Algiers Barracks |
Annunciation Square Camp |
Fort de la Balise |
Fort la Baliza
Post at Balize | Fort Banks | Camp Barataria | Barataria Line | Bayou Dupré Redoubt
Bayou Gentilly Redoubt | Bayou Mazant Redoubt (1) | Fort Beauregard (1)
Beauregard's Castle | Camp Benjamin | Camp Bertonniere | Battery Bienvenue
Boisgervais Line | Bonnet Carré Post | Fort Borgoña | Fort de la Boulaye | Fort Bourbon
Fort Bourgogne | Boutte Station Post | Fort Burgundy | Burrwood Res. | Camp Carroll
Camp Carrollton | Carrollton Line | Chalmette Battlefield | Camp Chalmette | Chalmette Line
Fort Chef Menteur (1) | Fort at Chef Menteur (2) | Camp Claiborne (2) | Camp Coffee
Coquille's Fort | Camp Corbin | Côte des Allemands Post | Fort Darby | Fort Détour à l'Anglais
Line Dupré | Tower Dupré | Fisherman's Village Redoubt | Camp Foster
Fort at German Coast | German Coast Stockades | Greenville Barracks | Head of Passes Fort
Camp Houston | Fort Iberville (1) | Fort Isla Real Católica de San Carlos | Jackson Barracks
Fort Jackson | Line Jackson | Line Jourdan | Karistein Stockade | Camp Kearny
Lafayette Square Camp | Camp Lewis | Fort Little Temple | Fort Louisiana | Camp Love
Camp Lovell (2) | Fort Macomb | Battery Maxent (2) | Battery Mazant (2) | McGehee Line
Fort du Mississippi | Line Montreuil | Fort John Morgan (1) | Morgan's Line
New Orleans Arsenal (1) | New Orleans Arsenal (2) | New Orleans Barracks
New Orleans Civil War Defenses | Camp at New Orleans Fair Grounds | Camp Nicholls
Fort les Oumas | Camp Parapet | Parapet Line | Fort Petite Coquilles | Philippon Tower
Fort Pike | Fort Plaquemines | Fort at Plaquemines Bend | Fort Pontchartrain | Port Eads Res.
Powder Magazine Barracks | Camp at Powers' Point | Fort Proctor
Tower at Proctor's Landing | Proctorsville Battery | Quarantine Station Post | Camp Riche
Fort at the Rigolets | Camp Roman | Fort San Carlos (1) | Fort St. Charles | Fort San Felipe
Fort St. Ferdinand | Fort San Fernando | Fort St. Jean | Fort St. John (1) | Fort St. John (2)
Fort San Juan | Fort San Juan del Bayou | Fort St. Leon | Fort San Leon | Fort St. Louis
Fort San Luis | Fort Ste. Marie | Fort Santa Maria | Fort St. Philip | Fort St. Philippe
Sedgwick Barracks | Victor Smith Line | Spanish Fort | Star Fort (1) | Camp Terre aux Boeufs
Fort Tigouyou | Fort Villeré | Villeré Canal Redoubt | Camp Walker | Camp Weitzel (1)
Fort Wilkinson | Fort Wood
Western Louisiana - page 1 | Florida Parishes - page 3
UNDER SEIGE: ENDANGERED FORTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA
German Coast Stockades
(1729 - 1750's ?), St. Charles Parish
The early German settlers to this region palisaded their settlements against Indian attacks. The first and main settlement was Karistein (settled 1722) (renamed later as Lucy). About four or five other settlements were also palisaded (undetermined locations).
Côte des Allemands Post
(1749 - 1759, 1766 - 1770's ?), St. Charles Parish
A French stockaded military blockhouse to protect German settlers from Indian raids. Abandoned, but later taken over by the Spanish in 1766. Also known as Fort at German Coast.
Bonnet Carré Post
(1862 - 1865), near Norco
A Union garrison post during the Civil War.
Boutte Station Post
(1862 - 1865), Boutte
A Union garrison post during the Civil War.
Camp Weitzel (1)
A Union encampment.
New Orleans Colonial Forts
NOTE: New Orleans, first permanently settled in 1718, became the capital of French Louisiana Province in 1722. Taken over by Spain in 1763, although Spanish troops didn't arrive until 1766, and the city always remained French in character. Louisiana Province (including New Orleans and only that part of the east bank of the Mississippi River below Bayou Manchac) secretly reverted from Spanish rule to French rule in 1800, but Spanish troops still remained until 1803 waiting for French troops to take possession. However, by then the Americans had taken control by purchasing the entire territory from France. Only a handful of French officials and troops were on hand during the official transfer ceremonies in New Orleans (December 1803) and later in St. Louis (March 1804) in Upper Louisiana.
On the Trail of Codman Parkerson - Exploration of New Orleans' Forts by Billy Crews
(1708 - 1765)
Very little formal military defenses were constructed by the French for the city proper until 1729, when a proper palisade was built around the city, with small blockhouses at the corners, and a moat begun but not completed. A brick Powder Magazine was built in 1732 near present-day Decatur and Iberville Streets. It was rebuilt in 1736 and enclosed by a high wall mounting six-sided towers at each corner. It was later destroyed by fire in 1794. More elaborate defenses were constructed between 1754 - 1760. A moated and palisaded earthen embankment with nine earth and log bastions encircled the city, known as Condé's, Kerlérec's, St. Louis, Choiseuel's, Orleans, Bayou Redan, Berry's, D'Abbadie's, and Charles' Bastions, with 100 guns mounted in total. This enclosed area is known today as the "French Quarter", or the Vieux Carré. The Ursuline Convent Hospital on Barracks Street was built in 1734, and was extended in the 1750's with a new block-long one story structure facing the river, all enclosed by a brick wall, which then became a military barracks for 1200 men, replacing the twin two-story 300-foot long brick barracks (built 1733-38) at the Place d'Armes (Jackson Square) which had been condemned and demolished because they were so poorly constructed.
Fort les Oumas (1710's ?), a wooden fort, and the first one located above the city on the Mississippi River (undetermined location).
Fort Tigouyou (1750 - 1765), a small earthen redoubt located at the mouth of Bayou Tigouyou (Trepagnier) on the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain, near La Branche in present-day St. Charles Parish. Destroyed by a hurricane in 1778 (see below).
Fort St. Jean (1708 - 1765), the first fort built within the present-day modern city limits, an earthen redoubt located on Bayou St. John at Lake Pontchartrain, just north of present-day City Park. Rudimentary at first, it was enlarged and strengthened with six guns after 1754. Later known as Spanish Fort and Fort St. John (1) (see below).
Fort Détour à l'Anglais (1722 - 1765), originally three earthwork batteries at the "English Turn" of the Mississippi River. Substantially rebuilt in 1748 as two nearly identical 30-gun stockaded earthworks (a 10-gun crescent with five four-gun redans each) located across the river from each other, one just north of Belle Chasse (Batterie de l'Anse) and the other on Shingle Point at present-day English Turn (Batterie de la Pointe). Each were later rebuilt again in 1754 as four-bastioned squares, renamed Fort St. Leon (19 guns, 70 men) and Fort Ste. Marie (21 guns) respectively. By the mid 1750's these two downriver forts were considered the strongest and most important forts for the defense of New Orleans.
(1766/1792 - 1803)
The Spanish initially used the extant poor-condition French works, but they were soon abandoned and not maintained. The city's major defenses were not rebuilt until 1792, with five new earthen redoubts, five armed redans, and a water battery, all connected by a line of stockades within a water-filled ditch/moat 40 feet wide and seven feet deep, and each fort with 10-12 guns mounted and barracks for 100 men. Two additional water batteries were placed on the opposite shore of the river from the city to provide crossfire. The stockade had six gates for entry into the city. The Spanish added a second story to the original Ursuline Hospital building in the 1790's, while still using the complex as military barracks as the French had previously. The city suffered major fires in 1788 and 1794, damaging some of the defensive works.
Fort San Carlos (1), the reworked former French Charles' Bastion, located at Esplanade and North Peters Aves.. This was the largest of the works surrounding the old French Quarter. In 1803 it was listed with 30 guns. Later became the site of the U.S. Mint.
Fort San Juan, located at North Rampart and Barracks Streets. Listed with nine guns in 1803. Rampart Street received its name from the ramparts built between Forts San Juan and Borgoña.
Fort San Fernando (Ferdinand), located at present-day Beauregard Square. Listed with four guns in 1803.
Fort San Felipe de Borgoña (Bourgogne), located at North Rampart and Iberville Streets. Listed with two guns in 1803.
Fort San Luis, the reworked former French St. Louis Bastion, located at Canal and Decatur Streets. Burned in the 1794 fire. Listed with 15 guns in 1803. Later became the site of the U.S. Customs House.
An Arsenal (1) was built in 1769 at present-day Jackson Square.
Fort Tigouyou (1766 - 1778) (see above). Destroyed by a hurricane in October 1778, never rebuilt.
Fort San Juan del Bayou (aka Spanish Fort). It was rebuilt in 1770, with four to nine guns. It was originally French Fort St. Jean, an earthen redoubt (see above). It was not well maintained by the Spanish, and was badly deteriorated by 1792, down to only four serviceable guns. It later had eight guns by 1803, with two barracks, when transferred to the Americans.
Fort San Leon (1766 - 1792) on the west bank of the Mississippi River north of Belle Chasse (see above). In ruins by 1780, it was officially abandoned in 1792. It was ordered to be re-occupied in 1794, but apparently was left abandoned.
Fort Santa Maria (1766 - 1792) on the east bank of the river at English Turn (see above). In ruins by 1780, it was officialy abandoned in 1792. It was ordered to be re-occupied in 1794, but apparently was left abandoned.
The new French Republic Tricolor flag flew over New Orleans only from November 30 to December 20, 1803, as a civic formality.
(1803 - 1823)
American troops initially used all extant Spanish works and barracks until new defenses were authorized in 1808. The stockades surrounding the city were taken down in January 1804 and the moat filled in with the levelling of the redans and batteries.
Fort St. John (2) (San Juan) was ordered demolished in 1805.
Fort St. Ferdinand (San Fernando) was ordered demolished in 1805. Site became Congo/Beauregard Square.
Fort Burgundy (Borgoña) was ordered demolished in 1805, but was partially rebuilt in 1806 during news of the Burr Conspiracy. Demolition was completed by 1808.
Fort St. Louis (San Luis) was initially kept, but was no longer in use and derelict by 1812, and was formally abandoned and demolished soon afterwards (by 1815 it was completely gone). The U.S. Customs House was built on the site in 1848.
Fort St. Charles (San Carlos) (1803 - 1821) was the only original fort of the old French Quarter still in use during the War of 1812, mainly only as a barracks and ordnance depot, but still listed with 14 guns in 1814. It was finally demolished in 1821-26. The U.S. Mint was built here in 1835. State marker on site (400 Esplanade Ave.). FORT WIKI
Fort St. John (1) (aka Spanish Fort), rebuilt as an 11-gun brick work in 1808, with barracks, Officers' quarters, powder magazine, guardhouse, and kitchen. Also known as Fort Pontchartrain. It only had two guns mounted in early 1814, but had at least 15 guns when the British invaded. It was formally abandoned in 1823. Confederate forces made use of it in 1861 - 1862. Partially restored in 1911. Ruins of the brick walls remain just north of City Park. A small supplemental shore battery was built on the opposite side of the bayou from the fort in November 1814. FORT WIKI
Powder Magazine Barracks (1813 - 1817), also known as Algiers Barracks, located in the Algiers area along Powder Street. A group of 16 barracks were built to house 1600 American reinforcements for the defense of the city against the British. Converted to a hospital after the Battle of New Orleans (January 1815).
Camp Carroll (1814 - 1815), a TN state militia camp located in the Carrollton area.
Camp Coffee (1814 - 1815), a TN state militia camp near Camp Carroll.
Camp Claiborne (2) (1804), a temporary camp located seven miles east of town along the Chef Menteur Road to escape a Yellow Fever outbreak.
American Fort St. Leon (1808 - 1817) was a brick masonry work built on (or very close to) the site of the former French/Spanish Fort St. (San) Leon, just north of present-day Belle Chasse in Plaquemines Parish. Built for nine guns, only four were emplaced by December 1814. Also built were a magazine, two barracks, Officers' quarters, kitchen, and guardhouse. It was not attacked by the British in December 1814. It was completed in January 1815, but later dismantled. A fortified camp with barracks to house up to 3000 troops was built in December 1814 across the river at Wood's Ville, near the site of the old French Fort Ste. Marie. The site of the American Fort St. Leon was found and excavated in 1963 but is now mostly eroded away on the river side of the present-day levee. Approximate site located on Main Street near F. Edward Hebert Blvd.. The state marker is (was ?) actually located upriver on River Road (LA 406) in Orleans Parish, directly across the river from Violet. FORT WIKI
New Orleans Arsenal (2)
(1846 - 1862), New Orleans FORT WIKI
A state arsenal built to supplement the Federal Baton Rouge Arsenal. This was at the site of the 1769 Spanish arsenal. Became the CSA Arsenal and/or Ordnance Depot in 1861 - 1862. After the Union took the city in April 1862, it became a military prison. After the war, it was used by the city police. Became part of the Louisiana State Museum in 1914. Located behind the historic Cabildo on Jackson Square. Admission fee.
(Louisiana National Guard History and State Weapons Museum)
(1834 - present), New Orleans FORT WIKI
Originally named New Orleans Barracks, it had four blockhouses with a palisade, located three miles downriver from the French Quarter, off of Delery Street at the present-day New Orleans city limits adjacent to Arabi. A brick wall and four loop-holed brick towers were built by 1837, with about a dozen garrison buildings. Occupied by Confederates in January 1861 until April 1862. It was renamed in 1866. Several buildings were severely damaged in a 1912 flood and levee break. The post served as the Headquarters of the New Orleans Coast Defense in WWI. Turned over to the state National Guard in 1921, but Federalized in 1941 - 1946 as part of the New Orleans Port of Embarkation. It has again been a state reservation since 1955. The museum (since 1977) is in the restored 1837 Powder Magazine. The post suffered major damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
New Orleans Civil War Defenses
(1861 - 1865), New Orleans and vicinity
Confederate defenses of the city (August 1861 - April 1862) included:
Carrollton / Victor Smith Line, defensive earthworks built in the Metairie / Jefferson area along present-day Causeway Boulevard, with the Main Redoubt at the southern terminus of the line at the Mississippi River, and the north end of the line ending at the Cavalier Battery hornwork. This protected the New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern Railroad, and the Metairie Road along Bayou Metairie. In March 1862 the main redoubt was formally named Fort John Morgan (1) by the Confederate authorities. The 1.5 mile line of works was still unfinished when the Union captured the city in late April 1862. The main redoubt was then reworked and renamed Camp Parapet and the entire line renamed the Parapet Line. State marker #1 located on Jefferson Highway (US 90) at Causeway Blvd., and state marker #2 located on River Road at Causeway Blvd.. Within Camp Parapet was an earth-covered brick powder magazine, which still remains in a small gated park adjacent to the American Legion Post 267 at 2812 Arlington Street (access by permission only; free public access only on "Camp Parapet Day" held annually each autumn by the Jefferson Historical Society). At the north end of the defense line the Union extended the works past the Cavalier Battery and built a ten-pointed Star Fort (1) (near West Metairie Ave. and North Causeway Blvd.), completed in November 1864. FORT WIKI
Camp Lewis (1861), in Carrollton, originally built to handle the overflow from Camp Walker.
Camp Carrollton (1862), also known as Camp Roman, located in the Carrollton area. Site later used by Union troops after the fall of the city (1862 - 1865).
Barataria Line, defensive earthworks built on the west (south) bank of the Mississippi River in the present-day Westwego area along the south bank of the Company's Canal (Bayou Segnette) (present-day Laroussini Street / Sala Ave., past 4th Street to 5th or 6th Streets). This protected the New Orleans, Opelousas, and Great Western Railroad.
Camp Walker (1861), a training camp at the Metairie horse race track (present-day Metairie Cemetery) on the north side of Metairie Road. It was soon replaced by Camp Moore in Tangipahoa (see page three) over health concerns. Defensive fortifications nearby were located along Canal Street at the New Canal Shell Road (present-day Pontchartrain Blvd.), and at the Jefferson and Lake Pontchartrain Railroad (at present-day Maryland Drive and Bordeaux or Dahlia Streets at the 17th Street Canal).
Bayou St. John Fortifications, two batteries or redoubts with supporting trenchworks, one on each side of the bayou, located at a sharp bend called the "Devil's Elbow" (present-day Demourelles Island), about where present-day Harrison Ave. crosses Wisner Blvd.. The island was created in 1869 when the bayou was straightened to eliminate the sharp bend for easier navigation.
Fort St. John (1), the old fort was reoccupied by Confederate troops in 1861 for a shore battery.
Gentilly Ridge Fortifications, defensive earthworks and batteries located on the north side of Gentilly Road along the old Pontchartrain Railroad, near the present-day intersection of Elysian Fields Ave. and Lombard and/or Carnot Streets in the Gentilly Terrace area.
Camp Benjamin (1861 - 1862), on Gentilly Road.
Annunciation Square Camp (1862 - 1863), a public square used as a Confederate troop campsite in 1862, then later as a Union campsite.
Chalmette Line, defensive earthworks built on the east (north) bank of the Mississippi River in the Chalmette area, below the 1815 Battleground. Some remnants still remain. This helped protect the Mexican Gulf Railroad.
Camp Chalmette (1862), in Chalmette at the old 1815 Battleground. Also used later by Union troops.
McGehee Line, defensive earthworks built on the west (south) bank of the Mississippi River in the present-day Aurora Gardens area of Algiers, directly across from Chalmette.
An unnamed Confederate battery or redoubt was apparently located on the west bank of the Mississippi River just downstream of old Fort St. Leon (near present-day Belle Chasse), as shown on an 1863 map of Louisiana.
Of interest is the Louisiana Civil War Museum at Confederate Memorial Hall, located at 929 Camp Street. Admission fee. An 8-inch Columbiad gun from Spanish Fort, Alabama is on display in front of the building.
Additional Union defenses (May 1862 - 1865/66) included:
Fort Banks (1861 - 1865), located on the Mississippi River in Bridge City just downstream of the Labranche Canal outlet. It was originally a CSA six-gun earthwork (unnamed) that was captured by the Union in April 1862 and renamed. FORT WIKI
Bayou Gentilly Redoubt (1862 - 1865), on Bayou Gentilly (Sauvage) along the Old Gentilly Road (present-day East Gentilly area).
Camp Love (1863), in Greenville.
Greenville Barracks (1864 - 1866), in the Greenville area. Also known as Sedgwick Barracks.
Camp Kearny (1862 - 1863), in the Carrollton area.
Lafayette Square Camp (1862), a temporary campsite.
Union military headquarters was located at the U.S. Customs House.
Camp at New Orleans Fair Grounds
(1898), New Orleans
A Spanish-American War Army mobilization camp prior to embarking for Mobile, Alabama. Located just to the east of City Park. Divided into Camp Foster (1898), a state troop muster camp, and Camp H.C. Corbin (1898), a Regular Army assembly camp. Camp Riche was also here later, renamed Camp Houston.
(1916, 1917), New Orleans
A mobilization camp for state troops during the Mexican Border Crisis of 1916. Site re-occupied in 1917 for WWI before the troops were transferred to Camp Beauregard (3) in Alexandria. Located at City Park.
(Jean Lafitte National Historic Park)
(1815, 1862), Chalmette
American artillery positions (Line Jackson) remain from the January 1815 Battle of New Orleans. The defensive line was composed of eight batteries with a total of 14 guns, located on the Macarté Plantation and ran alongside the old Rodriguez irrigation canal for about 1500 yards from the river to the swamp. The British also constructed several field batteries and three redoubts just to the east (no remains) on the Chalmette and Bienvenue Plantations. British headquarters was located further east on the Villeré Plantation ("Pakenham Oaks" near Paris Road). About three dozen markers and plaques interpret the history here. Chalmette National Cemetery is located adjacent to the battlefield. Some remnants of Confederate earthworks from 1862 also still remain nearby (Chalmette Line). This area was known as Camp Chalmette by both the CSA and Union during the Civil War.
Additional American defensive lines (1815) were located to the rear of Line Jackson, back towards the city and beyond the boundaries of the present-day battlefield park. The Line Dupré was about one mile west of Line Jackson, on the Dupré Plantation (approximately at Center Street in Arabi), and Line Montreuil was about another 1.5 miles further beyond on the Montreuil Plantation (approximately at Tennessee Street in New Orleans). These two lines were not directly involved in the January 1815 battle.
American earthworks (Line Jourdan) and three naval gun batteries (1815) (one gun each) were also located on the west bank of the river on the Jourdan Plantation, directly opposite Chalmette (approximately at Chelsea Drive in Aurora Gardens). Morgan's Line was an improvised trenchwork about 300 yards below (east of) the naval batteries, with three small guns. A reserve line of defense was the Boisgervais Line along the Boisgervais Canal on the William Flood Plantation (approximately at Kabel Drive/Nie Parkway in Aurora Gardens). The British advanced on and overran these lines and captured several guns, claiming victory on this side of the river. West Bank battle marker located on Patterson Drive, near Chelsea Drive, in the Aurora Gardens community of New Orleans (Algiers). Confederate earthworks from 1862 were also located nearby on this side of the river (McGehee Line).
(1814), New Orleans
An American fortified camp with a redoubt and two batteries, located east of the city on the Bertonniere Plantation on Chef Menteur Road, along Bayou Sauvage, near present-day Michoud. It was quicky established after British forces were landed in December 1814.
Fort Petite Coquilles
(1793 - 1817), Pass Rigolets
A small Spanish wooden fort located about three-quarters of a mile west from the future site of Fort Pike. Rebuilt and garrisoned by the Americans in 1813 as a nine-gun work (20 guns in December 1814). It was a parallelogram with two bastions on the west end, a half-bastion on the southwest corner, and a semi-circular battery on the north side. There were also two barracks, a magazine, and Officers' quarters. Shown as Coquille's Fort on some period maps of 1814. Fort Pike's hospital was later built on or near the site in the 1840's. Site is now under water.
Fort Pike (State Historic Site)
(1819 - 1890), Pass Rigolets FORT WIKI
Completed in 1827, originally known as Fort at the Rigolets until then. The citadel was enlarged with a second story in the 1850's. Held by the CSA from January 1861 to April 1862. Abandoned in 1871 to caretaker status. The citadel/barracks burned in 1862 and again in 1887. Formally abandoned by the Army in 1890. A lighthouse was built in 1921 on part of the old reservation. Acquired by the state in 1927, some repairs to the fort were made when the state park opened in 1935. A museum and visitor center are in the former citadel/barracks. Admission fee. Damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
See also Coastal Fortifications on the Gulf of Mexico by Andy Bennett
(1822 - 1871/1890), Chef Menteur Pass FORT WIKI
Located nine miles west of Fort Pike. The fort (identical to Fort Pike) was originally named Fort at Chef Menteur (2) until 1827 when completed, then renamed Fort Wood until 1851. It was garrisoned by the CSA from January 1861 to April 1862. It was later abandoned after a fire destroyed the barracks in 1867. Sold off by the government in 1914. The fort is owned by the state (since 1927), but is closed to the public due to its deteriorating condition. A portion of the moat is now used by the adjacent Venetian Isles Marina. Damaged further by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
Previously here was American Fort Chef Menteur (1) (nine guns) (1815), built after the British left New Orleans to guard the pass from future raids.
(1826 - 1877/1919), Villeré
A 20-gun moated open masonry work 600 feet long, with barracks, magazine, Officers' quarters, and guardhouse. Located on Bayou Bienvenue at its confluence with Bayou Maxent (Mazant), on private property, access by boat only. Occupied by Confederates until April 1862, then garrisoned by Union troops until the end of the war. Only six guns were left mounted by 1866, and these six still remain today on the parapet ruins.
The American three-gun star redoubt Battery Mazant (Maxent) (2) (1815) was earlier located here at the confluence of Bayou Bienvenue (Catalan) and Bayou Maxent (Mazant), built after the British left New Orleans.
Villeré Canal Redoubt
(1814 - 1815), near Villeré
A strong work built by the British, located at the junction of the Villeré Canal and Bayou Mazant (Villeré), to protect a reserve powder magazine.
Bayou Mazant Redoubt (1)
(1814 - 1815), near Villeré
A small star-shaped work built by the British to defend their route to and from New Orleans. Located at the confluence of Bayou Mazant (Villeré) and Bayou Jumonville (Ducros). Also known as Fort Villeré.
Fisherman's Village Redoubt
(1814), Bayou Bienvenue
A strong British work built to defend the troop landing area on Bayou Bienvenue (Catalan) in preparation for the attack on New Orleans (December 1814). Breastworks were built to contain an area for 1000 men and supplies. Located just inland of the village, which was located about one-half mile from the mouth of the bayou on Lake Borgne. At the time, the village was composed of 12 large make-shift cabins occupied by about 30-40 Spanish Creole and Portuguese fishermen.
(1827 - 1865/1874/1919), Bayou Dupré
A three-story hexagonal Martello-type brick tower with an external six-gun water battery located eight miles east of Chalmette at the mouth of Bayou Dupré (Philippon). Also known as Philippon Tower. Completed in 1830, but rebuilt in 1832 after a severe storm hit in 1831. The third level was removed in 1843 and the tower re-roofed because of excessive weight concerns. Repaired again in 1848, 1852, and 1855. With only five guns mounted, it was briefly garrisoned by the Confederates in the spring of 1861. It then remained unguarded until March 1862. A few Union troops later briefly garrisoned the tower in March 1863. Abandoned after the war, some maintenance continued until 1874. The last armament report was issued in 1892, although all guns had long been removed and the tower was in ruins due to storms and vandals. Ownership of the land came into dispute beginning in 1883. Eventually sold off by the government. On private property, completely surrounded by water. A new roof and a pier had been added by the owners, somewhat preserving the structure, for use as a fishing camp. It was completely destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, only rubble now remains. See also Flying Cypress-Adventures of a Biologist
The American Bayou Dupré (du Preé) Redoubt (1814 - 1815) was earlier located nearby (further inland along the bayou, about two miles from the Mississippi River, three miles north of Fort Darby), built after the British landed on Bayou Bienvenue.
(1855 - 1860/1872/1919), Shell Beach
Also known as Tower at Proctor's Landing, Fort Beauregard (1), or Beauregard's Castle, it was a square castle-like three-story brick tower within a square double moat, with an exterior water battery, located ten miles southeast of Tower Dupré, a few hundred yards west of the mouth of Bayou Yscloskey. It was to protect the terminus of the Mexican Gulf Railroad at old Proctorsville. It was abandoned before it was completed due to storm damage (the third story was never built), and never officially garrisoned, although Union troops were posted at Proctorsville after 1862. After the war a caretaker managed the fort until 1872. By 1915 the exterior battery had completely washed away. The U.S. Army finally disposed of the fort and 100-acre reservation in 1919 and it was sold off in 1922. It has suffered additional storm damage over the years. Completely surrounded by water, access is by boat only. The outer wall of the moat was damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
(1861 - 1862), Shell Beach
A CSA shore battery at the old town, about one mile from Fort Proctor.
Camp Terre aux Boeufs
(1809), Terre aux Boeufs
A Federal encampment located 12 miles downriver from New Orleans at Bayou Terre aux Boeufs, which was a small settled area of farms and orchards.
(1815), St. Bernard Parish
An American two-gun earthen redoubt located on Bayou Terre aux Boeufs at Lake Lery, near River Aux Chenes. It was built to prevent further British raids up this water route. It was dismantled soon after peace was officially declared in Louisiana and martial law was lifted in New Orleans (March 1815).
(1814), near Lafitte
An encampment of Baratarians (Jean Lafitte's pirate gang) drafted into American service for the defense of New Orleans. Located at or near what was known as the "Temple", a prehistoric Indian shell-midden island deep in the swamps used as Lafitte's main hideout before the war, north of Little Lake.
Fort Little Temple
(1861 - 1862), Jefferson Parish
A CSA palisaded two-gun water battery located at the junction of Bayou Perot and Bayou Rigoletts, near the outlet at Little Lake.
Camp at Powers' Point
(1814), Jefferson Parish
A state militia encampment prior to the Battle of New Orleans (January 1815). Exact location undetermined, possibly near Barataria Bay.
Fort Iberville (1)
(1700 - 1711), Phoenix
First French fort in present-day Louisiana. It was a 28-foot square moated two-story six-gun blockhouse with an eight-foot square powder magazine. Abandoned militarily by 1707, but used as a trading post until 1711. Also known as Fort de la Boulaye, Fort du Mississippi, or Fort Louisiana. The abandoned post was most likely destroyed by a 1719 flood. Site found in 1936, located about one mile north of town. No remains, site now marsh wetlands. State marker on LA 39 at the Joe Gravolet Canal.
Quarantine Station Post
A small CSA garrison occupied the Quarantine Station on the north bank of the Mississippi River just above Fort St. Philip. It was captured by the Union in April 1862 after Forts St. Philip and Jackson fell.
Located on the opposite bank was CSA Camp Lovell (2) (1862).
¤ COAST DEFENSES of NEW ORLEANS
Harbor Defense of the Mississippi - FORT WIKI
¤ Fort Jackson (park)
(1824 - 1920), near Triumph
Completed in 1832, it was originally built similar to Fort Morgan in Alabama. In 1858 the exterior Lower and Upper Water Batteries were built to either flank of the fort. The Confederates gained control in January 1861, but the star-shaped 69-gun fort was recaptured by the Union in April 1862. The interior barracks were destroyed. The fort was used as a political prison during the war, but was also kept armed in case of any possible British or French naval threats. The Lower Battery was rebuilt in 1872 - 1876 for ten guns and five magazines. It was armed with at least two mounted 15-inch Rodman guns in 1898. It still exists, now seperated from the fort by a modern levee. Several gun fragments still remain. The two coverface batteries on the fort's outerworks were also rebuilt for four guns each. The lower coverface battery still exists. The upper coverface battery was later removed to built Battery Millar. Two new gun platforms and two magazines were built in the north bastion of the fort in 1874. Endicott batteries here are Battery Ransom (1899 - 1918), which is inside the old fort and is now used for park offices; and Battery Millar (1901 - 1920). The fort was sold off in 1927. Restored in 1962 as a parish historical park. A museum is now inside the fort. Completely flooded by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, with extensive damage. Reopened to the public in January 2011.
¤ Fort St. Philip
(1761 - 1765, 1792 - 1923), near Triumph
Directly across the Mississippi River from Fort Jackson, at Bayou Mardi Gras. A small French earthwork known as Fort St. Philippe (1761 - 1765), or Fort Plaquemines, was first located here, but was abandoned. The Spanish later built the brick Fort San Felipe de Placaminas (1792 - 1803) (18 guns). Suffered hurricane damage in 1793 and 1794. Transferred to the Americans in 1803. Also then known as Fort at Plaquemines Bend. Suffered hurricane damage in 1814. It was strengthened in December 1814 after a British naval bombardment was successfully repulsed. Rebuilt in 1841. Suffered hurricane damage in 1854. Two Water Batteries were located on either flank of the fort just before the Civil War. Controlled by Confederates after January 1861, the 45-gun fort was recaptured by the Union in April 1862 along with Fort Jackson. Abandoned in 1871, but regarrisoned after smuggled liquor was found here. In 1872 the water batteries were reworked and joined together with a new section along the front of the fort to form a continuous 25-gun battery. At least ten guns were mounted by the 1890's. An unnamed battery of two M1888 8-inch BL guns on modified 15-inch Rodman iron carriages was located here in 1898 - 1899. The water battery was largely built over and/or destroyed by the later batteries, although several platforms and magazines are still extant. The moat and parade of the old fort was mostly filled-in after 1900, and about 40 acres around the batteries were raised and leveled to help prevent constant flooding. Endicott batteries here are Battery Pike (1898 - 1919), Battery Forse (1899 - 1918), Battery Merrill (1907 - 1920), Battery Ridgely (1899 - 1913), Battery Scott (1901 - 1920), and Battery Brooke (1904 - 1920). Some Louisiana National Guard units trained here before WWI ended. Sold off by the government in 1929. During Prohibition the fort was again used as a base for smuggling illegal liquor until shut down and confiscated by the Feds in 1935. In October 1963 Battery Merrill became the site of an elaborate electric barbed-wire fenced enclosure erected by the Plaquemines Parish Commission Council and Judge Leander Perez, to hold any outsider "racial agitators" (white or black) that he thought wanted to integrate the parish or otherwise cause trouble during the Civil Rights protests. After national media attention spotlighted the parish's preparations, the compound was not needed as no outsider activists came to the parish (apparently well intimidated), and it was soon taken down. High tides and heavy rains usually flood the lower levels of the batteries and magazines. A section of the original 1790's Spanish brick walls still remains in the old fort. Several of the 1900's quarters and barracks still remained standing until the 1980's. Access is by boat only. Private property.
A five-gun shore battery was planned about one mile upstream in 1814, opposite a similar battery near the former Fort Bourbon (see below), but was never completed before the British advanced up the Mississippi River.
(1756, 1793 - 1803 ?, 1814), near Triumph
A Spanish earthen redoubt located about one mile or less upstream from where American Fort Jackson was later built. Rebuilt in 1795 and again in 1796 after hurricanes. Apparently abandoned before 1803, as it was not listed to be transferred to the Americans. No trace remains.
A French earthen shore battery was planned here in 1756, unknown if actually built.
A temporary American five-gun battery was located here in December 1814, in case the British fleet ran past Fort St. Philip.
(1722 - 1749, 1766 - 1792, 1794 - 1815), near Pilot Town
French Fort de la Balise, a six-gun earthen redoubt with two detached water batteries, was built at the mouth of Southeast Pass on Toulouse Island. By 1734 two barracks (one for about 50 soldiers and the other for the laborers), an Officers' quarters, a chapel, a cistern, and a powder magazine were built, along with several other crude wooden buildings used as quarters for river pilots and transient sailors. Repaired in 1742 after a hurricane. Flooded in 1749, and destroyed by a hurricane in 1750. It was never rebuilt. The Spanish decided to build a new fort on San Carlos Island at the mouth of Northeast Pass, named Fort Isla Real Católica de San Carlos (1766 - 1769), armed with three or four guns, with barracks for 20 men, and a chaplain's house. They soon abandoned this post due to constant flooding, and moved to the old French site in 1770, renaming it Fort la Baliza (four-guns). A Governor's House was built, along with barracks, hospital, church, and 10 other houses (the Spanish Governor and his entourage were apparently not popular with the French citizens in the city). The post was destroyed in 1778, but its ruins still remained visible for decades. A new post was then built at the junction of Southeast Pass and Pass a Loutre in 1778. It was abandoned in 1792 due to periodic flooding. The Spanish then built a two-story two-gun log blockhouse and barracks at the junction of Southeast Pass and Old Balize Bayou in 1794. It was briefly captured by French raiders in the winter of 1795. Taken over by the Americans in 1803, known as Post at Balize, now on the north side of Bayou Balize slightly east of the last Spanish site, with a new blockhouse, barracks, light tower, and several workshops and pilots' houses. In April 1813 a five-gun battery (Fort Wilkinson) was built at the mouth of Bayou Balize, but abandoned in July and then destroyed by a British raid in December 1813. Another battery and light tower was planned upstream for the Head of Passes, but was never built. Balize was re-occupied by the British in December 1814 until after their defeat and withdrawal in January 1815. The old blockhouse on Bayou Balize was used as the base of a light tower from 1817 through the 1850's. The last site was abandoned in September 1860 after a hurricane, and was completely destroyed by another hurricane in September 1865. No known surface traces remain at any of the six sites.
Head of Passes Fort
(1861 - 1865), Pilot Town
A Union fort or blockhouse was built at or near the present-day river outpost.
¤¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of the MOUTH of the MISSISSIPPI RIVER
¤¤ Port Eads Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), Port Eads
A two-gun 155mm battery on Panama mounts was located here. No trace remains. Located on the South Pass, the principal entry into the Mississippi River. A field artillery battery was temporarily set up upriver at Boothville before the defenses here were completed. The present South Pass Lighthouse was built in 1881.
¤¤ Burrwood Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), Burrwood
A two-gun 155mm battery on Panama mounts was located here to defend the river approach to New Orleans. It is not likely that any trace remains due to severe erosion of the area. Located on the Southwest Pass. The U.S. Navy had earlier established a Naval Section Base here in late December 1941. A U.S. Weather Bureau station was later here during the 1950's. The former settlement is no longer inhabited after Hurricane Katrina hit in 2005.
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