Eastern Kentucky

Big Sandy Blockhouse | Fort Bishop | D. Boone's Station (3) | Camp Buckner | Camp Buell
Camp Calvert | Cassidy's Station | Fort Churchill | Fort Churchwell | Collins' Station (3)
James Collins' Station | Joel Collins' Station | R. Davis' Station | Defeated Camp | Fort Edgar
Fort Farragut | Camp Finnell | Camp Flat Lick | Fleming's Station | Fort Foote | Fort Gallup
Camp Garber | Gilbert's Station | Camp Gill | Gilmore's Station | Graham's Station | Fort Green
Fort Halleck (2) | Harman's Station | Harmon's Blockhouse | Herman's Station | Fort Hill (1)
Camp Hopeless Chase | Fort Hunter | Post at the Iron Works | Camp Andy Johnson
Landford's Station | Langford's Station | Licking Station (2) | Fort Lyon | Fort Mallory
Fort McClellan | Fort McCook | Fort McRae | Middleton's Station | Mills Station
Modrel's Station | Paint Lick Station (2) | Fort Pequod | Fort Pitt | Portsmouth Old Fort
Camp Pound Gap | Prater's Fort | Preston's Station | Fort Rains | Slate Blockhouse
Spurlock's Station | Station Camp | Stockton's Station (2) | Camp Swigert | Camp Ten Mile
Thomas' Station (2) | Vancouver's (Fort) BH | Camp Wadsworth | T. Walker's Cabin
Camp Wallace | Camp Wildcat | Wood's Blockhouse

Northern Kentucky - page 1 | North Central Kentucky - page 2
South Central Kentucky - page 3 | Western Kentucky - page 5

KENTUCKY'S CIVIL WAR HERITAGE TRAIL

Last Update: 26/SEPTEMBER/2021
Compiled by Pete Payette - 2021 American Forts Network

Portsmouth Old Fort
(100 BC - 500 AD), South Portsmouth
A Hopewell Indian Culture 15-acre square enclosure located opposite the mouth of the Scioto River, part of the larger and extensive Portsmouth (Ohio) Mound Complex located on both sides of the Ohio River. Remnants still exist on private property, about 1.5 miles west of the US 23 Ohio River bridge, with an easemant owned by the Archaeological Conservancy. Restricted public access.

Camp Swigert
(1861 - 1862 ?), Wurtland
A Union recruiting / training camp on 20-25 acres. Marker on US 23.

Fort Bishop
(1864 - 1865), Louisa
A Union seven-gun fort. Also named Fort Gallup and Fort Hill (1). A marker is on US 23 Bypass.

Located in the general area was Union Camp Wallace.

Camp Gill
(1860's), Olympia Springs
A temporary Civil War camp.

Camp Wadsworth
(1860's), Hazel Green
A temporary Civil War camp.

Station Camp
(1769), West Irvine
Daniel Boone's winter hunting camp, with John Findlay, John Stuart, and others, on Station Camp Creek at the Kentucky River. Marker at KY 52 and KY 499.

Camp Buell
(1860's), near Paintsville
A Union camp. Undetermined location.

Camp Hopeless Chase
(1860's), Pikeville
A temporary Confederate camp.

Camp Finnell
(1860's), Pikeville
A Union camp.

Camp Pound Gap
(1862), near Jenkins
A CSA camp located at Pound Gap on Cumberland Mountain. Attacked and destroyed by the Union in 1862.

Cumberland Gap Civil War Defenses
(Cumberland Gap National Historic Park)
(1861 - 1866), near Middlesboro
Originally fortified by the Confederates in August 1861, who built seven forts or batteries and cleared all trees within a mile of each gun position. Abandoned to the Union in June 1862, who then built an additional nine forts or batteries. The Federals abandoned Cumberland Gap in September 1862 and destroyed many structures before the Confederates returned again to rebuild the defenses. The Federals took final control in September 1863 until the end of the war. The defenses were abandoned each time mostly due to the difficulty of getting supplies through the rough roads and steep terrain. The Gap was never actually attacked in force. The surviving earthworks of Fort McCook and Fort Lyon can be seen from the park's Pinnacle Overlook Drive along the Kentucky-Virginia border. The Wilderness Road Trail, beginning at the national park's Iron Furnace Unit near the town of Cumberland Gap, TN, leads to the Cumberland Gap Monument, Tri-State Peak, and the sites of several other surviving works along the Virginia-Tennessee border. The Iron Furnace (Newlee Foundry), built in the 1820's, the remains of which are located at the base of Cumberland Mountain on Gap Creek, was used for munitions storage by both sides during the war.

Fort (Robert L.) McCook was built by the Union in June 1862, and was renamed Fort Rains after it was occupied by the CSA later that same year (September 1862). Located on the west slope of the Pinnacle at 1860 feet elevation. Still extant, with display cannon.
Fort McRae (ex-CSA Fort Mallory (1861)), located on the west slope of the Pinnacle at 1960 feet elevation. Site was destroyed in the 1980's.
Fort Edgar (ex-CSA Fort Green (1861)), located on the north slope of the Pinnacle, at 2260 feet elevation. Still extant.
Fort (Nathaniel) Lyon (ex-CSA Fort Pitt (1861)), located on the ridge of Cumberland Mountain near the Pinnacle, on the Kentucky-Virginia state line, at 2505 feet elevation. Still extant, site marked.
Fort Halleck (2) (ex-CSA (?) (1861)), site reportedly destroyed long ago (1920's ?) by US 25E road construction (within Kentucky).
Fort McClellan (ex-CSA (?) (1861)), undetermined location (within Kentucky).
Fort Foote (ex-CSA Fort Hunter (1861)), located on the northwest slope of Tri-State Peak at 1820 feet elevation. Trace remnants still exist.
Union Commissary (aka Morgan's Commissary) (1862), a log structure once located on the north slope of Tri-State Peak at 1680 feet elevation. Destroyed by the Union upon evacuation in September 1862. No remains except for a 180-foot flattened level area to mark location.
Union Powder Magazine (1862), an underground magazine located on the north slope of Tri-State Peak at 1760 feet elevation. Destroyed by the Union upon evacuation in September 1862, a 30-foot deep crater still remains.
Fort Farragut (ex-CSA Fort Churchill (or Churchwell ?) (1861)), located on the ridge of Cumberland Mountain south of the Tri-State marker along the Kentucky-Tennessee state line, at 2040 feet elevation. Site marked, trace of earthwork is barely visible, if at all.
Mortar Battery (1862), undetermined location (within Kentucky).
Battery 1 (1862), located in or near Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, site was destroyed long ago by town development.
Battery 2 (1862), located just north of the Virginia-Tennessee state line about 1500 feet west of Tri-State Peak, at 1360 feet elevation, alongside the old Louisville and Nashville Railroad (built late 1880's). Site was destroyed not long after the Civil War for a house site, and exists today only as an overgrown hillside terrace.
Battery 3 (1862), located at the base of Cumberland Mountain along the Wilderness Road (in Virginia), at 1350 feet elevation. Site was destroyed in the 1980's.
Battery 4 (1862), located about 500 feet southeast of the Iron Furnace, along the Virginia-Tennessee state line. Site was destroyed long ago for a house site.
Battery 5 (1862), located in the Gap at Soldier's (Cudjo's) Cave (in Virginia), at 1670 feet elevation. Site was destroyed in the 1980's.
Battery 6 (1862), located below the saddle of the Gap along the Wilderness Road (in Virginia), at 1560 feet elevation. Site was destroyed in the 1980's.
Battery 7 (1862), located just inside the national park boundary (in Tennessee) about 750 feet southeast of Tri-State Peak, at 1700 feet elevation. Still extant, site crossed by a utility power line right-of-way.

Camp Calvert, a Union camp site, exact location undetermined.

Camp Buckner
(1861), Pineville
A CSA recruitment camp at the Cumberland Ford, and the base from which the attack on Barbourville (September 1861) was initiated.

Camp Flat Lick or
(1860's), Flat Lick
A temporary Civil War camp.

Nearby (or the same site ?) was Union Camp Garber.

In the near vicinity was CSA Camp Ten Mile (1861), reportedly located ten miles on the march from Camp Buckner to Wildcat Mountain.

Dr. Thomas Walker's Cabin (State Historic Site)
(1750), near Barbourville
A replica of Walker's log cabin is here. Although not fortified, it was the first pioneer cabin in the state. Walker's Expedition in 1750 was the first documented to venture through Cumberland Gap.

Camp Andy Johnson
(1861), Barbourville
A state militia training camp for Tennessee Unionists. Attacked and destroyed by Confederates one month later (September 1861). See also Battle of Barbourville

Fort Pequod
(1860's), near Portersville
A CSA fort, located two miles west of town, in Clay County.

Defeated Camp
(Levi Jackson Wilderness Road State Park)
(1786), near London
Defeated Camp Pioneer Burial Ground marks the location of the 1786 McNitt Massacre, where 24 members of the McNitt party were killed by Shawnees on the Boone's Trace. Walkable portions of the original 1775 trace still exist, as well as the 1796 Wilderness Road.

About 3000 feet north of the cemetery was the location of Thomas' Station (2) (1798 ?).

Camp Wildcat
(Daniel Boone National Forest)
(1861), near Livingston
A Union camp on Wildcat Mountain. A marker locates the site on US 25. Some earthworks/trenches still remain. The Battle of Wildcat Mountain was in October 1861. See also Wildcat Reenactment.org


Early Pioneer Stations and Forts

Lewis County:
Mills Station (1790), undetermined location. The home of William Thompson, not a fortified "station" in the traditional sense.

Fleming County:
Richard (or Major George) Stockton's Station (2) (1787), Flemingsburg. First of three forts built in area.
Michael Cassidy's Station (1788 ?), about two miles southwest of Flemingsburg on Cassidy Creek. Marker located at KY 32 and Cassidy Road.
Col. John Fleming's Station (1788 or 1790), Flemingsburg.

Bath County
Slate Blockhouse (1788), at Slate Creek (Bourbon) Furnace on Slate Creek. Garrisoned by the KY state militia in 1790 - 1796 with 17 men, known as Post at the Iron Works.
Gilmore's Station (1792), located 12 miles east of Mount Sterling on Slate Creek, possibly near Peeled Oak.

Lawrence County:
Harmon's Blockhouse (1787 - 1789), Louisa. Abandoned after an Indian attack.
Charles Vancouver's (Fort) Blockhouse (1789 - 1790), Louisa. Also known as Big Sandy Blockhouse.

Johnson County:
Mathias Harman's Station (1787 or 1789 - 1803 ?), near Auxier, on the Levisa Fork Big Sandy River at John's Creek. Also spelled Herman. Area known as "Blockhouse Bottom".
Paint Lick Station (2) (1790), Paintsville. Built by Col. John Preston. Marker located at US 23 and Jefferson Ave.

Magoffin County:
Licking Station (2) (1800), Salyersville, on the Licking River. Also known as Archibald Prater's Fort. Possibly established as early as 1794. A monument to Prater and other early settlers is located at the community center.

Floyd County:
John Spurlock's Station (1791), Prestonburg. Also called Preston's Station.
John Graham's Station (date ?), on Levisa Fork Big Sandy River near Dwale.

Owsley County:
Daniel Boone's Station (3) (1780 - 1781), Booneville. Daniel Boone's winter camp. Marker at the county courthouse. Town was named in 1843.

Rockcastle County:
Stephen Langford's Station (1790 or 1792), Mt. Vernon. The original blockhouse or log cabin still exists, now located behind the county courthouse. Also spelled Landford. Originally located south of town on East Fork Scagg Creek. Stephen died in 1811.

Laurel County:
Lt. Robert Modrel's Station (1792), a small local militia garrison on the Little Laurel River about five miles southeast of London to protect travellers on the Wilderness Road.
Wood's Blockhouse (1793), seven miles north of London near Oakley on Hazel Patch Creek.
Lt. Walter Middleton's Station (1792), a small local militia garrison on Turkey Creek (location ?) .

Clay County:
James Collins' Station (1798), on Goose Creek somewhere near Manchester.

Knox County:
Joel Collins' Station (1792), on the Wilderness Road at Richland Creek, possibly somewhere north of Barbourville. A stockade built by the local militia to protect travellers.

Bell County:
Richard Davis' Station (1795 - 1815), on Little Yellow Creek southeast of Middlesboro, within the present-day boundary of Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. Exact site undetermined, probably lost to modern highway construction (sometime between 1908 to 1931). An archaeological survey of the park in 1957 found no trace.


NEED MORE INFO: Somewhere on the Wilderness Road was Gilbert's Station (1786); Collins' Station (3) (1790's ?) somewhere on the Rockcastle River (county ?).

Northern Kentucky - page 1 | North Central Kentucky - page 2
South Central Kentucky - page 3 | Western Kentucky - page 5

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com


Eastern Forts