after a few months.

Clay County:
Camp Augusta (1836), near Walkill.
Fort Bayard (1837, 1843), near Walkill. (possibly the same as Camp Augusta ?)
Camp at Magnolia (1) (1839), near Magnolia, possibly at Magnolia Point.
Fort Heileman (1836 - 1841), on Black Creek, near Middleburg. Originally known as Fort at Garey's Ferry in 1836. It was a major Army Quartermaster Supply Depot. Also spelled Heilman. Located near here on the north bank of Black Creek, near Garey's Ferry, was Fort Sanderson (1840 - 1841). Also near here was Black Creek Arsenal (1837 - 1840), previously named Garey's Ferry Ordnance Depot, a local depot where the Army's muskets were repaired. Artifacts are on display at the Clay County and Middleburg Museum. (info provided by Thom Parham, additional info by Marshall Sitrin)
Camp Browne (1) (1842), on Black Creek.

Towns: Stockade north of Bayard, Duval County.

Northeast Coast - page 1 | Eastern Florida - page 3 | Middle Florida - page 4
Central Florida - page 5 | Southern Florida - page 6 | Western Florida - page 7
Pensacola Bay - page 8

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com

Eastern Forts