Advanced Redoubt |
Camp Alabama |
Fort Anchusa |
Camp Arnold |
Fort Arnold |
Fort Arruinado | Camp Asboth | Fort Ayenlade | Barrancas Barracks
Barrancas Barracks Battery | Camp Barrancas (1) | Camp Barrancas (2) | Fort Barrancas
Post of Barrancas | Post of Fort Barrancas | Barrancas Redoubt | Bayou Chico Redoubts
Camp Bennett | Camp Brady | Camp Bronson | Camp Brown (2) | Camp Chalmers
Cantonment Clinch (1) | Fort Clinch (1) | Camp Coburn | Camp Davis (3) | Fort Ding
Camp Ferris | Forbes' Trading House (1) | Camp Franklin | Camp Galvez Spring
Fort George (2) | Camp Hope | Camp Jackson (1) | Camp Jackson (2) | Camp Lincoln
Fort McClellan | Fort McRae/McRee (2) | Camp Magnolia (2) | Fort Montagorda
Camp Morgan (2) | Camp Mustin | Navy Yard Battery | Camp New Hope (2)
New Lighthouse Battery | Noble's Fort | Old Lighthouse Battery | "Old Spanish Fort" Battery
Camp Osceola | Fort Panzacola | Pensacola Barracks | Pensacola British Redoubts
Pensacola Spanish Blockhouses | Pensacola Civil War Defenses | Fort at Pensacola
Pensacola Stockade | Camp Philips | Fort Pickens | Pine Hill Battery
Polonza | Prince of Wales Redoubt | Queen's Redoubt | Fort at Red Cliffs | Fort Redoubt
Camp Roberts | Royal Navy Redoubt | San Antonio Battery | Fort Santa Barbara
Fort San Bernardo | Fort San Carlos (1) | Fort San Carlos d'Austria
Fort San Carlos Principe d'Asturias | Fort San Carlos de Barrancas
Presidio de Santa María de Galve | Santa María de Ochuse | Fort St. Michael
Fort San Miguel (1) | Fort San Miguel (2) | Presidio de San Miguel | Fort Santa Rosa
Presidio de Santa Rosa | Fort (Battery) St. Rose | Camp Saufley | Camp Seward
Fort Sombrero | South Battery | Camp Stoughton | Tartar Point Blockhouse | Camp Union
Fort Waldeck | Warrington Church Battery | Wilson's Camp
Northeast Coast - page 1 | St. Johns River - page 2
Eastern Florida - page 3 | Middle Florida - page 4
Central Florida - page 5 | Southern Florida - page 6
Western Florida - page 7
FLORIDA'S COASTAL MARITIME TRAIL - FORTS
FLORIDA'S PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVES
OLD FLORIDA MAPS
COASTAL FORTIFICATIONS PHOTO ARCHIVES
SPANISH FLORIDA 1513-1763
Camp Barrancas (2)
(1877), near Pensacola
A temporary summer camp to escape a Yellow Fever outbreak. Located along the railroad north of town near Sellers Station.
Cantonment Clinch (1)
(1823 - 1834), Brownsville
Originally Camp Hope and Camp Brady (both 1822), built at the head of Bayou Chico for Fort Barrancas troops to escape Yellow Fever. The old British Barracks in Pensacola had burned down by this time. The two camps were combined in 1823 and named Camp Galvez Spring (aka Camp New Hope (2)). Renamed again in 1823. There were 10 log barracks and 10 Officers' quarters around a large parade ground, with a two-story Commandant's House at one end. Also known as Fort Clinch (1). Site located near the south end of Keys Court.
Camp Morgan (2)
(1863, 1876), near Beach Haven
A temporary summer camp on the north shore of Bayou Grande to escape Yellow Fever outbreaks.
An encampment of 600 sailors and marines of the U.S. North Atlantic Squadron. Located on Magnolia Bluff in East Pensacola Heights.
Santa María de Ochuse
(1559 - 1561), Pensacola
A fortified Spanish settlement (aka Santa María de Polonza) built by 1500 colonists under Tristán de Luna y Arrellano. Also spelled Achuse. Arriving in 13 ships, and taking over two months on the voyage from Veracruz, Mexico, nine ships were destroyed by a hurricane one week after landing, destroying most of the food and supplies. Several expeditions were sent north and west, up the Escambia River and also including Mobile Bay and the Alabama River (see also Fort Serof in Alabama). For most of 1560, nearly 1000 of the colonists had moved inland northwest to the Indian village of Nanipacani on the Alabama River, leaving only 50 people at Ochuse. After dealing with hostile Indians and a lack of adequate food supplies, the surviving colonists returned to Ochuse before abandoning Florida for Cuba in the spring of 1561. The Luna settlement, once believed by some historians to be located somewhere in the Mobile Bay area of Alabama (Bahía de Filipina), was archaeologically identified in 2015 at a residential site along Bayou Texar in downtown Pensacola. Two of the wrecked Spanish ships were found in the bay off of Emanuel Point (East Pensacola Heights), in 1992 and 2006, and were dated to the period.
Early Colonial Pensacola Bay Forts
¤¤ NOTE: Pensacola was permanently settled by the Spanish beginning in 1698. Occupied intermittently by the French from 1719 - 1722. Occupied by the British from August 1763 - May 1781 as the capital of the West Florida colony. Reoccupied jointly by the Spanish and British in 1814. The Americans invaded in November 1814 and May 1818. The Americans took formal control from Spain in July 1821.
The historic area of town is the Historic Pensacola Village operated by the T. T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State Museum. Other museums of interest in town include the Pensacola Historical Museum at 115 Zaragoza Street, and the Archaeology Institute at the University of West Florida.
Pensacola Colonial Frontiers Project by John Worth
Spanish Forts (First Regime)
(1698 - 1763)
Fort San Miguel (1) (late 1740's), originally an eight-man blockhouse located at or near present-day Seville Square. It was enlarged in 1756 as a square stockade about 700 by 400 feet, with 21 guns, and renamed Presidio de San Miguel de las Amarillas. It was renamed Presidio de San Miguel de Panzacola, or Fort Panzacola, in 1757. Taken over by the British in 1763.
Fort Santa Barbara was planned in 1756 to be located somewhere near Fort San Miguel (1), probably never built.
Presidio de Santa María de Galve (1698), as Pensacola Bay was then known, was located on the Barrancas. Destroyed by the French in 1719.
Fort San Carlos d'Austria (1698), a bastioned log fort about 100 yards square, located on "La Barrancas de San Tomé" ("Cliffs of St. Thomas") at the Santa María Presidio complex. Possibly also known as Fort Anchusa. Initially armed with 12 guns, later 28 guns. Site located on the dune ridge between present-day Barrancas and Slemmer Aves., about 1500 feet east of Fort Barrancas. Destroyed by the French in 1719. Partially reconstructed in the 2000's with two period guns found during site excavations in the 1990's, located at Slemmer Ave. and Hatch Road. FORT WIKI
Fort San Carlos Principe d'Asturias (1719), a small stockaded three-gun battery located on Santa Rosa Island at Point Siguenza. Destroyed by the French the same year.
Presidio de Santa Rosa de Punta Siguenza (1723), a new compound built on Santa Rosa Island after the French left the area. It was destroyed by a hurricane in November 1752. The site is located on the north shore between Battery Worth and Battery Langdon (excavated in 1964 and 2002).
Fort Santa Rosa (1752), a stockaded blockhouse with eight guns built one-fourth mile east of the destroyed presidio on Santa Rosa Island. Taken over by the British in 1763.
Fort Ayenlade (1719), a small fort located somewhere on Santa Rosa Island, possibly located near present-day Langdon Beach, or even further east. Abandoned or destroyed by the French.
Mission de San Antonio de Punta Rasa (1749 - 1761), a Yamassee Indian refugee mission community located at Garcon Point. A Spanish 15-man infantry unit was garrisoned here in 1757. Attacked and burned by Creek Indians in February 1761. The Yamassee survivors relocated to "Indian Town" near Presidio de San Miguel.
The French and Spanish battled four times between 1719 and 1722 for control of the area; May 1719 (French), June 1719 (Spanish), September 1719 (French), 1722 (Spanish). For the most part, the French did not maintain the Spanish posts under their control, and French names, if any, are not recorded.
(1763 - 1781)
Fort at Pensacola, formerly the Spanish Fort Panzacola, taken over in 1763. Located between Seville Square and Plaza Ferdinand, and between Main and Romano Streets. Rebuilt in 1767 as a 850-foot by 1400-foot stockade. Enlarged in 1775 as a five-sided stockade about 1000 by 750 feet, with four two-story timber blockhouses. Most guns were removed to Fort George (2) in 1780. The Spanish did not maintain this post after 1781. In 1993 excavations revealed the Officers' quarters on Jefferson Street and the Commanding Officer's quarters on Zaragoza Street. An advanced redoubt (1778), about 150 by 75 feet, was located on Tarragona Street between Romano and Intendencia Streets. A second redoubt (1778) was located on the point of land just east of Florida Blanca Street.
James Noble's Fort (1763 - 1781 ?), a stockaded commercial trading post located south of present-day Government Street and west of the Escambia County Judicial Building.
Fort George (2) (1779) (20 guns), an 80 yard-square log fort located at Palafox and Jackson Streets on Palafox (Gage) Hill, near Lee Square. Captured by the Spanish in May 1781. Site now Fort George Park, excavated in 1974. See also Explore Southern History.com
Fort Waldeck originally the southern hornwork of Fort George until named seperately in 1781.
Crescent Redoubt, also known as Queen's Redoubt (four guns), was built in 1778 about 600 yards north of Fort George (2), at Spring and Brainard Streets. Captured by the Spanish in 1781.
Prince of Wales Redoubt (aka Middle Redoubt) (1780) (eight guns) was located on Gage Hill 300 yards north of Fort George (2) at Cerevantes and Spring Streets. Captured by Spain in 1781.
East Redoubt (1780 ?), located near present-day Eighth Ave. and Zaragosa Street. Built by the townspeople.
West Redoubt (1778), located near present-day Baylen and Government Streets. Possibly never completed.
North Redoubts (1778), two works located at present-day Intendencia and Palafox Streets, and at Intendencia and Alcaniz Streets. Possibly never completed.
Pensacola Barracks (1778), with two two-story blockhouses, was located at Zarragoza and Tarragona Streets (behind present-day Pensacola Historical Society). One building burned down before 1813, the other was destroyed in 1820.
Fort at Red Cliffs (1771), built on the Barrancas east of the present Water Battery, consisted of simple log and earth embankments (Upper and Lower Batteries) and two blockhouses to the rear. Captured by Spain in 1781.
Royal Navy Redoubt (1780), located on the Barrancas west of the present Water Battery. Captured by Spain in 1781.
Tartar Point Blockhouse (1771), destroyed by the British in 1781 to prevent Spanish capture. Site now part of NAS Pensacola.
Fort St. Rose, aka St. Rose Battery (1771), the Spanish Fort Santa Rosa was rebuilt and occupied intermittently until 1780. It was abandoned before the Spanish attacked in 1781.
Spanish Forts (Second Regime)
(1781 - 1821)
Fort San Miguel (2) (1783), the rebuilt and renamed British Fort George (2) on Palafox Hill. It was re-occupied by the British in 1814 and renamed Fort St. Michael. Captured by American troops in November 1814. It was not maintained afterwards.
Fort San Bernardo (1781), the captured and renamed British Queen's Redoubt. Abandoned by 1796.
Fort Sombrero (1781), the captured and renamed British Prince of Wales Redoubt. Abandoned by 1783.
Pensacola Blockhouse (1) (1780's), located near Plaza Ferdinand. It became the U.S. Customs House after 1821.
Pensacola Blockhouse (2) (1780's), located near present-day Government and Main Streets, site now occupied by a county sewage treatment plant.
NOTE: In May 1818 the Americans reported four two-story 31 square-foot timber and brick blockhouses located around the public square and military barracks (only one in usable condition), a two-story 22 square-foot timber blockhouse with a four-gun battery located at the eastern end of town, a two-story 22 square-foot timber blockhouse located at the head of Palafox Street, a two-story 22 square-foot timber blockhouse with a four-gun battery located at the foot of Palafox Street, and a two-story 22 square-foot timber blockhouse with a four-gun battery located at the western end of town. All were no longer usable by 1821.
Fort San Carlos de Barrancas (1798) (23 guns), a log and earthen work located on the Barrancas within the trace of the British Naval Redoubt. British troops briefly returned in 1814 and occupied the fort, which the Americans then destroyed (November 1814). Rebuilt in 1817 about 100 yards east as a 10-gun log stockade. The Americans returned again briefly in May 1818.
San Antonio Battery (1796) (seven guns), located on the Barrancas east of Fort San Carlos de Barrancas. Occupied by British troops in 1814. This work later became the Water Battery of the American Fort Barrancas in 1839. (see Fort Barrancas listed below)
Bayou Chico Redoubts (1781), two timber redoubts located on either side of Bayou Chico, used in the siege of British Fort George (2).
Pine Hill Battery (1781), a gun battery used in the siege of Fort George (2).
Fort Santa Rosa (1793), a rebuild of the old post on Santa Rosa Island. Occupied by British troops in 1814, then by American troops after the British destroyed the fort and withdrew (November 1814).
Fort Montagorda (1781 - 1796), a brick fort on Santa Rosa Island found abandoned by the Americans in 1822. Located two miles from the present western tip of the island (near Langdon Beach), the actual site is now underwater. Referred to as Fuerte Arruinado (Ruined Fort) on some maps.
Fort Ding (1790) near Pensacola (?) (undetermined location).
American troops under General Andrew Jackson invaded West Florida in November 1814 during the First Creek War when British troops jointly occupied Pensacola with the Spanish. They occupied Fort St. Michael (San Miguel (2)) on Palafox Hill, the abandoned Fort San Bernardo, Fort San Carlos de Barrancas and San Antonio Battery on the Barrancas, and Fort Santa Rosa on Santa Rosa Island. Jackson returned in May 1818 with more troops and occupied the now abandoned Fort San Miguel (2) again, and then attacked and captured Fort San Carlos de Barrancas.
In 1821 the only Spanish defensive works left in usable condition were Fort San Carlos de Barrancas and San Antonio Battery. What remained of the Pensacola Barracks (burned in 1820) were almost uninhabitable, and were quickly replaced with new barracks on the Barrancas.
John Forbes' Trading House (1)
(1780's - 1821 ?), Pensacola
Originally the Panton, Leslie, and Company Store, a British trading firm. Forbes took control of the outfit around 1800. This was the headquarters for several branch posts in the province (Apalachicola River, Wakulla River, and two on the St. Johns River). It remained in operation during the Second Spanish Regime until at least 1814, if not longer. The Americans had accused Forbes of being a major arms supplier to the Creeks and Seminoles. A reconstruction of the house is located along the waterfront at Baylen Street.
Civil War Defenses of Pensacola
(1861 - 1865), various locations
Confederate forts and camps from January 1861 to May 1862 included:
Camp Alabama in Old Warrington.
Camp Chalmers near Old Warrington near Fort Barrancas.
1861 CSA BATTERY PHOTO
Camp Davis (3) west of Fort Barrancas.
Camp Jackson (1) near Fort Barrancas.
Camp Magnolia (2) north of the east-end of Grande Lagoon, west of Fort Barrancas.
Camp Philips near Fort Barrancas.
Fort Arriola (1862), in Gulf Breeze, a one-gun battery located on Town Point.
There were 13-18 CSA gun batteries built along the mainland shore from Tartar Point (Navy Yard) to Fort McRee in 1861. All were abandoned in May 1862. They included Marine Battery at the Navy Yard stone wharf, Navy Yard Battery, Warrington Church Battery, Barrancas Barracks Battery (six guns), Old Lighthouse Battery, and New Lighthouse Battery (south of light).
The western end of Santa Rosa Island was never held by Confederate forces. Union troops landed on the island in April and May 1861 to protect Fort Pickens.
Camp Brown (2) (aka Billy Wilson's Camp) (1861), located one and one-half miles east of Fort Pickens, burned down by CSA troops as they attacked the island in October 1861 trying to dislodge the fort's garrison. The same Union troops here then established Camp Lincoln.
Camp Lincoln (1861 - 1862), one mile east of Fort Pickens.
Camp Seward (1861 - 1862), located southeast of Fort Pickens. Included Battery Totten (two guns) within its perimeter.
Camp Stoughton, near Fort Pickens.
Camp Union (1861), near Fort Pickens.
Battery Cameron (1861 - 1862) (two guns), 600 yards northeast of Fort Pickens.
Battery Lincoln (1861 - 1862) (six guns), east of Battery Cameron.
Battery Scott (1861 - 1862), west of Fort Pickens.
"Old Spanish Fort" Battery (1861 - 1862), a one-gun battery near the ruins of Spanish Fort Montagorda, built after the Confederates attacked Fort Pickens (October 1861).
The camps and batteries surrounding Fort Pickens were abandoned by May/June 1862 after the Confederates withdrew from the area. The Union troops then transfered to Fort Barrancas and into the towns of (Old) Warrington and Pensacola. The Navy Yard was also re-occupied.
Union forts and camps after May 1862 included:
Fort McClellan (1862 - 1863) (five guns and two magazines), located on Palafox Hill (old Fort George (2)/San Miguel (2)/St. Michael) near Lee Square. Garrison transferred to Fort Barrancas in March 1863. Possibly renamed Fort Arnold after November 1862. Site became Florida/Lee Square by 1884. A portion of the earthworks were still visible into the 1890's.
A line of abatis and breastworks extended both southeast and southwest from the fort to the shoreline on each side of town, with several fortified gun positions and rifle trenches in between.
Pensacola Stockade / Redoubt (November 1862), located near St. Michael's Cemetery.
Camp Ferris (1863), about one-half mile from Advanced Redoubt and one mile from Fort Barrancas.
Camp Coburn (1863), at the Barrancas Barracks post hospital.
Camp Arnold (1862), near Fort Barrancas.
Camp Jackson (2) (1862), near Fort Barrancas.
Barrancas Line (1863 - 1865), a line of trenches and rifle pits extending from the Advanced Redoubt to Fort Barrancas. An eight-gun redan was built near Bayou Grande.
Camp Roberts (1862 - 1864), in Old Warrington.
Camp Asboth (1863 - 1865), in Old Warrington, site centered on the present-day Cabaniss Street Navy Family Housing area.
NOTE: The town of Warrington was relocated by the Navy across Bayou Grande in 1930-31. The town cemetery was relocated in 1935 adjacent to Barrancas National Cemetery.
Pensacola Naval Camps
(1917 - 1918), various locations
Camp Franklin located near Pensacola Junior College, used for training Naval Reservists.
Camp Bronson located on Magnolia Point on Escambia Bay, used for aerial bombing practice.
Camp Bennett (1918) located west of the Navy Hospital, used to train recruits.
Camp Mustin (1918) located between the Navy Hospital and Warrington Beach, used as quarters for enlisted men.
Camp Saufley located on Santa Rosa Island opposite the Naval Air Station, used as a gunnery range and seaplane base. Naval AA guns were emplaced here in 1918.
¤ HARBOR DEFENSES of
Coastal Fortifications on the Gulf of Mexico by Andy Bennett
Harbor Defense of Pensacola - FORT WIKI
¤ Fort Barrancas
(Gulf Islands National Seashore)
(U.S. Naval Air Station Pensacola)
(1840 - 1947), Pensacola FORT WIKI
The present fort was completed in 1844 near the ruins of Spanish Fort San Carlos de Barrancas (see above listing). The former Spanish San Antonio Battery, sometimes referred to today as Fort San Carlos (1), is seaward of the present-day fort, and was rebuilt in 1839 - 1841 as the Water Battery for Fort Barrancas. Occupied by the Confederates until May 1862. The 10-acre fort is on U.S. Navy property, but is operated by the National Park Service (since 1971). Both the main fort and water battery were restored by the NPS in 1980. Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and Hurricane Dennis in 2005 caused heavy damage. See also Pensacola Encyclopedia article
¤ Advanced Redoubt of Fort Barrancas
(Gulf Islands National Seashore)
(U.S. Naval Air Station Pensacola)
(1845 - 1870), Pensacola FORT WIKI
Located on the present-day Naval Base, about 1500 yards north of Fort Barrancas. It was built to defend the landward approach to Fort Barrancas and the Naval Shipyard. Considered a full-fledged fortress in its own right, it was never given a formal name, but is known locally as Fort Redoubt. First armed in 1851, construction was halted in 1859. It was never fully completed. Occupied by CSA troops until May 1862. Known as Barrancas Redoubt during the Civil War by both sides. Practically abandoned after 1870. It was restored by the NPS in 1976.
¤ Barrancas Barracks
(U.S. Naval Air Station Pensacola)
(1821 - 1947/present), Pensacola
Located just to the east of Fort Barrancas, this was the main garrison post area and headquarters for the four area forts. Originally composed of some Spanish buildings in 1821, a new barracks was built in 1822 on Hospital Hill about 600 yards east of old Fort San Carlos de Barrancas, to replace the Pensacola Barracks which had burned down. The old Spanish-built hospital was replaced in 1830 with a new Marine Hospital. The post was administered by the U.S. Navy from 1825 - 1844, and was originally known as Post of Barrancas until 1847. Several new barracks and Officers' quarters were built between 1847 to 1851. Also known as Camp Barrancas (1) between 1840 and 1870 when various temporary encampments were located here. Occupied by CSA troops until May 1862, with a six-gun battery built on post (see Civil War Defenses listed above). Renamed Post of Fort Barrancas in 1870. The National Cemetery was established in 1868, located at Hovey and Duncan Rds. New Officers' quarters and other buildings were constructed in the 1870's, and a new hospital was built in 1895. The original 1822 barracks building was still used until 1938. The post evolved into the Pensacola Naval Air Station after 1947. Many of the old buildings are still in use by the Navy. See also History of Pensacola NAS. Of interest nearby is the National Museum of Naval Aviation.
¤ Fort McRee (2)
(Gulf Islands National Seashore)
(1837 - 1878/1947), Perdido Key
Built on Foster's Bank, now the eastern end of Perdido Key. Completed and armed with 128 guns in 1840. Garrisoned from 1843 to 1850. Erroneously spelled McRae (2) on many old maps. A brick Water Battery (aka South Battery) was built in 1851 about 600 yards south of the fort. Occupied by the Confederates until May 1862. Nearly destroyed by Union bombardment, it was never rebuilt. Finally abandoned in 1878, many of the bricks and stones were used for paving projects at Barrancas Barracks. What was left of the old fort lies in ruin and is mostly under water in the surf, due to a 1906 hurricane. It closely resembled Fort Wool, Virginia, in design. Endicott batteries located here were Battery Slemmer (1900 - 1917) partially buried just west of site of old fort, and Battery Center (1901 - 1920) partialy buried. Built in WWII was Battery 233 (1944) never armed. A searchlight position was built on the #1 gun platform of Battery Slemmer in the 1930's. A WWII fire-control tower was once located to the west at Barrancas Beach. Access is by 4x4 vehicle or on foot from Gulf Beach. See also Pensacola Encyclopedia article
¤ Fort Pickens
(Gulf Islands National Seashore)
(1845 - 1947), Santa Rosa Island ¤National Archives MAP¤ | *PHOTOS*
Fort Pickens was the first defense constructed for the U.S. Naval Shipyard built in Old Warrington in 1825. Construction started in 1834. Held by the Union through the entire Civil War. After 1862 the fort was used as a Federal prison. A Water Battery was built in 1864. Some work was done in 1875 - 1876 for new gun platforms and magazines on the parapet. A planned exterior battery was never built. In 1886 fifteen Apache leaders, including Geronimo, were interred here, then transferred to Alabama in 1888. The fort's north bastion was destroyed in a magazine explosion in 1899. A mine casemate was built in the southeast bastion in 1895 to control the harbor minefields used up through WWII. Battery Pensacola (1899 - 1933) was built inside the old fort, thus necessitating a lowering of the barbette tier of the parapet. Endicott batteries located adjacent to the old fort are Battery Cullum (1898 - 1933) modified in 1942 for Battery Trueman's guns, Battery Sevier (1898 - 1933), Battery Van Swearingen (1898 - 1921) (one gun is on display at Danielsville, GA), Battery Trueman (1905 - 1942) guns moved to Battery Cullum in 1942, Battery Payne (1904 - 1946), and an Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery (1943 - 1946). Two 37mm AMTB guns (1943 - 45) were located by the wharf. Located further east on the island are Battery Cooper (1906 - 1917) (present gun came from West Point, NY in 1976), Battery Worth (1899 - 1942) became the harbor entrance control post in 1943, Battery Langdon (1923 - 1947) casemated in 1943, near the old Coast Guard Station, Battery 234 (1944) (locally named Battery Brown) never armed (present guns came from Fort John Custis, VA in 1976), with restored BC station, and a four-gun 155mm battery (1937 - 1945) on Panama mounts was located by Battery Cooper, sometimes referred to as New Battery Cooper as the magazines and other rooms of the former battery were re-used. A two-gun 3-inch AA battery was built by Battery Worth (1925 - 1930), but was relocated to near Battery Langdon (1930 - 1945). There were once several positions for disappearing searchlights. A WWII fire-control tower was once located to the east at Bald Point. Admission fee. Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and Hurricane Dennis in 2005 caused heavy damage. See also Pensacola Encyclopedia article
NEED MORE INFO: Spanish (?) Fort Ding (1790) near Pensacola (?)
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