Western Massachusetts

Agawam Indian Fort | Fort Anson | Fort Ashley | Ashquoach | Athol Fort House
Ayres' Garrison | Camp Bartlett | Blandford Fort | Bolton Powder House | Boylston Fort
Brimfield Forts | Brookfield Garrisons | Fort Burke | Chenery's Garrison | Connable's Fort
Camp Dalton | Fort Dalton | Deerfield Garrisons | Camp Devens | Fort Devens | Camp Dewey
Eames' Garrison | Ellis' and Phillips' Fort | Fort Fairfield | Camp Framingham | Gilbert's Fort
Goodrich's Fort | Granville Garrisons | Greenfield Garrisons | Groton Garrisons
Hadley Stockade | Harvard Powder House | Hatfield Stockade | Hatfield Garrisons
Hawks' Fort | Camp Hill | Fort Hoosac | Huguenot Fort | King Philip's Stockade
Lancaster Garrisons | Camp Lincoln | Fort Lucas | McDowell's Fort | Camp McGuinness
Marlborough Garrisons | Fort Massachusetts | Medfield Garrisons | Menemeset
Millis Blockhouse | Fort Morris | Fort Morrison | Nashoba Indian Fort | New Framingham Fort
North Fort | Northampton Garrisons | Northampton Stockade
Northfield Forts and Garrisons | Oxford Powder House | Fort Pelham
Pocumtuck Indian Fort | Pontoosuck Fort | Quabaug Garrison | Quabaug Old Fort
M. Rice's Fort | S. Rice's Fort | Camp Scott | Fort Sheldon | Fort Shirley | C. Smith's Fort
South Fort | Springfield Armory | Springfield Garrisons | Camp Stevens
Sudbury Garrisons | Taylor's Fort | Wachusett | Wekabaug | West Hoosac Blockhouse
Westfield Garrisons | Westminster Forts | W. Williams' Garrison | Camp Wool

Northeastern Massachusetts - page 1 | Boston Harbor I - page 2
Boston Harbor II - page 3 | Southeastern Massachusetts - page 4

Last Update: 12/NOVEMBER/2016
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2016 American Forts Network

Chenery's Garrison
(1676), Walpole
A settlers' fort at the end of Foundry Street. Private property. This area was once part of Medfield.

Medfield Garrison Houses
(1676), Medfield
During King Philip's War, there was a garrison at Main and Brook Streets (a new house on site), another on Harding Street (the original timbers were used to build the present house on site), and another at North and Dale Streets (now apartments). One of these, or another, may have been the John Metcalf Garrison.

Millis Blockhouse
(1676), Millis
A stone garrison house located on Route 115 near the Sherborn town line. Indians attacked twice, but unsuccessfully.

Thomas Eames' Garrison
(1676), Framingham
A settlers' fort was once located on Mount Wayte Ave.. Attacked by Indians in 1676.

Camp Framingham
(1873 - 1944 ?), Framingham
A state militia / National Guard training reservation and arsenal, originally known as Camp Dalton. An earthwork training battery named Fort Dalton (1883) was located here. It was 138 feet long with two flanks, 11 and 16 feet long, and armed with two 10-inch Rodmans and four seige mortars. The post was later used as a state mobilization center for the Spanish-American War (1898), known as Camp McGuinness or Camp Dewey. In June 1916 the camp was used to mobilize state troops for the Mexican border crisis. From May 1942 - December 1943 the reservation became the headquarters of the 181st Infantry Regimental Combat Team, assigned to coastal defense shore patrols for the entire New England coast. The site is now the Mass. State Police headquarters and the state civil defense headquarters (MEMA), located on Worcester Road.

Marlborough Garrison Houses
(1676), Marlborough
The town was attacked and then abandoned in 1676. The colonial militia used the town as a military depot throughout King Philip's War. A garrison house (name undetermined) was once located at Hosmer Street at the far eastern end of the Fort Meadow Reservoir (site is now under water). The William Ward Garrison was on Hayden Street (burned after the war), marker on Prospect Street. The Brigham Garrison (built 1660) is still located at 303 Brigham Street (heavily modified). Others were the John Johnson Garrison, Thomas (or Joseph) Rice Garrison, and Abraham Williams' Garrison. There may have been others.

Sudbury Garrison Houses
(1676, 1686), Sudbury
During King Philip's War, the Haynes' Garrison (1646) was located on Water Row Road, just north of Old Sudbury Road (Route 27). It was demolished in 1876, the ruins of the foundation (cellar hole) still remain. The Goodenow Garrison was at Old County Road and Boston Post Road (Route 20). It was demolished in 1820. The Parmenter Garrison was built after King Philip's War, and was attacked in 1686. It was located on Garrison House Lane. The Brown Garrison (1660) was also attacked during King William's War. It was located at Nobscot and Dudley Roads in South Sudbury, demolished in 1855. There were several other garrison houses, including John Woods' Garrison, but no trace remains of any of them.

Groton Garrison Houses
(1676, 1694), Groton
The town was abandoned after an Indian attack in 1676. Located here at that time were Capt. James Parker's Garrison on Main Street between the Town Hall and Court Street; Nutting's Garrison at Court and Main Streets (destroyed, now a drugstore on site); Willard's Garrison on Main Street (still exists near the Town Hall and the school); another garrison on Main Street; and another garrison located about one mile away (exact location unknown). In 1694 the town was attacked again. There were eight garrison houses located here at that time. The town was attacked a third time in 1697.

Camp Stevens
(1860's), Ayer
A Civil War training camp, located near the former Fort Devens North Post - Moore Army Airfield. A monument is located on MA 2A at the Nashua River.
(thanks to Antoine Roy for providing info)

Fort Devens (State Military Reservation)
(1917 - 1996/present), Ayer
A National Army cantonment training encampment and demobilization center for the 76th Division. Originally named Camp Devens until 1931. Became a Citizen's Military Training Corps (CMTC), Army Reserve, and National Guard training area after 1921. Most of the original buildings were removed by 1926, however eight structures still exist today. Rebuilt as a training camp in 1931, and also used by the C.C.C. until 1939. Enlarged in 1940 for WWII training purposes. A German POW camp was built 1944 - 1946. Became a brigade level headquarters for the Boston NIKE missile defenses in 1961 - 1966 (B-82). Closed as an active base in 1996, however a portion is still in use by the Army Reserve and Mass. National Guard. The rest of the reservation is now the Devens Commerce Center. Located on post is the Fort Devens Museum.

Nashoba Indian Fort
(17th century), Littleton
Fort Pond on the south edge of town is said to be near the site of a Nashoba Indian stronghold and burial ground, in use prior to King Philip’s War. Exact location of the site is unknown, but is thought to be on an elevated spot on the north side of the pond near the remains of an old Indian-owned farm.
(thanks to Wendy Baker for providing info)

Harvard Powder House
(1812 - unknown), Harvard
A local militia brick powder magazine located near the town hall. Restored in 2006.

Bolton Powder House
(1812 - unknown), Bolton
A local militia brick powder magazine located on Powder House Hill behind the town hall. Restored in 2006 by the Bolton Conservation Commission. See also Bolton Conservation Commission Trail Maps

Lancaster Garrison Houses
(1676, 1697), Lancaster and South Lancaster
Only 15 militia soldiers protected this town in 1676. The Rev. Joseph Rowlandson Garrison was destroyed in the attack. It was located at Main Street and Whitcomb Drive, now the grounds of Atlantic Union College in South Lancaster. A marker is nearby. The Stevens' Garrison was at Center Bridge Road near Neck Road. The Sawyer Garrison was at Main and Prescott Streets. There were three other garrison houses at this time. The Roper Garrison was attacked in 1697 during King William's War. It was located at George Hill Road and Langden Road in South Lancaster.

Westminster Forts
(1744), Westminster
Ten houses were stockaded during King George's War.

(1676 - 1677), Princeton
A fortified Nipmuc Indian winter camp during King Philip's War.

Boylston Fort
(1720 - unknown), West Boylston
A town stockaded blockhouse that stood until about 1790. Located near Worcester Street.

Worcester Civil War Camps
(1861, 1862), Worcester
Located here were Camp Lincoln (1861), Camp Scott (1861) at Cambridge and Camp Streets, and Camp Wool (1862) at the Agricultural Fairgrounds.

Huguenot Fort
(1687 - unknown), Oxford
A French Huguenot settlement located on Fort Hill. The fort was a quadrangular log and palisade complex with two blockhouses and two bastions. The settlement was destroyed by Indians in 1694, and it was not resettled until 1713. A monument was erected in 1884.

Camp Hill
(1799 - 1800), Oxford
A Federal encampment site. A stone marker is on the site (on Federal Hill ?).

Oxford Powder House
(1812 - 1840), Oxford
A local militia brick powder magazine. It was relocated in 1957 to Sturbridge at the Old Sturbridge Village town common, later moved in 1967 to the OSV Upper Pasture, behind the Center Meetinghouse, where it remains today.

Brookfield Garrison Houses
(1690's, 1700's, 1720's), Brookfield
More than one dozen garrison houses were built in the area during several periods of conflict. Henry Gilbert's Fort (1688) was located at North Main and Maple Streets. It was the first defense built, and was also in use by the colonial militia. The Quabaug Garrison (location undetermined) was attacked in 1693.

(1676 - 1677), West Brookfield
A fortified Nipmuc Indian winter camp during King Philip's War, located on the southern end of Wekabaug (Wickaboag) Pond.

John Ayres' Garrison
(1675), West Brookfield
A settlers' fort that withstood a three-day Nipmuc Indian seige in 1675. Located on Foster Hill Road. The settlement, called Quabaug at the time, was later abandoned.

(1676 - 1677), Wheelwright
A fortified Nipmuc Indian winter camp during King Philip's War. It was composed of three major villages along the east bank of the Ware River, between Hardwick Road, Wenimisset Brook, and Tanner Airport.

Quabaug Old Fort
(1676 - 1677), Little Rest
A fortified Nipmuc Indian winter camp during King Philip's War. Also known as Ashquoach. It was located on Indian Hill north of Sherman's Pond in Brimfield, near the Warren town line. Site is private property.

Brimfield Forts
(1710's or 1720's), Brimfield
Two settler blockhouses were located here to defend against Indian attack.

King Philip's Stockade
(unknown dates), Longmeadow
An earth and field stone structure located outside Forest Park on Route 5. It is not known to be related at all to King Philip and the 1676 war, but still most probably Native American in origin. It was named as such in the late 19th-century.

Springfield Garrison Houses
(1675), Springfield
Located here during King Philip's War were Capt. John Pynchon's Garrison at Main and Fort Streets, Burt's Garrison at Main and Broad Streets, and the (Nathaniel) Ely Tavern Garrison (1665) at Main and Bliss Streets. It was moved in 1843 and demolished in 1900. None remain.
(NOTE: there is also a Fort Pleasant Street in town.)

Agawam Indian Fort
(1666 - 1676), Springfield
An Agawam Indian palisaded village was located on Long Hill at Long Hill Street and Sumner Ave.. Built under English supervision for protection against the Mohawk Indians of New York. It was abandoned during King Philip's War. Site was excavated in 1895.

Springfield Armory (National Historic Site)
(1794 - 1968), Springfield
President George Washington ordered the creation of this - the nation's first national armory and arsenal. At the time, this was one of only two Federal arsenals; the second one being at Harper's Ferry, VA (now WV). Previously the Continental Army had established an armory here in 1777.

Westfield Garrison Houses
(1676, 1704, 1712, 1747), Westfield
There may have been fortified houses beginning in 1667 when the town was first settled. In the winter of 1675 - 1676 there were 30 militia soldiers posted here for the town's protection. The town was not abandoned during the Indian troubles that year. Several houses were ordered fortified in 1704 against Indian attack and provided with militia detachments, including Taylor's Garrison on Main Street, Stephen Kellogg's Garrison on East Silver Street, Consider Mosely's Garrison on Little River Road, John Sackett's Garrison, John Noble's Garrison, and Thomas Root's Garrison. The town was again "forted" in 1747.

Camp Bartlett
(1905 - 1918 ?), Westfield
A state guard summer training area first used in 1905, it later became a National Guard mobilization camp for part of the 26th Division in August 1917. The "Yankee" Division left for France in stages beginning in September 1917, the first complete National Guard division to be sent to Europe. The camp remained in operation until December 1917. Site is along the railroad and the Mass. Pike (I-90) at the Barnes Municipal Airport, two miles north of the town center.
(thanks to Bob Alcock for providing correct location and info)

Granville Garrison Houses
(1740's), Granville Township
Two garrison houses are known: the timber-frame Samuel Bancroft Garrison (1744) in Granville Center (no remains), and the stone Deacon David Rose Garrison (1745) (still extant) in West Granville.

Blandford Fort
(1740's), Blandford
A colonial militia fort was supposedly located here. Undetermined location.

Northampton Garrison Houses
(1676, 1687), Northampton
The village center was stockaded (Northampton Stockade), garrisoned with 300 soldiers. A new town palisade was built in 1687. There were about a dozen or so garrison houses in the area.

Hadley Stockade
(1675 - 1676), Hadley
The village was stockaded in 1675, and was attacked in 1676. The location of a portion of the stockade was excavated in 1990.

Hatfield Garrison Houses
(1675 - 1677), Hatfield
Several garrison houses were attacked by Indians between 1675 and 1677. A stockade was built around the village center in 1676, known as Hatfield Stockade. The town was attacked again in 1697.

Pocumtuck Indian Fort
(1640's ?), Deerfield
A Pocumtuck Indian fortified stronghold. Attacked and destroyed by Mohawk Indians in December 1664 or January 1665. Located on "Fort Hill" on the Pocumtuck Range, about one-half mile northeast of the old town common. The presumed site is on the grounds of Eaglebrook School on Pine Nook Road (private property). Archaeological testing was done in the 2000's.

Deerfield Garrison Houses
(unknown dates), Deerfield
There apparently were no recorded garrison houses here before the devastating Indian attack of 1675. About a dozen or so garrison houses were built in the area after the town was resettled. The town was attacked again in 1693, 1694, 1704, and 1709. Later, five garrison houses were reported to have been built/fortified in the 1740's and/or 1750's, including one in Wapping. These were dismantled by 1760.

Greenfield Garrison Houses
(unknown dates), Greenfield
About a dozen or so garrison houses were built in the area.

Ashfield Garrison Houses
(1756 - 1760 ?), Baptist Corner
Ellis' and Phillips' Fort, a two-family settlers' stockaded fort, was located about a half-mile south of town on Bear River Road. Chileab Smith's Fort was located on March Road just north of town. It was 81-square rods enclosed by a 12-foot high palisade, and a center blockhouse. Both were built when the settlers returned three years following an Indian attack. They were dismantled after the war. The town was formerly called Hunt's Town.
(thanks to Jim J. for providing location info)

Northfield Forts and Garrison Houses
(1673 - 1675, 1676 - 1690, 1713 - 1760 ?), Northfield
A log garrison surrounded by a palisade was built in 1673. The town and fort were evacuated in 1675 after the deadly Indian attack on Deerfield. Resettled in 1676. Additional defenses were erected in 1685, 1686, and 1688. The town was attacked in 1688, and destroyed in 1690. Resettled again in 1713. Two forts were built in 1722. Several additional garrison houses were built in 1724 for use by the colonial militia. Nathaniel Dickinson's Fort (1728) was located in East Northfield at Pauchaug Hill, attacked in 1747. The militia forts were dismantled in 1753, but new forts were built in 1754, including Deacon Ebenezer Alexander's Fort, Doolittle's Fort, and Capt. Zechariah Field's Fort. Dickenson's Fort may have also been rebuilt. All had small blockhouses, or "mounts", attached to the stockades. The village was originally called Squakeag. The original town site located at Route 10 and Route 63 at the "Great Meadow".

Athol Fort House
(1745 - 1755), Athol
A settlers' two-story garrison house built by Samuel Kendall for the protection of the few lowlands settlers from Indian attack. Located on a small hill (removed in 1929) near the intersection of Main and Exchange Streets (Athol History Trail historic marker at street corner).
(thanks to Antoine Roy for providing info)

Fort Burke
(1744 - 1760 ?), Bernardston
Originally a settlers' stockaded blockhouse (built 1738), known as John Burke's Fort. It was six rods square, with a 12-foot high palisade and four watchtowers. It was attacked in 1747 and then dismantled. Rebuilt in 1754 or 1755 as a palisaded complex of eight houses/barracks, it was used as a town refuge. The town was formerly called Fall Town.

Fort Sheldon
(1744 - 1760 ?), Bernardston
Deacon Ebenezer Sheldon Jr.'s fortified garrison house on Huckle Hill. Attacked in 1746. Used by the colonial militia after 1754.

Also located nearby was Lt. Ebenezer Sheldon Sr.'s Fort (1744), a fortified garrison house on the Northfield Road.

Samuel Connable's Fort
(1744 - 1760 ?), North Bernardston
A settlers' fortified garrison house, originally built in 1739. The house was enlarged before the American Revolution, and still existed well after 1900.

Colrain Garrison Houses
(1745 - 1760 ?), Colrain
Fort Lucas (1745), Andrew Lucas' garrison house or blockhouse used by the colonial militia during King George's War. Also used by the colonial militia after 1754.
Fort Morrison (1745), Hugh Morrison's palisaded garrison house, originally built in 1739 or 1740, with a 23-foot high watchtower, also called North Fort. Also used by the colonial militia after 1754. Only a stone marker exists.
Fort Morris (1745), a settlers' palisaded garrison house, also called South Fort. In 1754 about 50 square feet were added to the palisade.
Rev. Alexander McDowell's Fort (1755), a settlers' palisaded garrison house used by the colonial militia.

Charlemont Forts
(1740's - 1760 ?), Charlemont
Hawks' Fort (1754), a settlers' fort located in the west part of town. It consisted of the two houses (built 1750) of Gershom and brother Seth Hawks, facing each other connected by an inner palisade forming a parade, all within an outer palisade, with two watchtowers or sentry boxes in opposite corners. Garrisoned by the colonial militia after 1755.
Capt. Moses Rice's Fort (1743 - 1756), a settlers' garrison house during King George's War, but not manned by the colonial militia at that time. Destroyed by Indians in 1745. House rebuilt in 1748 and palisaded in 1754. It was attacked by Indians in 1755, killing Rice. His son Samuel took over the defense afterwards, but the government refused to furnish troops because of its bad location.
Samuel Rice's Fort (1757), after Moses Rice's fort was dismantled, a stockade was erected around Samuel's house (built 1748), nearby but closer to the river, and was garrisoned by the colonial miltia.
Taylor's Fort (1754), a settlers' fort located in the east part of town. It consisted of the two houses (built 1749) of Othniel and brother Jonathan Taylor, facing each other connected by a 60-by-38-foot inner palisade forming a parade, all within a 140-by-80-foot outer palisade 25 feet out, with two watchtowers or sentry boxes in opposite corners. Garrisoned by the colonial militia after 1755.
(thanks to Aaron Miller for providing additional information)

Fort Shirley
(1744 - 1754), North Heath
Built by the colonial militia, it was 60 feet square with a 12-foot high palisade, enclosing barracks. Saw no action, and was therefore ordered dismantled in 1754 as badly located for defense. Site located near Hosmer Road, marked with granite monument (1901). Excavated in 1974.

Fort Pelham
(1745 - 1754), Rowe
A colonial militia fort on the northeast side of Pelham Lake. It was a palisaded parallelogram with four watchtowers in each corner, enclosing over an acre, surrounded by a ditch. Saw no action, and was therefore ordered dismantled in 1754 as badly located for defense, but probably still survived (abandoned) until 1758. The original site is now a wooded field (1980's) with a 19th-century stone field wall which incorporates the fort's masonry remnants. Site excavated in 1971-72, and marked with granite monument (1956). An interesting historical sidenote which is now a local legend relates that in 1917 two German spies were found snooping around town looking for a "Fort Pelham" that was still marked in an 1871 edition county atlas !

Fort Massachusetts
(1745 - 1746, 1747 - 1759), North Adams
A stockaded 60-foot square blockhouse on a stone foundation, built by the colonial militia. Attacked and destroyed by the French in 1746, but rebuilt the next year. Attacked again in 1748. Regarrisoned by the colonial militia in 1754. Still stood for several years after it was abandoned in 1759. The town was formerly called East Hoosac. Beginning in 1895, the North Adams Women's Club raised money and purchased the site. A reconstructed fort was dedicated in 1933 and operated for over a decade before a lack of funds and vandalism closed it. The abandoned replica fort was torn down in 1960, and today the site is now the parking lot of a small shopping center. A leftover stone chimney (1933) and granite monument (1976) mark the presumed site. See also Fort Massachusetts by Paul Marino

Fort Hoosac
(1756 - 1760 ?), Williamstown
A stockaded two-gun blockhouse originally called West Hoosac Blockhouse. It was attacked several times. After the French and Indian War, it was used as the town's meetinghouse. A monument marks the spot.

New Framingham Fort
(1754), Lanesborough
A town log stockade once located between the town cemetery and Stormview Road. It was soon attacked, and the settlers then sought refuge at Fort Anson.

Pittsfield Forts
(1754 - 1760), Pittsfield
Fort Anson (1754), a colonial militia fort also known as Fort at Pontoosuck and Capt. William Williams' Garrison. The main house was 40-feet by 24-feet with a gambrel roof and four-inch thick plank walls. An eight-foot wide firing platform ran the perimeter of the stockade wall, with a small blockhouse in one corner. A small storehouse was also located within. Located on the northeast side of town on what was once called Unkamet Street, near the East Street crossing of the East Branch Housatonic River.
Fort Fairfield (1756), a local militia stockaded blockhouse, built by Deacon Stephen Crofoot and others, about 80 feet by 60 feet, once located near the corner of Williams Street and Holmes Road. Built on the land of Nathaniel Fairfield, on what was once Honasada Street. Garrisoned by ten men.
Fort Ashley (1756 or 1757), a blockhouse built by the colonial militia at "Col. Ashley's house". Located on Fort Hill (Ashley's Hill) on the southwest shore of Onota Lake (Ashley's Pond).
Capt. Charles Goodrich's Fort (1756), a settlers' blockhouse located on a small hill southeast of what was once "Wendell Square", about two miles southwest of Fort Anson. Garrisoned by eight men.
(thanks to Clark Nicholls for providing additional information)

NEED MORE INFO: a Fort Pond near Fort Devens near Leominster.

Northeastern Massachusetts - page 1 | Boston Harbor I - page 2 | Boston Harbor II - page 3
Southeastern Massachusetts - page 4

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