Southern Florida

Fort T.B. Adams | Fort Ais | Anna Maria Radar Station | Camp Armistead | Fort Armistead
Camp Armstrong | Fort Atzroth | Fort Ays | Fort Bankhead | Fort Basinger
Camp Belle Haven | Boca Grande Island Res. | (Fort) Braden Castle | Branch's Fort
Fort Brickell | Calos Blockhouse | Fort Capron (2) | Fort Casey | Cayo Costa Res.
Camp Center | Fort Center | Fort Chockonikla | Fort Crawford | Fort Cross (2) | Fort Dallas
Camp Daniels | Fort Daniels | Fort Denaud | Camp Deposit | Camp Depot No. 1
Camp Depot No. 2 | Fort Deynaud | Camp Doane | Fort Doane | Fort Drum (1)
Fort Simon Drum (2) | Dry Tortugas Res. | Fort Dulaney | Fort Dunn | Tower Dutton
Everglades Post | Fisher Island Res. | Florida Keys Shore Patrol Camps | Fort Floyd
Fort Foster (2) | Tower Fraser | Fort at Garden Key | Gasparilla Island Res. | Fort Green
J. Green's Fort | Fort Hamer | Fort Harney (2) | Fort Harrel | Fort Harrell | Fort Hartsuff
Fort Harvie | Fort Henry | Camp Homestead | Fort Hooke | Camp Hospitika | Fort Howell
Camp Hunter | Indian Key Post | Fort Jefferson | Jensen Beach Radar Station | Fort Josephine
Fort Jupiter | Fort Keais | Fort Kemble | Key Biscayne Post (1) | Key Biscayne Res. (2)
Key Largo Post | Key Largo Radar Station | Key West Barracks | Key West Post
Fort Kissimmee | Fort Lauderdale | Fort Lauderdale Res. | Fort Lloyd | Fort McRae/McRee (1)
Camp Malco | Fort Manatee | Manatee River Post | Tower Mansfield | Martello Towers
Camp Miami | Miami Beach Radar Station | Camp Moulder | Camp Murphy | Fort Myakka
Fort Myers | Fort No. One (S) | Fort No. Two (S) | Fort Ogden | Palm Beach Res.
Palm City Depot | Fort Paulding | Fort Pierce | Fort Poinsett | Port Everglades Battery
Tower Reynolds | Camp Rogers (1) | Camp Romano | Fort Rough and Ready | Fort Russell (1)
Russell's Landing Post | Salt Ponds Res. | Camp Sampson | Fort San Antonio de Padua
Fort Santa Lucía de Canaveral | Fort Shackleford | Camp Simmons | Fort Simmons (1)
Camp Smead | Soldier Key Res. | Fort Starke | Tavernier Key Post | Fort Zachary Taylor (3)
Fort Tegesta | Fort Tequesta | Fort Thompson | Camp Twiggs | Fort Van Buren
Fort Van Swearingen | Fort Vinton | Virginia Key Res. | Camp Walbach | Fort Westcott
Camp Whipple | Fort Winder

Cold War Air Defenses of Key West
Cold War Air Defenses of Homestead-Miami

Northeast Coast - page 1 | St. Johns River - page 2
Eastern Florida - page 3 | Middle Florida - page 4
Central Florida - page 5 | Western Florida - page 7
Pensacola Bay - page 8

FLORIDA'S COASTAL MARITIME TRAIL - FORTS
FLORIDA'S PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVES
OLD FLORIDA MAPS
COASTAL FORTIFICATIONS PHOTO ARCHIVES

SPANISH FLORIDA 1513-1763

Last Update: 21/MARCH/2024
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2024 American Forts Network

Fort Jefferson
(Dry Tortugas National Park)
(1846 - 1917 ?), Garden Key FORT WIKI
A huge 16-acre hexagon-shaped brick fort located 68 miles west of Key West. Original name was Fort at Garden Key until 1850. Held by the Union through the entire Civil War. Mostly used as a Federal prison during and after the Civil War. Designed to carry almost 450 guns, it was never fully armed. Only Fort Monroe in Virginia is larger, but only in terms of area. Construction was finally halted in 1876. It was regarrisoned for the Spanish-American War and WWI, but newer guns were never installed. A fire gutted the barracks in 1912. Used as a Navy Coaling Station beginning in 1904. Declared a National Monument in 1935. Redesignated as a National Park in 1992. The fortress suffered damage from Hurricane Charlie in 2004.

The original Dry Tortugas Military Reservation was created in 1845, and encompassed Garden Key, East Key, Middle Key, Sand Key, Long Key, Bush Key, Bird Key, and Loggerhead Key, for a total of about 140 acres of dry land (at the time).


¤ HARBOR DEFENSES of KEY WEST
Harbor Defense of Key West - FORT WIKI

¤ Fort Zachary Taylor (3) (Historic State Park)
(Truman Annex - Key West Naval Air Station)
(1845 - 1947/1974), Key West
Still under construction in 1861. It originally had three tiers of casemates with two tower bastions on each flank, and was then located on a shoal about 1000 feet offshore from the mainland. Barracks built inside the fort in 1861 were occupied only during the Civil War. Held by the Union through the entire Civil War. The fortress was modified in 1899 by cutting down the top two tiers to allow for the increased field-of-fire for the new Endicott batteries Battery Osceola (1900 - 1944) and Battery Adair (1901 - 1920) that were built within the fortress. Battery Adair was partially destroyed in the 1980's, which uncovered several Civil War vintage cannon that were buried when the battery was built. Exterior batteries were built in 1873 - 1876 on the mainland behind the fort, known as the Lower Battery (aka South Battery) (14 or 17 guns) at Lighthouse Point, and the Upper Battery (aka North Battery) (eight or 12 guns) located midway between the South Battery and the old Marine Hospital (on Emma Street). Hurricanes in 1873 and 1875 slowed work progress. The South Battery was later destroyed to build Batteries Covington and DeLeon. A portion of the original retaining wall still exists. The North Battery was also later destroyed for the newer batteries. The Outer Mole/Cruise Ship Pier, located off of Truman Waterfront Park, was originally the Quartermaster dock for Fort Taylor before it was greatly expanded after World War One as a harbor breakwater.

Other batteries outside the old fort were Battery Seminole (1904 - 1918) uncovered, converted to HDCP/HECP (1942 - 1943), Battery DeLeon (1904 - 1941) destroyed in 1962, Battery Covington (1904 - 1917) destroyed in 1962, Battery DeKalb (1906 - 1917) destroyed in the 1950's, Battery 231 (1940's) (still extant), Battery Gardiner (1898 - 1913) destroyed in 1962, Battery Ford (1906 - 1946) destroyed in 1964, Battery Dilworth (1901 - 1920) destroyed in 1944, Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 5 (1943 - 1946) one gun was on Battery Adair, and a four-gun 155mm battery (1919 - 1944), two Panama mounts on Battery Covington and two Panama mounts on Battery DeLeon were each built in 1940. Two of the 155mm guns (Covington) were relocated to the West Martello Tower in 1942 (see below). The other two 155mm guns (DeLeon) were relocated to Miami Beach also in 1942 (see below). Two new 155mm guns were then emplaced on the PM's at DeLeon in 1943. Anti-aircraft artillery was also emplaced in the area. One 1920's-30's period 3-inch AA battery was located at present-day Fort Taylor Court, near the intersection of Whitehead and United Streets (site now within the private gated community Truman Annex Place). An SCR-296A radar tower was located behind the old fort. Three WWII era steel-frame towers were located on post for battery command and fire-control observation (all traces gone). An SCR-682A radar tower was located by the former Post Theater. Two additional WWII era steel-frame fire-control towers were once located on Stock Island (gone) and on Fleming Key (concrete footers still remain, just north of the Fleming Key Naval Magazine, no public access). A mobile SCR-268 radar was also located on Fleming Key. The Army reservation around the old fort was transferred to the Navy in 1947, becoming the Fort Taylor Annex of the adjacent Key West Naval Base. The Naval Base closed in 1974, and the Fort Taylor Annex then became the Harry S. Truman Annex - Key West Naval Air Station, which is still partly under Navy control today. Battery Seminole and Battery 231 remain off-limits to the public. No remains of the other Endicott gun batteries. Much of the original fort's interior casemates are not open to the public due to their poor condition. Many of the original cannons were unearthed during excavations in 1968, buried during the 1899 Endicott battery construction. The fort became landlocked in 1965 after dredging and infilling projects by the Navy. The old fort became state property in 1977, and was opened as a state historic site in 1985. Admission fee.

¤ Key West Barracks
(1831 - 1947/1974), Key West FORT WIKI
Located at North Beach overlooking Garrison Bight, a 24-acre parcel bound by present-day Palm Ave., White Street, and Angela Street. A temporary camp was built in 1831, and temporary quarters were built in 1836. Known as Post of Key West until 1845 when it became the cantonment area for Fort Taylor, located about 1.5 miles to the southwest via Truman Avenue (Division Street). Permanent quarters were built in 1844, consisting of six Officers' quarters, and two barracks and a guard house. Originally an Infantry post until the Civil War. Between 1892 and 1906 additional quarters and barracks were built. The two old 1844 barracks were torn down in 1909. Became landlocked after 1910 due to the construction of Henry Flagler's railroad line, the landfill creating Trumbo Point. A 3-inch anti-aircraft gun battery was located in the northwest corner of the property during the 1920's and 1930's. The post was turned over to the Navy in 1947, became part of the Key West Naval Base (established in 1823). The Naval Base was closed in 1974, with portions of the former base then becoming annexes of the Key West Naval Air Station located on Boca Chica Key. No original Army buildings now survive on site, which is now the Navy's Peary Court housing complex. At least two of the circa 1900 quarters still remain, which were relocated in the early 1950's to the 700 block of Eisenhower Drive, known as the "North Beach Buildings" (private residential housing). Two additional quarters (built circa 1920) were also relocated and were later converted in 1976 as the Island House Resort at 1129 Fleming Street. The former Post Cemetery still exists at 700 White Street, known today as the Peary Court Burial Grounds (a city park since 1998). It was in use from 1835 to 1927. with most of the graves transferred to the post cemetery at Fort Barrancas in Pensacola. However, some graves are still believed to remain.

¤ West and East Martello Towers
(1862 - 1946), Key West
Four brick gun towers were planned to defend the landward approach to Fort Taylor, but these two were the only ones built. Two others were planned for Stock Island and Fleming Key. Tower Dutton was the proposed name (1862) for the East Tower, and Tower Fraser was the proposed name (1862) for the West Tower. The plans were enlarged to include a semi-circular ring of casemates around each tower. The East Tower was abandoned in 1873, the West Tower was abandoned in 1866. Proposed names in 1874 were Tower Mansfield (East) and Tower Reynolds (West), but no new work was undertaken.

Inside the West Tower was built Battery Inman (1906 - 1946), and nearby just to the west was Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 6 (1943 - 1946) (two concrete mounts now built over by the Higgs Beach pavilions. A short-lived two-gun 155mm battery (1942) in revetments (no Panama mounts) (guns from Fort Taylor) was located by the West Tower. The West Tower, mostly in ruin, is now the Joe Allen Garden Center, located at the end of White Street at 1100 Atlantic Blvd., adjacent to Higgs Beach, about halfway between the East Tower and Fort Taylor.

The East Tower was used as a fire-control observation station in WWII. Another two-gun 155mm battery (1942 - 1944) on concrete Panama mounts was located just to the east of the East Tower (two guns from Fort Adams, RI swapped-in in 1943). The two Panama mounts are now covered by grass/earth-fill. A mobile SCR-268 radar was located about 1400 feet further east of the East Tower. The East Tower, since 1951, is now an art/history museum (admission fee), located near the airport at 3501 South Roosevelt Blvd..

¤ Salt Ponds Military Reservation
(1942 - 1947), Key West
A subpost of Fort Taylor located at the present Key West International Airport, which was known then as Meachum Field, just north of the East Martello Tower. Located here was Battery 232 (1944 - 1946), at the western end of the runway. Still remains, no public access. An SCR-296A radar was also here, along with troop barracks (no remains).


Cold War Air Defenses of Key West
(1962 - 1979), Key West area
In late October 1962, during the "Cuban Missile Crisis", the Casa Marina Hotel (at 1500 Reynolds Street) (built 1920), near Higgs Beach, was used as an Army command post (KW-95) and barracks for 500 troops of the 6th Battalion, 65th Air Defense Artillery, who manned several mobile HAWK missile sites around Key West and the surrounding islands. The hotel had previously been used as U.S. Navy Officers' Quarters during WWII (1942 - 1946). Initially Alpha Battery was assigned to Fleming Key; Bravo Battery was assigned to Key West; Charlie Battery was temporarily assigned to the north end of Lower Sugarloaf Key, at the western end of the Sugarloaf airstrip on Bat Tower Road, about 1.5 miles west of Perky (KW-15); and Delta Battery was assigned to Boca Chica Key. Each firing battery's mobile launchers (six launchers per battery, three missiles per launcher) were scattered in various positions. Bravo Battery's six mobile launchers on Key West were positioned at sites from Fort Taylor to the airport, with at least two of the launchers on the public beaches in between. Marines from the Key West Naval Base Marine Barracks were tasked to guard every highway bridge on US 1 between Key West and Key Largo. The HAWK missiles became fully operational two days before the crisis was diplomatically resolved. See also Cuban Missile Crisis from Key West Historical Marker Tour.org

In June 1965 four permanent HAWK missile sites with concrete hardstands were completed and made operational. They were:
Alpha Battery, located at the northern tip of Fleming Key (KW-80), partial remains, now the site of the U.S. Army Special Forces Underwater Operations School.
Bravo Battery, located on the north side of the runway at Key West Airport (KW-65), ruins still extant, now part of the city-owned Little Hamaca Park on Government Road.
Charlie Battery, located at Geiger Point on Geiger Key (KW-24), ruins still extant, on private property.
Delta Battery, located at the northern tip of Long Point on Boca Chica Key (KW-10), ruins still extant, on Naval Air Station property, site now used for the KBYX Doppler Weather Radar operated by the National Weather Service.
The Battalion Headquarters (KW-19) and Direction Center (AADCP) (KW-18DC) were relocated to the Naval Air Station on Boca Chica Key. The 671st Radar Squadron (US Air Force) began operations here in June 1962.
In September 1972, the 6th Battalion, 65th ADA was replaced by the 1st Battalion, 65th ADA. All HAWK missile batteries were deactivated in June 1979. There were no NIKE missiles ever deployed at Key West.


Camp Sampson
(1898), Key West
The assembly camp of the U.S. Marines who were on their way to Cuba. Located about two miles from the Navy docks, at "La Brisa", likely near the present La Brisa Villa west of the airport.

Florida Keys WWII Shore Patrol Camps
(1941 - 1943), various locations
U.S. Army coastal defense shore patrol base camps and outposts established in December 1941 for mobile force Infantry, Mechanized Cavalry, Field Artillery, Signal Corps, Combat Engineers, and Military Police troops from various regiments.
Pigeon Key (1941 - 1943): Troops covered 41 miles of highway and 19 bridges. Later housed "Florida Keys Line of Communication" troops from HD Key West. Units came from 155th Infantry, 13th Infantry, 28th Infantry, and 265th Coast Artillery. Post discontinued in 1943 when U.S. Coast Guard took over patrols. May have used old railroad work camp buildings.
Long Key (1941 - 1942): Troops covered 45.5 miles of highway and 12 bridges. Operations consolidated to Pigeon Key. Units included 155th, 13th, and 28th Infantry.
Ramrod Key (1942): Occupied by 2nd Platoon, Company E, 13th Infantry from February to March 1942 before transferring to West Summerland Key.
West Summerland Key (1942): Occupied by 2nd Platoon, Company E, 13th Infantry in March of 1942, turned over to the 28th Infantry, then Company K, 121st Infantry, and Company I, 104th Infantry. Used the site of an old C.C.C. camp that later became a Florida State Prisons road camp.
(thanks to John McDonald for providing info)

Key Largo Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), Key Largo
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-270 early warning radar was located here. Exact location undetermined.

Camp Homestead
(1942 - 1943), Homestead
A WWII temporary U.S. Army battalion-sized coastal defense shore patrol (Florida Sub-sector) mobile force base camp with outposts in the Florida Keys (see above). In use from April to May 1942, it was then moved to Miami (Camp Belle Haven). Later used in 1943 as a patrol base camp for troops from HD Key West (Fort Taylor). Location uncertain, probably at or near the then South Dade County Municipal Airfield, which became Homestead Army Airfield in September 1942 under the Army Air Transport Command (became operational in November 1942).


Cold War Air Defenses of Homestead - Miami
(1962 - 1979), Homestead area
In late October 1962, during the "Cuban Missile Crisis", the Army's 8th Battalion, 15th Air Defense Artillery was deployed with four mobile HAWK missile batteries to defend Homestead Air Force Base and southern Florida from possible Cuban/Soviet air attack. Each firing battery had six mobile launchers with three missiles per launcher. Initially the Battalion Headquarters was located at site HM-82 in Naranja; Alpha Battery was located at site HM-05 in Goulds; and Delta Battery was located at site HM-60 (about four miles southwest of Florida City) (exact site locations all undetermined). Another battery (Bravo or Charlie ?) was initially deployed to Patrick Air Force Base at Cape Canaveral, and another battery (Bravo or Charlie ?) was initially deployed to MacDill Air Force Base near Tampa. The HAWK missiles became fully operational two days before the crisis was diplomatically resolved. In April 1963, Bravo and Charlie Batteries were consolidated with the rest of the battalion at Homestead Air Force Base after the parent 13th Artillery Group was permanently assigned to south Florida and integrated into the continental air defense. Bravo Battery was then located at site HM- ? (unknown location, but most likely south or southeast of Homestead AFB, possibly near HM-39); and Charlie Battery was then located at site HM-80 (unknown location, northwest of Homestead).

Also deployed to Homestead AFB in late October 1962 was Battery B, 1st Gun Battalion, 59th Artillery, which employed the self-propelled 40mm M42 Duster AA gun (a tracked vehicle based on the M41 Walker Bulldog armored tank chassis). This unit stayed in the area until mid December 1962 when they returned to Fort Bliss, Texas.

In June 1965 each HAWK firing battery was relocated to newly completed permanent concrete hardstands. The permanent HAWK sites were:
Alpha Battery, located on SW 87th Ave. at SW 216th St./Hainlin Mill Rd., south of Franjo and the present Lakes by the Bay community (HM-12). No remains, site now the Mater Academy Cutler Bay campus at 22025 SW 87th Ave..
Bravo Battery, located on SW 344th St./Palm Dr., west of L-31E/Biscayne Trail, about eight miles southeast of Homestead AFB (HM-39). No remains, site now the Kindercare Learning Center at South Dade at 10190 SW 344th St..
Charlie Battery, located on SW 216th St./Hainlin Mill Dr., west of SW 207th Ave., about seven miles north-northwest of Homestead (HM-84). Partial remains, site now used by the Satin Leaf Nursery tree farm at 20890 SW 210th St..
Delta Battery, located on SW 424th Street, midway between US 1/South Dixie Highway and Canal C-110, about six miles south of Florida City (HM-59). Partial remains, site now used by the Florida Department of Transportation (FLDOT), 18500 SW 424th St..
The Battalion Headquarters was relocated to Homestead Air Force Base (HM-98);
In September 1971 the 8th/15th ADA was replaced by the 3rd/68th ADA. All HAWK missile batteries were deactivated in June 1979.

The Army Air Defense Command Post (AADCP) (HM-01DC) for both HAWK and NIKE missile defenses (1962 - 1979) was located at the former Richmond Air Force Station on Burr Rd. off of SW 124th Ave.. The 644th Radar Squadron (US Air Force) began operations here in April 1960. Site later became FAA Radar Site J-06, which was destroyed and abandoned after Hurricane Andrew in 1992.

The Army's 2nd Battalion, 52nd Air Defense Artillery also deployed to the area in late October 1962 with three batteries of NIKE missiles (the fourth battery, B Battery, did not arrive until sometime later as they were already deployed at the time in the Central Pacific for NIKE missile tests on Johnston Island). The firing batteries became operational on November 14, 1962 (two weeks after the crisis cooled off) at the following temporary field positions:
The 13th Artillery Group Headquarters and 2/52nd Battalion Headquarters originally based their operations at Princeton, in the former B&L Farms tomato packing house at SW 244th Street and SW 137th Avenue on the west side of US 1.
Battery A was deployed to an area outside of the main entrance to Everglades National Park on the north (or west) side of FL Highway 9336. The launching site was along Canal C-111 (the canal built beginning in 1963) and the administration and IFC areas were approximately one mile north on the same side of the highway. No remains, the location has been returned to farming.
Battery C was deployed to Carol City, with the launch site along the Snake Creek Canal between NW 57th Ave./Red Road and NW 47th Ave. (no remains, now a county landfill). The administration and IFC areas were located approximately one mile south near what is now NW 195th Dr. and NW 52nd Ave. (no remains, the site is now the Charles David Wyche Jr. Elementary School).
Battery D was deployed to a site somewhere near Perrine (or Cutler Ridge ?), west (?) of US 1 (no remains, now residential and commercial development).
Battery B finally arrived in late November or early December 1962, and was deployed to a site (HM-66) about eight miles southwest of Florida City outside of Everglades National Park (exact location undetermined), probably near the future site of the Aerojet solid rocket fuel plant (1965-1986) on SW 232nd Ave./Aerojet Rd. along Canal C-111 (expressly built for the Aerojet plant beginning in 1963).

Permanent sites were constructed and operational by June 1965. Nuclear warheads were not installed on the NIKE missiles in Florida until late 1965, but were later removed and replaced with convential warheads in the summer of 1975. The permanent NIKE sites were designated as follows:
HM-01 at Opa-Locka (no facilities built, site deleted), probably was to be at or near the former Naval / Marine Corps Air Station - Miami (closed 1959), which was used by the U.S. Coast Guard as a supplemental airfield in October 1962 to support the then USCG air station on Dinner Key, and which later became the new Coast Guard Air Station - Miami in November 1965 (at Opa-Locka Executive Airport);
HM-03C (Battery C 1965-1979), about two miles west of Carol City, on or near NW 57th Ave./Red Rd. at NW 183rd St./Miami Gardens Dr. (no remains, now commercial development);
HM-03L (Battery C 1965-1979), on NW 202nd St./Honey Hill Rd., between NW 55th Ave./Red Rd. and NW 67th Ave./Flamingo Rd. (still extant, site now part of the Snake Creek Training Area of the Florida National Guard, adjacent to the Miramar Armory/Readiness Center at 5001 Flamingo Rd.);
HM-40C (Battery B 1965-1979), at North Key Largo, on the east side of FL 905 south of Old Card Sound Rd. (ruins ?, site currently part of Dagny Johnson Key Largo Hammock Botanical State Park);
HM-40L (Battery B 1965-1979), at North Key Largo, on the west side of FL 905 south of Old Card Sound Rd. (ruins ?, site currently part of Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge (no public access));
HM-65 at Florida City (no facilities built, site deleted);
HM-69C (Battery A 1965-1979), about 12 miles west-southwest of Florida City (partial remains, site now the National Park Service's Daniel Beard Research Center, on Research Rd. off of FL Highway 9336);
HM-69L (Battery A 1965-1979), about 12 miles west-southwest of Florida City (still intact, site preserved within Everglades National Park on Research Rd. off of FL Highway 9336);
HM-85 in South Miami Heights, at SW 200th St./Caribbean Blvd. and SW 116th Ave. (Headquarters 13th Artillery Group 1963-1965, Battalion Headquarters temporary site 1963) (no remains);
HM-95C (Battery D 1965-1979), about five miles west of Tamiami (exact location undetermined) (no remains);
HM-95L (Battery D 1965-1979), about five miles west of Tamiami, on SW 12th St. off of FL 997/Krome Ave. (no remains, site now the Florida Everglades Correctional Institute at 1599 SW 187th Ave., and the Federal (ICE) Krome Detention Center at 18201 SW 12th St.);
HM-97 at Homestead AFB (Battalion Headquarters 1965-1979);
HM-99 at Homestead AFB (Headquarters 13th Artillery Group 1965-1968, Headquarters 47th Artillery Brigade 1968-1971, Headquarters 31st Air Defense Brigade 1971-1979).
All NIKE sites were deactivated in June 1979, the last active NIKE defense in North America. Only site HM-69 in the Everglades National Park is currently accessible to the public (on a limited basis).


Fort Tequesta
(1567 - 1570), Miami
A Spanish 20-man blockhouse and Jesuit mission at the mouth of the Miami River that was later burned by the Tequesta Indians. Also spelled Tegesta.

The Spanish Jesuit Mission de Santa María de Loreto (1743 - 1751 ?) was located here much later, but was withdrawn for economic reasons.

Camp Miami
(1898), Miami
A Spanish-American War assembly camp built by Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railroad. Located in the northern part of present-day downtown, bounded by Biscayne Blvd. to NW 2nd Ave., and NE 2nd Street to the FEC rail station (today's Miami News-Freedom Tower). Royal Palm Park was the parade ground. The Royal Palm Hotel was used as Officers' quarters. A rifle range was located on the hill just west of the northern end of Coconut Grove. The camp lasted only six weeks due to the summer heat, and was relocated to Jacksonville.

Fort Brickell
(1898 - 1899), Miami
A Spanish-American War temporary two-gun battery, with an earth-covered magazine and a 100-foot semi-circular earthen parapet, located about one and one-half miles south of Brickell Point, about 500 feet east of the historic marker on Brickell Ave.. The name appears to be an unofficial local name.

Camp Belle Haven
(1942 - 1946), Miami
A WWII U.S. Army battalion-sized coastal defense shore patrol (Florida Sub-sector) mobile force base camp, with outpost camps located at Vero Beach and Palm Beach. Belle Haven, located on NW 79th Street, was a trailer park before and after the war. Eventually became a POW camp in 1944 before closing in 1946.

Virginia Key Military Reservation
(1897 - 1910's ?), Virginia Key
A proposed gun battery location.

Key Biscayne Military Reservation (2)
(Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park)
(1847 - 1884, 1897 - 1916), Key Biscayne
A proposed gun battery location at Cape Florida. The Cape Florida Lighthouse (originally built 1825, rebuilt 1845 and 1855) was knocked out of commission by Confederate sympathizers in 1861. It was not relit until 1867. (see also Key Biscayne Post (1) listed below)

Soldier Key Military Reservation
(Biscayne National Park)
(1847 ? - 1870), Soldier Key
A proposed gun battery location. Located five miles due south of Key Biscayne's Cape Florida.


¤¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of MIAMI

¤¤ Fisher Island Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), Miami Beach
A four-gun 155mm battery in revetments (no Panama mounts) was located on Fisher Island protecting the Government Cut Inlet. Two of the guns came from Fort Taylor. Six 75mm field guns were briefly here before the 155mm guns were emplaced.

Fisher Island, an artificial island created in 1905, was once home to William K. Vanderbilt II, now a private resort community since the 1980's. Now fully developed, access is only by private boat or helicopter, and usually only by invitation.


Miami Beach Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), Miami Beach
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-270 early warning radar was located here. Exact location undetermined (possibly on Fisher Island ?).

Fort Lauderdale
(1838, 1839 - 1842, 1856 - 1857), Fort Lauderdale
A stockaded two-story square blockhouse was originally established near the forks of the New River between present-day SW 8th and 9th Aves. near 4th Place. Abandoned and then burned by the Seminoles. Re-established in 1839 on a new site east at the Tarpon Bend. It was later abandoned. The third fort was located further east at the old inlet (Fort Lauderdale Beach) near the present-day Bahia Mar Yacht Center. A U.S. Life Saving Station was built at the site of the third fort in 1876. Settlers didn't come to the area until the 1890's. See also Coastal History from Vone Research.org


¤¤¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of FORT LAUDERDALE

¤¤¤ Fort Lauderdale Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), Fort Lauderdale
Originally here for one month were six 75mm field guns. Soon replaced by a four-gun 155mm battery in revetments (no Panama mounts), located by the Coast Guard base near the southern end of Fort Lauderdale Beach. Protected the Port Everglades Navy Section Base and nearby oil tank farms. An SCR-547 radar was also set up. Mobile 90mm guns replaced the 155mm guns briefly before the defense was abandoned. The Coast Guard Base was first established here in 1915, replacing the earlier Life Saving Station (see above).

¤¤¤ Port Everglades Battery
(1941 - 1944), Fort Lauderdale
Located on the main wharf at the Port Everglades Navy Section Base. The Navy emplaced two naval guns (one 4-inch and one 5-inch) on open pedestal mounts, mainly for training purposes, but also to cover the ship channel coming in from the ocean.


¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of PALM BEACH

¤ Palm Beach Military Reservation
(1942), Palm Beach
A short-lived four-gun 155mm battery location was planned here. No Panama mounts were ever built. Location undetermined, possibly on Peanut Island near the old Coast Guard station. A single searchlight was briefly emplaced here before withdrawn.

Peanut Island (County Park), an artificial island created in 1918, was later the site of President John F. Kennedy's underground emergency shelter in 1962, which still exists and can be visited through the Palm Beach Maritime Museum, located at the old Coast Guard Station (1936 - 1995) on the south side of the island. Admission fee.


Camp Murphy
(Jonathan Dickinson State Park)
(1942 - 1944), Hobe Sound
An Army Signal Corps radar school and training area. More than 1000 buildings quickly sprang up from the scrub and more than 6000 personnel were here at the camp, which had its own power plants, sewer system, church and theater. Very few locals had any real information about what was going on, only that a secret Army base had been constructed. Land had been quickly and summarily purchased or condemned and taken from landowners. After only two years of operation, in November 1944, Camp Murphy was deactivated and the whole operation was shut down. The area became a state park in 1950.

Fort Santa Lucía de Canaveral
(1568), Jensen Beach
A Spanish blockhouse. The local Indians killed so many soldiers that they mutinied and abandoned the post, fleeing to St. Augustine.

Jensen Beach Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), Jensen Beach
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-270 early warning radar was located here. Exact location undetermined.

Fort Pierce
(1838, 1839 - 1842), Fort Pierce
A log blockhouse located four miles south of the old Indian River Inlet, now closed. Site (Old Fort Park) is located on Indian River Drive. History and artifacts on display at the St. Lucie County Regional History Center at 414 Seaway Drive. Admission fee.

Of interest in town is the National Navy UDT-SEAL Museum at 3300 North A1A.

Fort Ays
(1567), Oslo
A Spanish blockhouse once located one mile east of town. Also spelled Ais. After several Indian attacks, the Spanish moved further south to St. Lucie Inlet.

Fort Chokonikla
(Paynes Creek State Historic Site)
(1849 - 1850), near Bowling Green
A pioneer frontier village / trading post with a stockade fort. This was the first of several built in a chain from the Manatee River to the Indian River. Located east of town on the Peace River. A separate blockhouse was once located at the confluence of Payne Creek and the Peace River, southeast of the stockade fort. No remains of actual fort.

Fort Ogden
(1841), Fort Ogden
Built on the site of an earlier Seminole Indian stronghold. It was used an advance post for the "Big Cypress Campaign" during the Second Seminole War. It was later abandoned.
(info by David Paterno)

Fort San Antonio de Padua
(Mound Key Archaeological Site)
(1567 - 1568), Mound Key, near Fort Myers Beach
A Spanish blockhouse and Jesuit mission at the Calusa Indian village Calos, that was abandoned after being starved out by the Indians. It was later burned. Also referred to as the Calos Blockhouse. Jesuit missionaries returned in 1569, but left for good in 1570.

An unnamed Franciscan mission was briefly established here in 1697, but failed the same year.

Fort Myers
(1850 - 1858, 1863 - 1865), Fort Myers FORT WIKI
A large stockade with four barracks, eight Officers' quarters, administration building, hospital, laundry, blacksmith, bakehouse, sutler, storehouses, and wharf. It covered about eight blocks of today's city. The City of Fort Myers Historical Museum, at 2300 Peck Street, has a scale model of the fort. The post was used as a Union camp during the Civil War, attacked by a small Confederate force in 1865 before it was abandoned. The town was settled in 1866, incorporated in 1885. History of the City of Fort Myers

Fort Harvie was first located here 1841 - 1842, replacing Fort Dulaney. It was burned by Seminoles after it was abandoned. Camp Daniels (aka Fort Daniels) (1855), was located 200 yards from Fort Myers. Camp Walbach (1856) was also nearby. Lasted only six days.

Cayo Costa Military Reservation
(1882 - 1900's ?), Cayo Costa
A proposed gun battery location at Boca Grande Pass. Also known as Boca Grande Island Military Reservation.

Gasparilla Island Military Reservation
(1882 - 1900's ?), Port Boca Grande
A proposed gun battery location.

Manatee River Post or ?
(1860's), near Bradenton
A Civil War battery and/or observation post was located on an Indian mound at the mouth of the Manatee River. Site located near DeSoto National Memorial, possibly the same site as Fort Starke (1840) (see below).

Anna Maria Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), Anna Maria Island
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-270 early warning radar was located here. Exact location undetermined.


Seminole Wars Forts
(includes those forts and posts not already listed above)
Tour of Florida Territory During the Seminole Wars by Chris Kimball

Monroe County:
Indian Key Post (1856, 1869), Indian Key. A temporary post. This was the seat of Dade County from 1836 to 1844. Indian Key Historic State Park preserves the ruins of the old town, which was destroyed by Seminoles in August 1840. Access by private boat only.
Fort Paulding (1840), Tea Table Key. A small base established by the U.S. Navy. Sailors and Marines were sent to nearby Indian Key in August 1840 to repell a band of Seminoles that had just looted and burned the settlement there.
Tavernier Key Post (1840's), Tavernier Key. A small base established by the U.S. Navy.
Key Largo Post (1857), Key Largo. A temporary post.
Camp Malco (1857), near the Pavillion Keys, near the head of the Malco River (location ?).
Camp Moulder (1857), Pavillion Keys. Lasted only two weeks.
Camp Romano (1857), Pavillion Keys, near Camp Moulder.
Fort Poinsett (1838, 1839 - 1843, 1856 - unknown), Cape Sable (East Cape).
Fort Cross (2) (1857), Cape Sable (Middle Cape) at Palm Point, four miles northwest of Fort Poinsett.
Fort Westcott (unknown dates), Everglades, near Trail City (?).
Camp Hunter (1840), Everglades, east of Fort Westcott, southwest of Fort Henry.
Fort Hooke (unknown dates), unknown location.

Dade County:
Everglades Post (1857), a temporary camp somewhere in the Everglades.
Fort Henry (unknown dates), located on an unnamed island (hammock) in the Everglades, north of Long Pine Key, northwest of Homestead, possibly within the Shark Valley Slough.
Key Biscayne Post (1) (1838, 1839, 1841 - 1842), Key Biscayne, at Cape Florida. Known as Fort Bankhead (2) from April to May 1838. Known as Fort Russell (1) from February to September 1839. Re-occupied by the Army in 1841 to August 1842. The U.S. Navy occupied the post from August 1842 - 1844. The Cape Florida Lighthouse was attacked and burned by Seminoles in July 1836. It was rebuilt in 1845.
Camp Center (1838 ? or 1839 ?), Key Biscayne, at Lewis' Settlement (location ?). A temporary depot that was later moved to Miami (Fort Dallas). (This may be the same as Fort Bankhead (2))
Fort Dallas (1836 - 1838, 1839 - 1850, 1855 - 1858/1870), Miami. Originally established by the U.S. Navy, at the mouth of the Miami River (north-side). The Army took over in February to March 1838, moving the post to the opposite side (south) of the river. It may have been known by the Army as Fort Bankhead (1) at this time. Re-established by the Army in February to June 1839. Re-garrisoned in October 1839 to February 1842. Transferred back to the Navy from February 1842 to October 1849. The Army regained control from October 1849 to December 1850. In January 1855 the post was moved back to the north bank of the river at Richard Fitzpatrick's plantation, with newly built stone barracks. Abandoned in June 1858. The Army continued to lease the land until July 1870. A hurricane in 1874 destroyed all remaining wooden buildings. The last remaining stone barracks building was moved upriver to Lummus Park in 1925, located at 404 3rd Street NW. The original site, now "Fort Dallas Park", is near present-day 2nd Avenue SE and 4th Street SE, near the Royal Palm Hotel.
Fort Kemble (1839), Miami. Built by the U.S. Marines as a temporary post to protect wood-cutting parties on the Miami River, before Fort Dallas was rebuilt by the Army in October 1839.
(NOTE: The U.S. Army alternated between the occupation of Key Biscayne and Miami between 1838 and 1842.)

Collier County:
Fort Howell (1835), ten miles east of Everglades City, near Monroe Station.
Fort Harrel (1837), near the head of the New (Acotofia) River, southwest of Monroe Station, east of Chockoloskee, within the Big Cypress National Preserve. Also spelled Harrell. The exact site was last known in 1917, and may have been re-discovered in JUne 2014.
Camp Rogers (1) (1856 - 1857), near Deep Lake on the western edge of Big Cypress Swamp.
Fort Foster (2) (1837 - 1838), an oval stockade located near Rattlesnake Hammock, nine miles west of Naples.
Camp Deposit (1841), Big Cypress Swamp.
Camp Depot #1 (1841, 1856), Big Cypress Swamp near Fort Keais.
Camp Depot #2 (1857), Big Cypress Swamp.
Fort Keais (1838 - 1857, intermittant), about ten miles south of Immokalee near the Camp Keais Strand. (various spellings in sources) (pronounced "KEYS")
Fort Simon Drum (2) (1855 - 1856), between Immokalee and Lake Trafford. A stockaded depot.
Fort Doane (1841 - 1842), two miles west of Lake Trafford. Possibly also known as Camp Doane.

Lee County:
Camp Hospitika (1841), on the Caloosahatchee River upriver from Fort Harvie (Fort Myers).
Fort Casey (1850), on the east-central side of Cayo Costa Island at Charlotte Harbor.
Fort Harney (2) (1839), Cape Coral, at Harney Point (Cape Coral Bridge). A government-built trading post for the Seminoles. Unofficially named Fort Van Buren by Col. William Harney. The unfinished post was attacked and burned by Seminoles in July 1839. It was not rebuilt.
Fort Dulaney (1837 - 1838, 1841, 1856 - 1858), Punta Rassa. Completely rebuilt in 1841, but a hurricane in October that year destroyed it before it was completed.

Hendry County:
Fort T. B. Adams (1838 - 1839), north bank of the Caloosahatchee River, opposite Fort Denaud.
Fort Denaud (1837 - 1838, 1840 - 1842, 1855, 1857, 1858), Denaud, two miles from the Caloosahatchee River. Also spelled Deynaud. Relocated in 1857 to a new site on the north side of the river about two miles downstream. State marker on FL 78-A at the Caloosahatchee River bridge.
Fort Simmons (1) (1841 - 1842), south bank of the Caloosahatchee River at Fort Simmons Creek below Denaud. Also known as Camp Simmons.
Fort Shackleford (1855), Big Cypress Swamp, about 20 miles south-southwest from the southern shore of Lake Okeechobee. Burned by Seminoles (December 1855) after it was abandoned.

Glades County:
Fort Thompson (1854 - 1855), south bank of the Caloosahatchee River near the mouth of Lake Flirt, near Goodno. Used as a cattle ranch in the Civil War to supply the state's Confederate forces.
Fort Center (1838 ?, 1842, 1854, 1856 - 1857), south of Lakeport on the south bank of Fisheating (Thiathlopopkahatchee) Creek, at or near the prehistoric "Fort Center" Indian temple mound complex (1000 BC - 1700 AD).

Palm Beach County:
Fort Jupiter (1838 - 1842, 1855, 1857/1880), Jupiter, originally located on the south side of the Jupiter River at Jones Creek, about three miles inland from Jupiter Inlet. Originally a settlers' fort (?), then a Seminole Indian detention camp by the Army. The post was relocated in 1855 one-half mile southeast to the south side of the Loxahatchee River at Pennock Point. Reserved in 1855, the Army did not relinquish the site until 1880. The inlet was at that time several hundred yards south of its present position. The Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse was built on the north side of the Loxahatchee River beginning in 1855, but suspended until 1858 due to Indian hostilities. See also History of Jupiter Inlet from Jupiter Inlet District || History of the Town of Jupiter

Martin County:
Fort McRae (1) (1838, 1857), on the eastern shore of Lake Okeechobee about five miles north of Port Mayaca, near Bessemer. A stockaded depot. Sometimes misspelled McRee (1).
Fort Van Swearingen (1838 ?), six miles northeast of Lake Okeechobee on Van Swearingen Creek (north of Marcy), 11 miles southeast of Fort Lloyd, 14 miles northwest of Indiantown.
Palm City Depot (1838 - 1843 ?), Palm City. Site now on All American Blvd.. The St. Lucie Canal has obliterated all traces of the original site.
Fort Dunn (unknown dates), on the "Military Road" at Fort Dunn Creek (location ?), near the Indian River (possibly in St. Lucie County ?).

St. Lucie County:
Russell's Landing Post (1849 - 1850), near Fort Pierce.
Fort Capron (2) (1850 - 1858), St. Lucie, at the old Indian River Inlet.
Fort Number One (S) (1839 - 1842 ?), located 11 miles west of the old Indian River Inlet, on the trail to Fort Vinton (Fort No. Two (S)).

Indian River County:
Fort Vinton (1839 - 1842, 1850), east of Blue Cypress Lake, south of Fellsmere, about 20 miles northwest of Fort Pierce (the fort). Originally known as Fort Number Two (S). Renamed in 1850 as a subpost of Fort Capron (2).
NOTE: these two numbered forts above were not part of the EAST/MIDDLE numbering system used in 1839.

Okeechobee County:
Fort Drum (1) (1849 - 1850, 1856 - 1861), Fort Drum. On the east side of Fort Drum Creek, two miles south of town. Used by FL state militia prior to the Civil War.
Fort Floyd (1838). near Lake Okeechobee. (probably a misspelling of Fort Lloyd)
Fort Lloyd (1838), north-northeast of Lake Okeechobee, east of Country Hill Estates, on the military road between Fort Basinger and Fort Pierce.
History of Okeechobee County in the Seminole Wars by Kyle S. VanLandingham, courtesy of William LaMartin.

Highlands County:
Fort Basinger (1837 - 1850 ?), Fort Basinger. A log stockade with two blockhouses in opposite corners. Originally a temporary post and supply depot, later garrisoned full-time. (some info by David Paterno)
Fort Kissimmee (1850, 1852, 1857, 1858), Fort Kissimmee. Located on the Kissimmee River within the present-day Avon Park Bombing Range (USAF) (1942). The Army Air Corps built a bridge at the fort site in WWII. Public access on hiking trails only with permit. See also Out in the Boonies.com || See also The Florida Trail
Fort Josephine (1857), between Avon Park and Sebring (near Lakemont ?). Or possibly near Kuhlman, on or near either Lake Josephine or Josephine Creek.

Charlotte County:
Camp Whipple (1857), on the Peace River. Surrounded by defensive earthworks.

DeSoto County:
Fort Winder (1852), on the Peace River two miles from Fort Ogden. Site is now De Soto Peace River Heights.

Hardee County:
Fort Hartsuff (1856), Wauchula.
Fort Green (1855 - 1856), Fort Green. A settlers' (James Green's) fort sometimes used by the U.S. Army.

Sarasota County:
Fort Armistead (1840 - 1841), Sarasota. Lasted only seven months. 600 men were posted here, but over 100 died of tropical diseases. The garrison was then transferred to Sea Horse Key to the north. Site located at Indian Beach at Coconut Ave. and 5th Street, east of the present-day Municipal Auditorium.

Manatee County:
Fort Myakka (1849 - 1850), near Myakka Head on the Myakka River.
Fort Crawford (1849 - 1850), located on the south side of the Manatee River, south of the FL 64 bridge, between Fort Crawford Creek and Little Fort Crawford Creek, about 12 miles east of Manatee Village.
Fort Rough and Ready (1856), Rye, on the south side of the Manatee River.
Fort Hamer (1849 - 1850, 1856/1876), Fort Hamer, four miles east of Bradenton on the south side of the Manatee River, opposite the present-day public boat ramp. Consisted of a 100-by-60-foot warehouse, an 80-by-30-foot hospital, several log houses and a hay barn. After the post was abandoned, the Army did not relinquish the reservation until 1876. A Presbyterian Church conference center now on site. Marker located near 1st tee of the Waterlefe Golf Club at the west-end of Upper Manatee River Road. A multi-lane highway bridge has been proposed for several years for this vicinity.
Camp Armistead (1840's), may have been located on an island in the Braden River, on the trail from Fort Armistead (Sarasota) to Fort Brooke (1) (Tampa). Possibly existed only on paper.
Fort Starke (1840 - 1841), near Bradenton. Built on ancient Indian mounds at the mouth of the Manatee River near De Soto National Memorial.
Fort Atzroth (1856), Bradenton. A sarcastic reference to Joseph Atzroth's house at the mouth of the Manatee River.
Fort Manatee (1841), on the south side of Manatee Inlet near Grant's Pass.
(Fort) Braden Castle (1850's), Bradenton. Dr. Joseph Braden's fortified tabby mansion at the Manatee and Braden Rivers. Built beginning in 1845, it served as a settler refuge during the Third Seminole War. Destroyed by fire in 1903. Ruins remain of the house and an adjacent sugar mill, located at the Braden Castle Park community.
Camp Armstrong (1856 - 1857), near Manatee Village. Renamed Camp Smead in 1856.
Dr. Franklin Branch's Fort (1849), Bradenton. A settlers' fort once located at the foot of present-day East 13th Street.


NEED MORE INFO: Camp Twiggs (1850) undetermined location (St. Lucie or Indian River or Okeechobee Counties ?).

Northeast Coast - page 1 | St. Johns River - page 2 | Eastern Florida - page 3
Middle Florida - page 4 | Central Florida - page 5 | Western Florida - page 7
Pensacola Bay - page 8

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com