American Forts: East


Aberdeen Proving Ground | Askiminokonson Fort | The Barracks | Beaumont's Point Fort
Camp Berlin (1) | Camp Berlin (2) | Black Hill Radar Station | Camp Bradford
Camp Burnside | Camp Cambridge | Chicone Site | Concord Point Battery | Fort Conquest
Fort Craford | Camp Cross | Cumberland Site | Fort Defiance | Duffy's Fort
Edgewood Arsenal | Camp Franklin | Frenchtown Battery | Gallows Hill Camp
The Garrison Fort | Camp Glen Burnie | Camp Halleck | Camp Hoffman (2)
Fort Hollingsworth | Fort Horn | Fort Hoyle | Camp Kelsey | Fort Kent | Kent Island Camp
Camp Kirby | Kuskarawaok | Camp Laurel | Fort Lincoln | Fort Madison | Mattapany Fort
Camp Meade (2) | Fort George Meade | Nanticoke Fort | Fort Nonsense | Olton's Garrison
Oulton's Garrison | Opanient | Palmer's Island Post | Camp Parole | Pawtuxunt
Pikesville Arsenal | Pope's Fort | Poplar Island Post | Potato Battery | Port Deposit Battery
Principio Furnace Battery | Fort Providence | Rehobeth Camp | Camp Relay House
Camp Richmond | Risteau's Garrison | St. Ignatius Fort | St. Inigoes Fort | St. Leonard's Fort
St. Mary's Fort | Fort at St. Mary's River | St. Michaels Batteries | Fort Severn
Camp Somerset | Camp Stanton | Fort Stokes | Susquehannock Indian Fort (2) | Tockwogh
Camp Upton | Vienna Battery | Camp Wallace | Warwick Fort Manor | Winnasoccum Fort
Fort Leonard Wood

Baltimore Harbor - page 2 | Western Maryland - page 3

Last Update: 24/MARCH/2014
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2014 American Forts Network

Fort Lincoln
(Point Lookout State Park)
(1864 - 1865), Point Lookout
Built by Confederate POW labor when Washington was threatened by Confederate General Early's raid, and a prison break was feared. It is the only surviving fortification of three that guarded Camp Hoffman (2), the stockaded POW camp established in 1863. It is a small four-sided earthen fort with four reconstructed buildings, and the remains of a powder magazine. It is located on the Potomac River side of the peninsula. The war ended before construction was complete. The site of the other two works, Redoubts #2 and #3 were located on the Chesapeake Bay side above the prison camp stockade. They were smaller circular earthen works with a moat, armed with four guns each, and a wooden observation tower in the center. Both have eroded away. A marker locates one of the redoubts offshore. Camp Cross, one of the cantonments for the Union garrison, was located outside the prison stockade to the north. 50,000 Confederate POWs were here at one time or another. The state fishing pier is at the site of the prison camp. There are some remains of the prison camp's ditch, as well as a reconstructed portion of the stockade wall. Most of the site has eroded away. Hammond General Hospital was built in 1862, located at the point near the lighthouse. A museum is at the park's visitor center. Admission fee. State marker located on MD 5. The nearby Point Lookout Lightouse was built in 1830, remodeled in 1883. It is off limits to the public at the present time, except for special group tours. See also Archaeology at Point Lookout from Maryland Archaeological Conservation Lab

Fort at St. Mary's River
(19th century), St. Mary's County
An American "Third System" fort was proposed for the mouth of the St. Mary's River, but was never built. Probably sited for St. George Island.

St. Ignatius Fort
(1644 - 1655), Beachville
A fort was erected on Fort Point after the original St. Mary's fort fell into disrepair. It was later destroyed by Protestant Virginians (mostly former Marylanders) who opposed Catholic rule under the Calvert regime of Maryland. Also known as St. Inigoes Fort. Located at Fort Point on the St. Mary's River, at NAS Patuxent River - Webster Field Annex.

St. Mary's Fort
(Historic St. Mary's City)
(1634 - 1637), St. Mary's City
A 120-yard square palisaded fort with four bastions was first located here but later became neglected and abandoned. Later, Governor Leonard Calvert's mid-1630's frame house (on stone/brick foundations) was fortified and surrounded by a "banked ditch" by Protestant rebels under Richard Ingle and Nathaniel Pope in 1645-46 ("Ingle's Rebellion", an American offshoot of the English Civil War), and was then known as Pope's Fort. Calvert regained control of the colony in 1646, but lost it again in 1654-57 during another Protestant revolt and did not regain full control of the colony again until 1658. Ingle and Pope, and several others, relocated to Virginia in 1646. Calvert's manor house became the first State House in 1662 when he moved into a new house. The town archaeological site is now a partial reconstruction of the first permanent English settlement in the state. Located here is a replica of the Dove which brought those settlers in 1634. Also located here is a full reconstruction (1934) of the second 1676 State House. The town remained the state capital until 1695. Admission fee. State marker located on MD 5 (Point Lookout Road), north of Trinity Church Road. || Maryland National Register Listing.

The first landing was located upriver at St. Clement's Island (aka Blackistone's Island). Public access by boat only. St. Clement's Island State Park || State marker located at Colton's Point || Maryland National Register Listing

Mattapany Fort
(Mattapany - Sewall Archaeological Site)
(1640's - 1650's, 1665 - 1695), near Lexington Park
A MD colonial militia stockaded fort, built in response to the Indian attack and destruction of the 1636 Jesuit mission "Mattapanient House" here in 1643. The Mattapany-Sewall manor house was subsequently built here in 1663 by Henry Sewall, and was later home to, and fortified by, Charles Calvert, governor of the colony, from 1666 - 1684. A provincial arsenal was also located here during his term as governor. This was also the scene of the 1689 "Protestant Revolution" when the proprietary government of Maryland was overthrown. State marker located on Millstone Road at Mattapany Road, on the NAS Patuxent River base.

Cumberland Archaeological Site
(1575 - 1600), Calvert County
A palisaded Patuxent Indian town on the north side of Turner's Cove on the Patuxent River, on the point just north of the mouth of Hellen Creek. Site excavated in 1983. To date (2006) this is the only known palisaded site on the Patuxent River. This may have been the site of the Patuxent Indian town Opanient which was noted on John Smith's map of 1608.

Fort at St. Leonard's Creek
(Jefferson Patterson Park - War of 1812)
(1814), Wallville
A Federal Naval battery secretly built to attack the British ships in the Patuxent River in order for the American gunboats to break out of the British blockade of the Potomac River. It was armed with five heavy guns and three field guns, with a hot-shot furnace. This was the scene of the Second Battle of St. Leonard's Creek on June 26, 1814, the largest naval battle in Maryland waters. State marker located on MD 2/4 at Parran Road.

(c. 1600), near Mutual
A major Patuxent Indian town on the east side of Battle Creek, south of Long Cove, noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Possible site never excavated, unknown if palisaded.

Camp Stanton
(1863 - 1864), Benedict
A Union training camp for Negro troops. State marker located on MD 231 at Benedict Ave..

Fort Providence
(1649 - 1652 ?), Greenbury Point, near Annapolis
A fortified colonial settlement originally located on Towne Neck, settled by several Puritan families exiled from Virginia. The "Battle of the Severn" (March 1655) was fought between the armed settlers of Providence and the Maryland colonial militia (composed mostly of the Catholic settlers of St. Mary's City) somewhere near Horn Point, for refusing to join in battle against the Nanticoke Indians, and for other political differences.

It is unclear if a proper fort was built, but when the south side of the Severn River was first settled by the Puritans sometime after 1651, a log stockade wall was built across the neck from Acton's Cove on Spa Creek to Crocus Creek, a cove of College Creek. The Town at Proctor's Landing (laid out in 1683) was renamed Anne Arundel Town in 1694, then Annapolis in 1695.

¤ Annapolis Defenses
Guardians of Annapolis

¤ Fort Severn
(History of the U.S. Naval Academy)
(1808 - 1845/1865), Annapolis
An 11-gun circular masonry fort on Windmill Point, with a nine acre reservation owned by the government for barracks, quarters, and other support buildings. Garrisoned by Maryland and District volunteers and militia in 1814 on the threat of a British attack that never came. Also garrisoned by the 36th United States Infantry at one time. The c.1750 Dulany House became the Commanding Officer's Quarters, later the Academy's Superintendent's Residence (demolished in 1883). The post was transferred to the Navy in 1845 and became known as the Naval School at Fort Severn, renamed the United States Naval Academy in 1850. The old fort's exterior parapet was renovated in 1851 for use as a Naval Heavy Gun training battery. The Army regained control of the post in 1861 while the Naval Academy was officially transferred to Newport, Rhode Island for the duration of the war, and initially established a munitions depot, and later a general hospital. It is unclear if the Army maintained any defensive shore batteries here at that time. All remaining Army-built structures were demolished by 1876. The Naval Academy grounds were increased to about 50 acres by 1900, with much new construction. The interior of the old fort was originally converted into a gymnasium / recreation hall in the 1850's, and was renovated in the early 1890's, but was finally demolished in 1909. A D.A.R. plaque commemorating the historic fort is mounted on an outside wall of Bancroft Hall (built 1901-08). Maryland National Register Listing

A Patriot militia fort was previously built here on Windmill Point in 1776.

¤ Fort Madison
(1808 - 1873/1896), Annapolis
A 13-gun semi-elliptical fort located on Carr Point. It closely resembled Fort Warburton (on the Potomac River) in design. Discontinued as an active defense in the 1820's, it was said to have been dismantled in 1832, but was planned to be rebuilt in the early 1850's, which was never completed. The site was abandoned by the Army after the Civil War, the land was transferred to the Navy in 1873. A Naval Experimental Battery was then built at the eastern tip of Carr Point for training of Naval Academy midshipmen. The Coast Guard (U.S. Lighthouse Board) acquired the land in 1896 for use as the Annapolis Lighthouse Depot. The Navy reacquired the land in 1937 as part of the Naval Engineering Experiment Station (established at Greenbury Point in 1903). The remains of the old fort were still evident in 1932, but were removed during WWII construction. The Annapolis EES (Marine Engineering Laboratory) became a component of the Naval Ship Research and Development Center in 1967, later known as the Naval Surface Warfare Center - Carderock Division. The Annapolis Lab was closed in 1999.

Fort Nonsense, an 80-foot diameter circular earthwork, was probably built sometime during the War of 1812 a half-mile north of Fort Madison, on Bieman's Hill near the present Naval Commandant's Quarters. It appears to have been built as an outer defense for Fort Madison. Remnants still exist. Public access restricted.

Patriot forts or batteries were built in 1776 on Bieman's Hill, and on nearby Greenbury Point.

¤ Beaumont's Point Fort
(1776), Annapolis
A Patriot defense located on Beaumont's Point on the north side of the Severn River. No remains.

¤ Fort Horn
(1776, 1813 - 1815), Annapolis
A local militia fort. Located on Horn Point near the present-day yacht club. A Federal work from 1795 was not completed, then abandoned. No remains, actual site probably under water due to a 1933 hurricane.

¤ The Barracks
(1776), Annapolis
A private home located at 43 Pinkney Street, rented out as a billet for Patriot soldiers/officers during the American Revolution. Exhibits on the first floor. Admission by apointment.

Camp Burnside
(1861), Annapolis
A Civil War training camp.

Camp Richmond
(1861 - 1864), Parole
A Civil War training camp.

Located adjacent was Camp Parole (1862 - 1863), a camp and hospital for returning Union POWs. It handled about 70,000 troops through its gates. Site now a shopping center. State marker located on MD 2 (Solomons Island Road), north of Forest Drive.

Camp Laurel
(1918 - 1919), Laurel
An Army Corps of Engineers training camp and mobilization center, built to handle the overflow from Camp Meade. Located at the Laurel Racetrack.

Fort George G. Meade (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1917 - present), Annapolis Junction FORT WIKI
A National Army cantonment training area for the 79th Division. Originally named Camp Meade (2). Later became an infantry replacement center and demobilization center. Most of the buildings were removed after the war. A small log and stone cabin built in 1918 by the 314th Regiment, 79th Division, was relocated in 1921 to Valley Forge, PA, as a memorial to the troops. It became a Boy Scout museum in 1995. Camp Franklin was the Signal Corps School located adjacent to Camp Meade. It was later absorbed into the main post. The post was briefly renamed Fort Leonard Wood in 1928, but renamed back again in 1929. During WWII German and Italian POWs were confined here. The post was headquarters of the Cold War era Baltimore-Washington Air Defenses (90mm and 120mm AA guns) from 1951 - 1959. The post was also headquarters of the Baltimore-Washington regional NIKE missile defenses 1954 - 1974 (W-13 DC / BA-62 H). The first operational NIKE-AJAX missile battery was located on post in 1954 - 1955. The post currently supports the National Security Agency and other related activities. On post is the Fort George Meade Museum.

Camp Kelsey
(1861 - 1864), Annapolis Junction
A Union camp guarding the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

Camp Relay House
(1861 - 1864), Relay
A Union camp with breastworks guarding the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. State marker located on Arlington Ave..

Camp Glen Burnie
(1917 - 1918), Glen Burnie
A temporary Army tent camp on the former Naval Rifle Range, built to handle the overflow from Camp Laurel.

(see page 2 for Baltimore Harbor defenses.)

The Garrison Fort (park)
(1693 - 1760 ?, intermittent), Stevenson
This two-story stone structure is the oldest standing fort in the state. It was built as a frontier defense for the early settlements of Baltimore and Annapolis. Originally known as Capt. John Olton's (Oulton's) Garrison until 1699, and later as John Risteau's Garrison (1750's). Located in a residential area on Garrison Farm Court. State marker located at site || See also Oldton's Company of Baltimore Rangers

Pikesville Arsenal
(Maryland State Police)
(1816 - 1879), Pikesville
A Federal 14-acre walled arsenal complex. It became a home for Confederate veterans from 1888 until 1932. Became the Maryland State Police headquarters in 1950. The MD State Police Museum is inside the old facility. State marker located on MD 140, north of Sudbrook Lane.

Aberdeen Proving Ground (U.S. Military Reservation)
(U.S. Army Ordnance Museum)
(1917 - present), Aberdeen
Relocated from Fort Hancock, New Jersey. This is the U.S. Army's major weapons testing area. Included in the reservation is Edgewood Arsenal (now Edgewood Chemical Biological Center) (1917 - present) in Edgewood, combined with APG in 1971. Also the site of Fort Hoyle (1922 - 1940) on Gunpowder Neck, and the site of Camp Rodman (1940's) near town. The last remaining Coast Artillery 16-inch gun is on display at the museum. A four-gun 90mm AA battery was located at Edgewood Arsenal (Army Chemical Center) in 1953 - 1955 (BA-16 H). NIKE missiles were emplaced at Edgewood Arsenal in 1954 - 1974 (BA-18). Group and battery headquarters were located at APG (BA-14). State marker located on US 40 in town.

There are several World War II era observation towers on Pooles Island and other parts of the Proving Grounds. The Pooles Island Lighthouse was built in 1824, now abandoned since 1939, no public access due to unexploded ordnance.

Havre de Grace Batteries
(1813 - 1815), Havre de Grace
Local militia works to defend against the British. The main work was Concord Point Battery with three guns. The secondary work was Potato Battery, also with three guns, located where the lighthouse now stands. Attacked and destroyed by the British in May 1813. The Concord Point Lighthouse was built in 1827. One of the original guns is on display in front of the lighthouse. State marker at Concord Point Park.

Fort Conquest
(1637), Garrett Island
Built by Maryland troops after evicting the Virginia traders under William Claiborne from the upper Chesapeake region. Claiborne had a trading post here, called Palmer's Island Post (1631 ?), hoping to have direct trade with the Susquehannocks to the north, bypassing the Patawomeck middlemen on the Potomac River. The island was renamed in 1885.

Port Deposit Battery
(1813 - 1815), Port Deposit
A local defense to protect Creswell's Ferry. It was not attacked by the British in the April - May 1813 raid.

Susquehannock Indian Fort (2)
(Susquehanna State Park)
(1683), near Rowlandsville
A Susquehannock Indian fort was located on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, below Stone Run. It was a factor in the PA-MD boundary dispute of the time. State marker located on US 222.

Principio Furnace Battery
(1813 - 1815), Principio Furnace
A five-gun battery protected the Principio Iron Works located here at the head of Furnace Bay, which was a major supplier to the Federal government. It was attacked by the British in April 1813. State marker located on MD 7 || Principio Furnace National Register Listing

Black Hill Radar Station
(Elk Neck State Forest)
(1942 - 1945), near Elk Neck
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-271 early warning air defense radar was located here on Black Hill (283 feet elevation) near the now abandoned state forest fire lookout tower (built 1946 ?).

Fort Defiance
(1813 - 1815), near Elkton
Located just south of town on the western shore of the river, about one mile downriver from Fort Hollingsworth, at Fowler's Shore. The British attacked in April 1813 but were turned back by the local militia manning the fort. State marker located on Old Field Point Road, north of Jones Chapel Road.

Frenchtown Battery
(1813 - 1815), near Elkton
A local militia three-gun fort across the river from Fort Defiance. It was attacked and destroyed by the British in April 1813. State marker located on MD 213 at Frenchtown Road.

Fort Hollingsworth
(1813 - 1815), Elkton
A local militia fort at Elk Landing that was not attacked during the April - May 1813 British raid. State marker located on Landing Lane at Old Field Point Road.

Duffy's Fort
(1813), Fredericktown
A local defense that was destroyed by the British in May 1813. Commanded by Col. Thomas Ward Veazey.

(c. 1600), Kentmore Park
A palisaded major Indian town on the south bank of the Sassafras River, probably located on Shrewsbury Neck, noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Exact site never determined (as of 2006). When Smith's party visited, they were already well stocked with French trade goods from Québec, which was founded only three weeks before.

Kent Island Posts
(1629 or 1631 - 1638, 1813), Kent Island
Fort Kent was located at or near Kent Point. This was the first English settlement in the state. A Virginia trading post under William Claiborne was established here in 1631 (or as early as 1629 ?). Fort Craford was built in 1634 on Craney Creek (at Chesapeake Estates) (no remains, actual site washed away). A double row of palisades stretched across the island on both sides of Fort Craford. Claiborne also had a trading post on Poplar Island to the south. Maryland took possession of Kent Island in 1638 and evicted the Virginians. State marker located on MD 8 south of US 50/301.

British forces established here Kent Island Camp, a temporary camp and supply depot in August 1813.

St. Michaels Batteries
(1813 - 1815), St. Michaels
Two local militia earthwork batteries, one located on Navy Point (Three Cedar Point), and a two-gun work (15 men) on Parrott's Point, built after a British land attack in August 1813. A boom was placed in the harbor between the two points to prevent British ships from entering. The batteries and the town were bombarded by the British fleet in August 1814. The townspeople had hung lanterns in the trees to give the British gunners a false elevation, thereby sparing most buildings from harm. State marker #1 located on MD 33 concerning the earlier August 1813 battle || State marker #2 located on MD 33. Of interest in town is the Cannonball House at 200 Mulberry Street.

Fort Stokes
(1813 - 1815), Easton
A local militia six-gun earthwork battery, with a blockhouse, located on the west (north) bank of the Tred Avon River, on a point opposite the town marina, off of Fort Stokes Lane. Possibly built in April 1813 after a rumor spread of a possible British raid on the town in March 1813. Provided protection for local residents when the British later held nearby Sharps and Tilghman Islands. Some earthworks still exist, site acquired in 2010 by the Archaeological Conservancy. A small cannon displayed in front of the American Legion Post on Dover Street, east of the Tidewater Inn, is believed to be from the fort.

Camp Kirby
(1860's), Easton
A Civil War camp located just outside the town.

Camp Wallace
(1861), Cambridge
A Civil War training camp.

Camp Cambridge
(1864 - 1865), Cambridge
A Civil War camp.

Warwick Fort Manor
(18th century), near Secretary
Home of Col. Henry Hooper on the Warwick River, before the American Revolution. Origin of name undetermined at this time.

Chicone Archaeological Site
(1400 - 1600), near Vienna
A Late Woodland Period palisaded Indian town located on the east side of the mouth of Chicone Creek, about one-half mile upstream. This was probably the later major Nanticoke Indian town Kuskarawaok, which was noted on John Smith's map of 1608, but it is uncertain if it was still palisaded by then. Archaeological surveys have recently been conducted.

Vienna Battery
(1813 - 1815), Vienna
A local militia battery located on the west side of town. Reportedly still extant in 1997.

Nanticoke Fort
(1670's ?), near Walnut Landing
A Nanticoke Indian fort was built west of Marshyhope Creek in the "Handsel" patent. "Nanticoke" was anglicized to "Chicone" after the 1640's. The 5166-acre Chicone Indian Reservation (between Chicone Creek and Marshyhope Creek) was set aside by Maryland in 1678, formally surveyed in 1698, and was disestablished in 1768. State marker located on MD 331 in Vienna.

Camp Upton
(1861 - 1865), Salisbury
A Civil War training camp, and later a Union base to control the Eastern Shore region. The site is now the Salisbury Times newspaper offices.

Camp Berlin (1)
(1862 - 1863), Berlin
A Civil War camp.

Camp Berlin (2)
(1941 - 1944), Berlin
A coastal defense shore patrol subpost of Camp Somerset (see below). Posted here in December 1941 was a company of the 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry Regiment. Posted here from January 1942 to October 1943 was "A" Company, 1st Battalion, 111th Infantry Regiment. Replaced after that by "B" Troop, 116th Cavalry Recon Squad (Mech), until June 1944.

Askiminokonson Fort
(1670's ?), near Indiantown
An Assateague Indian fort already in existence in 1683 was reported here at the "Upper Indian Town" on the 300-acre "Castle Green" patent, located northeast of town along Acquango Brook. The Askiminokonson Indian Reservation (10,000 acres between Nassawango Creek and the Pocomoke River) was set aside by Maryland in 1678, formally surveyed in 1686, but simply ceased to exist after 1748 (it was never formally disestablished by the colonial government). The Pocomoke Indians occupied the "Lower Indian Town", mostly south of present-day MD 12. State marker located on MD 12 (Snow Hill Road) at MD 354 (Whiton Road).

Winnasoccum Fort
(1742), near Indiantown
An Indian fort built in the swamp during an abortive Indian uprising against the white settlers. Led by the Nanticokes and Shawnee advisors, the rebel group included Choptanks, Pocomokes, Assateagues, and others. The group dispersed after a few days.

Gallows Hill Camp
(1860's), Snow Hill
A Civil War camp on the southwest side of town.

Camp Halleck
(1860's), Pocomoke City
A Civil War camp located along the Pocomoke River on Clarke Ave.. The town was originally named Newtown.

Camp Bradford
(1860's), Princess Anne
A Civil War training camp.

Camp Somerset
(1941 - 1946), Westover
A former C.C.C. camp built in 1935, located on six acres on Camp Road. The first 17 buildings there were built for 270 men. It included an administration building, five sleeping quarters, a mess hall, a kitchen, a recreation hall, officers quarters, shops, pumping station, an electric generator, a bath and a garage. Taken over by the Army in late December 1941 as a base camp for coastal defense shore patrols (Cape Charles Defense Force) from Ocean City to Cape Charles, VA, with outpost stations in Berlin, Chincoteague, VA, Exmore, VA, and Oyster, VA. Initially garrisoned by the 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry Regiment and Battery A, 111th Field Artillery Regiment from December 20, 1941 to January 21, 1942; before being replaced by HQ and "B" Company, 1st Battalion, 111th Infantry Regiment; and Battery "B", 176th Field Artillery Regiment. "A" Company, 111th IR was posted at Berlin, minus one platoon which was posted at Chincoteague; "C" Company, 111th IR was posted at Oyster. Camp Somerset was later garrisoned by HQ and "A" Troop, 2nd Squadron, 101st Cavalry Regiment (Mechanized) (later redesignated the 116th Cavalry Recon Squadron (Mechanized)) from October 1943 to June 1944. Later used as a German POW camp from August 1944 to June 1946. Several buildings are still extant, now used as a migrant worker labor camp. No public access.

Rehobeth Camp
(1860's), Rehobeth
A Civil War camp located on the grounds of Coventry Church.

NEED MORE INFO: Battery Point near Gunpowder Falls State Park, south of Harewood.
Towns: Garrison north of Baltimore.

Baltimore Harbor - page 2 | Western Maryland - page 3

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