Fort Anawagen |
Fort Andros |
Androscoggin Indian Fort |
Arrowsic Fort (2) | Arrowsic Trade Post (1) | Fort Augusta | Fort Baldwin | Bath Gun House
Belfast Powder House | Berry's Fort | Boothbay Harbor Fort | Boothbay Harbor Gun House
Brunswick Garrisons | Brunswick Gun House | Brunswick Powder House
Buckfield Powder House | Burton's Fort | Camp Camden | Fort Charles | Fort Clark's Hill
Camp Coburn (1) | Camp Coney | Cox's Head Fort | Cundy's Harbor Fort | Cushnoc Trade Post
Damariscotta Battery | Fort Damariscove | Denny's Fort | Dunning's Fort
Durham Powder House | Eaton's Point Battery | Fort Edgecomb | Farmington Powder House
Fort Frankfort | Fort Frederick | Fort Friendship | Camp Fry | Fort Garrison Hill
Fort George (1) | Georgetown Battery | Fort Halifax | Camp Halleck | Hallowell Powder House
Fort William Henry | Hunnewell's Point Battery | Indian Island | Jacob's Point Battery
Jameson Point Battery | Kennebec Arsenal | Kennebec House | Camp Keyes (1)
Camp Keyes (2) | Fort Knox | Camp at Fort Knox | Lewis' Fort | Little River Battery
Fort Lucia | Fort MacDonough | Fort Menaskoux | Minister Point Battery
Morse Mt. Radar Station | Nehumkeag Trading Post | Newtown Fort | Fort Noble
Noble's Garrison | Norridgewock | Owls Head Battery | Pejepscot Fort | Fort Pemaquid
Phillips Powder House | Camp Pope | Fort Popham | Camp Powers | Fort Pownall
Fort Richmond | Rockameka | Fort Sagadahoc | Fort St. George (1) | Fort St. George's (2)
Fort St. George's (3) | Searsport Military Post | Fort Shirley | Shurte's Fort
Totannock Indian Fort | Union Powder House | Vaughan's Fort | Waldoboro Powder House
Walker's Garrison | Watt's Fort | Fort Webber | Fort Western | Wiscasset Powder House
North Woods and Down East - page 1 | Casco Bay - page 3 | Southern Maine - page 4
FORTS OF MAINE
EARTHFAST ARCHITECTURE IN EARLY MAINE
WABANAKI HISTORY OF INTERIOR NEW ENGLAND
(Penobscot Indian Reservation)
(1694 - unknown), Indian Island, Old Town
A Penobscot Indian village (Panawamske) with a French Jesuit mission (established in 1694). The Indian Island reservation was formally established around 1800. History and artifacts at the Penobscot Indian Nation Museum at 12 Down Street.
Camp John Pope
A Civil War training camp. Undetermined location.
Fort Knox (State Historic Site)
(Penobscot Narrows Observatory)
(1844 - 1923), Prospect Ferry FORT WIKI
The northernmost "Third System" fort in the United States. It was designed to hold 137 guns, several still remain. It was garrisoned during the Civil War, and was reactivated in 1898 to guard the minefield in the Penobscot River. Connecticut state guard troops were sent here temporarily as a Coast Reserve Company in 1898, establishing Camp at Fort Knox southwest of the fort. The Torpedo (Mine) Storehouse was built in 1900, now the visitor center. Admission fee.
The Penobscot Narrows Observatory, located at the top of the Penobscot Narrows Bridge north tower, opened in May 2007. Admission fee, tickets through Fort Knox State Park.
(Fort Point State Park)
(1759 - 1775), Stockton Springs FORT WIKI
Located on Fort (Wasaumkeag) Point, built by the Massachusetts colonial militia. It consisted of one massive palisaded blockhouse with its own bastions, built on fieldstone footings, surrounded by a moat within four-pointed star earthwork. British troops removed the remaining guns in March 1775, and Patriot forces later demolished the blockhouse and filled-in the moat in July 1775 to prevent further British use. The star-shaped earthworks still exist. The nearby Fort Point Lighthouse was built in 1857, replacing an earlier 1836 tower. It was added to the state park in 1988.
Searsport Military Post
(1942 - 1943), Searsport
An Infantry Battalion coastal defense base camp established in May 1942. Posted here was the HQ Rockland Sector, 2nd Battalion, 181st Infantry Regiment; Machine-Gun Platoon, "H" Company, 181st IR; and Detachment, "E" Company, 22nd Quartermaster Regiment. The infantry of MG Platoon "H" Company motor-patrolled the coast between Bucksport and Waldoboro. They moved their base camp to the C.C.C. camp in Camden (Camp Camden) in the fall of 1942.
Detached units included the 26th Division Mechanized Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop posted at the Ellsworth Hotel on School Street in Ellsworth, ME; Detachment Platoon, 26th Div MCRT posted in Machias, ME; and "C" Company, 181st IR posted in Wiscasset, ME. The cavalry of the 26th Div MCRT motor-patrolled the coast between Bucksport and Eastport, including Mt. Desert Island. The infantry of "C" Company motor-patrolled the coast between Waldoboro and Freeport. All troops were withdrawn in November 1943.
Belfast Powder House
(unknown dates), Belfast
A local militia powder magazine. No remains, undetermined location.
Belfast Bay Defenses
(1863 - 1865), Belfast
Two five-gun Civil War batteries, at Minister Point (some earthworks remain on private property) located about 1.5 miles west of Moose Point State Park, and at Little River, located south of town at the end of Battery Road just north of the Little River (magazine remains on private property, battery built on). Barracks were built in the summer of 1864. All guns were transferred to Fort Knox by December 1865.
(1814 - 1815), Camden
Two state militia batteries, located at Eaton's Point and Jacob's Point. Both no longer exist.
(1864 - 1865), Rockland and Owls Head
Two five-gun Civil War batteries. One was located at Jameson Point near the breakwater (built 1890-99), but was partly destroyed during construction of the Samoset Resort golf course in 1902. Trace remnants are possibly still extant (at the 4th hole or the 5th tee). The other battery was at Battery (Halfway) Point in Owls Head, destroyed in the 1950's for a housing development.
Union Powder House
(1816 - 1850's ?), Union
A small wooden powder house was once located on the hill north of the town common. No remains.
(1730's), near St. George
A colonial militia fort built by Samuel Waldo at the mouth of the St. George River sometime between 1735 and 1745. Undetermined location.
Fort St. George's (3) (State Historic Site)
(1809 - 1814), St. George
An American three-gun crescent earthwork with a blockhouse, barracks, and magazine. The British captured the fort in 1814 and spiked its guns. Some earthworks remain at Fort (Robinson's) Point. State-owned land, but no land access (private boat only, no docks).
Fort St. George's (2)
(1720 - 1762), Thomaston
A complex of two palisaded blockhouses located near the later site of the Knox Mansion. Attacked by Indians in 1722, 1723, and 1758.
Capt. Benjamin Burton's Fort
(1754 - 1762 ?), Cushing
A palisaded stone blockhouse that was originally built in 1750. It was attacked by Indians in 1755, 1756, and 1758.
(1750 - unknown), Friendship
Located on Garrison Island at Meduncook (Friendship), it provided protection to all the settlement's families in 1755.
Waldoboro Powder House
(1820 - 1885), Waldoboro
A local militia brick powder magazine was once located at Prock's Ledge. No remains, dismantled in 1885.
(Colonial Pemaquid State Historic Site)
(Friends of Colonial Pemaquid)
(1630 - 1759), Pemaquid Beach FORT WIKI
First located here was Abraham Shurte's Fort (1630 - 1633), a palisaded trading post that was burned down by pirates under Dixie Bull. Fort Pemaquid was then built (1633 - 1676). Destroyed in King Philip's War. The third fort was Fort Charles (1677 - 1689). It was a timber redoubt with a bastioned outwork. The outlying settlement at this time was known as Jamestown. The fort was again destroyed by French and Indians. The current stone structure is a 1908 reconstruction of the fourth fort, Fort William Henry (1692 - 1696), which was attacked and destroyed by the French. The fifth fort was Fort Frederick (1729 - 1759). It was attacked by the French and Indians in 1747 but held. The abandoned ruins were further dismantled by the local residents in 1775 to prevent British use during the American Revolution. The foundations of Fort Frederick are within the perimeter of Fort William Henry.
Col. William Vaughan's Fort
(1745 - 1750's), Damariscotta
A garrison house with a 100-square foot stockade.
(1808 - 1816), near East Boothbay
A Federal three-gun enclosed circular earthwork battery with a blockhouse located on the southern end of Fort (Webber's) Island. Also known as Damariscotta Battery. Some excavation was done in 1985. Ruins still exist. Boat access only.
(1622, 1676), Damariscove Island
Originally a stockaded settlement was located here, a base for English fishermen. The Plymouth Pilgrims came here in 1622 to seek food and supplies. A palisaded fort was erected in 1676.
Boothbay Harbor Fort
(1814 - 1815), Boothbay Harbor
A state militia work located on McFarland's Point.
A state Gun House (1812 ? - 1851) was located on Eastern Ave.. It was sold in 1851 and moved to Montgomery Street, converted into a carriage house. Still extant.
(1630's ?), Newagen
A settlement defense located on the southern end of Southport Island at Cape Newagen.
Fort Edgecomb (State Historic Site)
(Friends of Fort Edgecomb)
(1808 - 1816, 1864), North Edgecomb FORT WIKI
A Federal six-gun enclosed battery on Davis Island with an octagonal wooden blockhouse, stone bastions, earthworks and a palisade. Briefly re-armed and garrisoned by the state militia in 1864 when the Confederate ship C.S.S. Tallahassee was spotted offshore. The blockhouse was restored in 1961. It is the last remaining original "Second System" structure in Maine.
(unknown - 1676), Sheepscot
May have been built as early as 1630. It was destroyed during King Philip's War. The foundation remnants are buried in a cemetery that was later established in the 1730's.
Wiscasset Garrison Houses
Fort Clark's Hill was a garrison house built after 1743. Fort Garrison Hill was a square wooden blockhouse built in 1743 on Brimstone (Garrison) Hill. Its remains are buried under the present-day Methodist church.
(NOTE: There is a Fort Hill Street in town.)
Wiscasset Powder House
(1813 - unknown), Wiscasset
A local militia circular brick powder magazine located on Churchill Street. Town property.
(1676 - unknown), Westport Island
A stone garrison house and trade post was once located here on Clough Point. Later burned out and destroyed in 1772. The Clough Manor House was then built on the site in 1774.
(1814 - 1815), Westport Island
A state militia six-gun star-shaped earthwork fort located on Clough Point on Westport Island, directly across from Fort Edgecomb. Earthworks remain on private property.
(1679 - 1688 ?), Stage Island
A settlers' fort located off of Kennebec Point at the mouth of Sagadahoc Bay. The settlers relocated to Newtown (Arrowsic) in 1688.
Col. Arthur Noble's Garrison
(1730's or 1740's), Georgetown
A garrison house in the village center. Undetermined if built before or after Fort Noble in Phippsburg.
Arrowsic Trading Post (1)
(1654 - 1676), Arrowsic Island
A Clarke and Lake Co. fortified trading post and garrison house (20 feet by 65 feet). Located on the eastern side of Arrowsic Island along the Sasonoa River, between Mill Island and Spring Cove. It was attacked and destroyed in 1676 during King Philip's War, with the death of Thomas Lake. The fort's two cannon were recovered by a relief party in 1677, and removed back to Boston. Excavations done initially in the 1890's and later in the 1960's - 1970's revealed hundreds of artifacts, most on display at the Woolwich Historical Society Museum on US 1 at Nequasset Road.
Major Samuel Denny's Fort
(1728 ?), Arrowsic Island
A settlers' garrison house or blockhouse located on the Kennebec River at Butler's Cove, opposite the south end of Lee Island.
John Watt's Fort
(unknown dates), Arrowsic Island
A settlers' garrison house or blockhouse located on the Kennebec River at Green Point, nearly opposite the north end of Lee Island.
(1688 - 1689), Arrowsic Island
A square palisaded town defense on a ridge near the southern end of the island. Attacked and destroyed by Indians in July 1689. Settlers did not return here until 1710.
Arrowsic Fort (2)
(1717 - 1721 ?), Arrowsic Island
Also known as Fort Menaskoux. A peace conference between the local Indians and settlers took place here in 1720. Located on the west side of Arrowsic Island along the Kennebec River, near Fisher's Eddy.
Woolwich Garrison Houses
(1676, 1740's), Woolwich
Richard Hammond's Garrison and trading post (1676) was located near Day's Ferry on the east side of the Kennebec River, near Route 128 (River Road) and Old Stage Road. Attacked by Indians in August 1676, killing Hammond. Some excavation was done years ago. Site is on private property. Capt. Samuel Harnden's Garrison was located nearby (?) near Burial Point by 1742 (?). Stone monument at site. Job Lewis' Fort was built before 1745 at the eastern shore of Merrymeeting Bay near Chop's Creek. There may have been five additional garrison houses built before 1747.
(1752 - 1761), Dresden
Located on the Kennebec River south of Augusta. Later renamed Fort Shirley. One of the three Kennebec River forts during the French and Indian War, it consisted of two 24-foot square two-story blockhouses with a barracks and 40-foot long storehouse, enclosed within a 200-foot square palisade. The site, excavated in 1975, is next to the Pownalborough Court House (1761). The courthouse was built within the fort's parade ground as the fort was being dismantled. The eastern blockhouse was used as the first jail, and part of the barracks was used as the jail-keepers residence. The blockhouse jail was replaced by a new jail in 1795. The present jail building was built in 1811.
Nehumkeag Trading Post
(1649 - 1676), Pittston
A Clarke and Lake Co. fortified trading post located on the Kennebec River at Agry Point. The main structure was a longhouse 80 feet long and 20 feet wide. It was attacked and destroyed in 1676 during King Philip's War. Site excavated in the 1980's and 1990's.
Hallowell Powder House
(1819 - unknown), Hallowell
A local militia brick powder magazine located on Powder House Hill along High Street. It was still in use through the Civil War. Restored in 2003 by the Hallowell Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution.
(1754 - 1769), Augusta FORT WIKI
One of three forts built along the Kennebec River in 1754. Became strictly a private trading post after 1769 under the ownership of Capt. James Howard. The town was incorporated in 1771 as Hallowell. Although most of the fort was dismantled, the Garrison House was not, and was restored in 1919. This is New England's oldest surviving wooden fort. This was the staging point for Benedict Arnold's march on Québec in the fall of 1775. Admission fee.
The Plymouth Pilgrim's Kennebec House, or Cushnoc Trading Post (as known after 1646) was first located here (1627 - 1669). See also John Alden and the Pilgrims on the Kennebec by Pat Higgins || See also History of Augusta from City of Augusta
(1828 - 1903), Augusta
A Federal arsenal located on Arsenal Street, completed in 1831. Fifteen buildings, ten of which were built of granite, were located within the original 40-acre iron-fenced complex, and included two magazines, a three-story storehouse 100 feet by 30 feet, two Officers' quarters, Commandant's Quarters, enlisted barracks, guard house, stable, blacksmith shop, armorer's shop, and a wheelwright's shop, and also a granite retaining wall and granite wharf along the river. Expanded in 1833 with 20 additional acres, also enclosed by the iron fence, to provide space for ammunition manufacturing and other "laboratories". Extra arms and munitions sent here from the Watertown Arsenal (Massachusetts) during the Aroostook War crisis in the mid 1830's still remained here by 1861. Became part of the Maine Insane Hospital in 1905, which was located on the adjoining tract of land. The main Arsenal storehouse (said to be almost identical to the Detroit Arsenal in Michigan) was then completely gutted and remodeled inside for hospital use. Vacant since the 1970's, the complex was sold in 2007 for future redevelopment (proposed mixed-use office/retail/housing).
Augusta Civil War Camps
Civil War training camps located in the area were Camp James Fry, Camp Coburn (1) (1862 - 1863), Camp Halleck (1862 - 1863), Camp E.D. Keyes (1) (1862 - 1864), and Camp Coney (Cony) (1865 - 1866).
Camp Keyes (2) (State Military Reservation)
(1888 - present), Augusta
Originally a state guard summer encampment area. Made a permanent post in 1889. Originally named after each sitting state governor. Known as Camp Powers from 1897 - 1900. Present name in use since 1909. In 1898 the entire Maine National Guard was mobilized here, but only volunteers were mustered in. In the years between WWI and WWII, this became the principal annual encampment site for the 103rd Infantry and the 152nd Field Artillery Regiments. The Maine Adjutant General's department was located here in 1941, and the post has since become the headquarters of the Maine Army and Air National Guard. Located adjacent to the Augusta Airport. Also here is the Maine Military Historical Society Museum at 194 Winthrop Street by the main gate (open by appointment).
Totannock Indian Fort
(1675 - 1676), Winslow
A winter refuge for Penobscots during King Philip's War. Located at the confluence of the Kennebec and Sebasticook Rivers.
Fort Halifax (State Historic Site)
(1754 - 1766, 1775 - 1778 ?), Winslow FORT WIKI
One of the three Kennebec River forts, it was apparently abandoned after 1762, but it was reoccupied by Patriots in 1775 during Col. Benedict Arnold's expedition to Canada. The fort was demolished in 1797 except for the blockhouse. The present blockhouse was reconstructed after the original was destroyed by a spring flood in 1987. It was the oldest surviving blockhouse in the U.S. until then.
(1721 - 1724), Norridgewock
A Kennebec Indian stronghold that the French, under Jesuit Father Sebastian Rasle, used as a base of operations to attack English settlements to the south. The mission was established here in 1694, which was relocated from somewhere downriver (1646). The colonial militia under Capt. John Lovewell attacked and destroyed the village in 1724, killing about 80 Indians, including Father Rasle (Lovewell's War). Probably located near the mouth of the Sandy River.
(1694 - 1704), near Farmington
A French Jesuit mission was established here by Father Rasle at a refugee Penecook (?) Indian village on the Sandy River. The Indians later relocated to Bécancour (Wolinak), Québec.
Farmington Powder House
(1817 - 1875 ?), Farmington
A local militia brick powder magazine was once located on Powder House Hill. No remains, it was destroyed by fire sometime between 1846 and 1875.
Phillips Powder House ?
(unknown dates), Phillips
A local militia loopholed wooden powder house was once located on or near Parlin Road. No remains.
(1719 - 1755), Richmond
A wooden blockhouse used as a government trading post. It was enlarged in 1723, and rebuilt in 1740. It had ten guns in 1754. Replaced by Fort Frankfort.
Bath Gun House
(1814 - unknown), Bath
A state militia gun house was once located at the corner of South and High Streets. No remains.
Joseph Berry's Fort
(unknown dates), West Bath
A colonial era garrison house or blockhouse located on Winnegance Creek.
(1734 - unknown), Phippsburg
A colonial militia square palisade with two blockhouses and barracks, built by Col. Arthur Noble. It was still in use in 1745. Located along the Kennebec River at Pleasant (Morse) Cove at the southern end of Fiddler's Reach.
Fort at Cox's Head
(1814 - 1816), Cox Head
A state militia four-gun brick fort and barracks for 105 men that replaced Hunnewell's Point Battery (see Fort Popham below).
Fort St. George (1)
(Maine's First Ship)
(1607 - 1608), Sabino Head FORT WIKI *MAP*
The first English settlement in New England (August 1607), but could not survive another harsh winter season in the region, as well as the death of its leader, George Popham (February 1608). Archaeological digs in 1997 unearthed the remains and artifacts of the fort, located at the former parade ground/administrative area of the later-built Fort Baldwin. The first sailing ship built in British North America, the VIRGINIA, was constructed here in 1607, and returned the settlers to England the following summer (September 1608). See also The Popham Colony from The Archaeology Channel
¤ COAST DEFENSES of the
Harbor Defense of the Kennebec River - FORT WIKI
¤ Fort Popham (State Historic Site)
(1861 - 1918), near Popham Beach
Site of earlier forts, a British one-gun blockhouse from 1744, a Patriot fort from 1775, and American Battery on Hunnewell's Point (aka Georgetown Battery) (1808 - 1814), a six-gun enclosed work with a brick magazine and barracks, later relocated to Cox Head (see above). Construction of the casemated, multi-level Fort Popham was never completed, and it was abandoned in 1869. An unnamed battery (1899 - 1910) (one M1888 8-inch BL gun on modified 15-inch Rodman carriage) protecting an underwater minefield was built nearby. The mine casemate was located in the fort. The site is administered by Popham Beach State Park.
¤ Fort Baldwin (State Historic Site)
(1905 - 1928, 1942 - 1946), Sabino Head
Located here on Sabino Hill were Battery Hardman (1908 - 1917), Battery Hawley (1908 - 1924), Battery Cogan (1908 - 1924), and an unnamed battery of four 155mm guns from WWII (two Panama mounts on Battery Hawley and two Panama mounts next to Battery Hawley). A concrete fire-control tower was built here in World War II and was used for Battery 102/Steele on Peaks Island (see Portland Defenses). The parade ground/administrative area of the post encompassed the site of the 1607 Popham Colony fort. During WWII this post was a subunit of the Portland Harbor Defenses. The site is administered by Popham Beach State Park.
¤ ALSO: A concrete WWII FC tower is located to the west at Small Point (Bald Head) (private property), part of the Portland Harbor Defenses.
Morse Mountain Radar Station
(Bates-Morse Mountain Conservation Area)
(1942 - 1945), near Small Point
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-271 early warning radar was located here at the top of Morse Mountain (210 feet elevation). Barracks foundations remain below the summit. A sand-bagged AA machine-gun emplacement still exists nearby. One original Army support building remains as the "Easterly" cottage, available for rent. The "Eyrie" cottage was rebuilt in 2002. Site administered by Bates College.
(thanks to Joel Eastman and David Larson of the Coast Defense Study Group for additional info)
(1718 - 1721), Small Point
A stone fort 100-feet square built by Dr. Oliver Noyes to protect a fishing village at Small Point Harbor, named Augusta. It was later abandoned by the militia troops sent to garrison it. The original village and the fort survived until about 1821. Remnants of a brick chimney and fireplace supposedly still remain.
Cundy's Harbor Fort
(1814 - 1815), Cundy's Harbor
A state militia fort located on Fort Point at Sandy Cove, just south of town. Site is on private property.
Brunswick Garrison Houses
(various dates), Brunswick
Located here in 1675 was David Dunning's Fort, a log blockhouse or garrison house, and David Giveen's Garrison. Located here in 1730 was James McFarland's Garrison, a two-story timber blockhouse on Maine and Mason Streets. The settlement was originally known as Pejepscot.
(1688 - 1694), Brunswick
A colonial militia zig-zag trace stone fort once located south of Bow Street. Also known as Pejepscot Fort. The fort was destroyed by French and Indians.
Fort George (1)
(1715 - 1737), Brunswick
A stone fort with two bastions and two half-bastions, and a two-story barracks within. Built near the site of Fort Andros. Attacked by French and Indians in 1722. The fort was dismantled by the Massachusetts government over budget constraints. Site located on northern Maine Street.
Brunswick Gun House
(1808 - unknown), Brunswick
A state militia gun house was located on Center Street. It was destroyed by fire in 1809, but immediately rebuilt. Later relocated to the south side of the eastern end of Franklin Street and converted into a private residence.
Brunswick Powder House
(1816 - 1846 ?), Brunswick
A local militia brick powder magazine was once located on Powder House Hill, off of Pleasant Street. No remains, dismantled sometime between 1841 and 1846.
Durham Powder House
(1812 - 1879), Durham
A local militia brick powder magazine was once located near the old North Meeting House. No remains, destroyed by fire in 1879.
Androscoggin Indian Fort
A palisaded Androscoggin Indian stronghold (Amitgonpontook) located on Laurel Hill near the Little Androscoggin River. Attacked by the colonial militia under Capt. Benjamin Church in September 1690.
Buckfield Powder House
(1818 - unknown), Buckfield
A local militia brick powder magazine. No remains.
(1698 - unknown), Canton Point (?)
An Androscoggin Indian village (aka Narakamigou) with a French Jesuit mission (established in 1698).
NEED MORE INFO: Fort Hill Street in Wiscasset.
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com