Fort Allen |
Andrews' Fort |
Bailey Island Res. |
Camp Berry |
Camp Burdette |
Camp Butler | Cape Elizabeth Res. | Casco Fort | Falmouth Fort | Fort Gorges
Great Chebeague Island Res. | Fort Hancock | Howe's Island Fort | Jewell Island Fort
Jewell Island Res. | Jordan's Fort | Camp King | Fort Lawrence | Fort Levett | Camp Lincoln
Long Island Res. | Fort Loyal | Fort Loyall | Fort Lyon | Fort McKinley | Camp Mason
Munjoy Garrison | Fort New Casco | Peaks Island Res. | Portland Armory
Portland Gun House | Battery at Portland Head | Portland Head Res. | Fort Preble
Fort Scammell | Spring Point Battery | Fort Sumner | Fort Williams
North Country and Down East - page 1 | Mid Coast Maine - page 2 | Southern Maine - page 4
FORTS OF MAINE
Fort New Casco
(1698 - 1716), Falmouth Foreside
A large 70-foot square earthwork and palisaded fort, also known as Casco Fort, with an Officers' quarters, storehouse, and guardhouse. It was attacked by the French in 1703, rebuilt and enlarged in 1705 as an oblong square 250 feet long and 190 feet wide, with a supporting blockhouse at the shoreline. It was demolished by the Massachusetts government due to budget cuts. Some earthworks may still exist on private property (on Old Powderhouse Road ?).
¤¤ COLONIAL and FEDERAL FORTS of PORTLAND
¤¤ Fort Loyal
(1676 - 1690), Portland FORT WIKI
A palisaded log fort. Also spelled Loyall. Rebuilt and enlarged with four blockhouses and eight guns in 1690, but could not withstand the attack by the French that year, and was destroyed. Eventually rebuilt and renamed Falmouth Fort in 1742, located at the foot of present-day India Street. An earthwork was built here in 1775, called the Lower Battery. Nothing remains. Nearby were the Upper Battery (1776) at the upper end of Free Street, and Magazine Battery (1776) at Monument Square. Neither exists today.
¤¤ Fort (Ethan) Allen (park)
(Friends of the Eastern Promenade)
(1775, 1814 - 1815), Portland FORT WIKI
Originally a Patriot five-gun half-moon battery in 1775. Rebuilt by the state militia in 1814, it was enlarged and enclosed with a magazine and barracks. The earthworks still remain at the Eastern Promenade at Fore Street. Two 1867 seige guns were placed there much later for display purposes.
¤¤ Fort Lawrence
(1814 - 1815), Portland
Earthwork fort built by the state militia below Fort Allen at Fish Point. No longer exists. A "Third System" fort was later proposed for this location.
¤¤ Fort Sumner
(Munjoy Hill Park)
(1794 - 1820 ?), Portland FORT WIKI
This was the first Federal fort built in Maine, and the only Federal defense of the area until Forts Preble and Scammel were built in 1808. It had a blockhouse, magazine, and barracks, with a Water Battery and brick Gun House (1808). Built on the site of Great Fort of 1775. Rebuilt in 1798 and 1808 as a five-gun battery. No longer in use after the War of 1812, the blockhouse was finally demolished in the 1840's. No remains, located at 60 North Street.
¤¤ Fort Burrows
(1813 - 1815), Portland
A state militia fort located at 58 Fore Street, near Mountfort Street, at Jordan's Point. No remains left.
Located here in 1675 was the Munjoy Garrison. It was attacked during King Philip's War in 1676, and was probably destroyed in 1690.
Some information provided by Ken Thompson of the Coast Defense Study Group.
A Civil War training camp. Undetermined location.
(1861 - 1865), South Portland
A Civil War recruitment and training camp originally located on Mackworth (Mackey's) Island at the mouth of the Presumpscot River in Falmouth, known as Camp Butler. It was relocated to the Cape Elizabeth Trotting Park in 1862, located along Long Creek and the Fore River in Ligonia, and was renamed Camp King and later Camp Abraham Lincoln. Renamed again in 1863. The post hospital was established on Mackey's Island in August 1863, then relocated to Camp Berry proper in November 1863. The hospital was closed in September 1865. Eleven two-family houses were used as Officers' quarters, and ten one-story wooden barracks were built for the enlisted men. The site became the location of the Portland Rolling Mills in 1866. Several of the houses and/or barracks remained in use for factory workers. The site is now a modern tank farm at the end of Lincoln Street, near the Veterans Memorial Bridge (US 1).
Howe's Island Fort
(1661 - unknown), House Island
A military blockhouse was once located here. The island's name was changed after the American Revolution.
James Andrews' Fort
(1667 - 1698 ?), Cushing Island
A settlers' stone house that was probably originally built in 1623 by Christopher Levett. Cushing Island was then known as Fort Island.
Jewell Island Fort
(1672 - 1676), Jewell Island
A settlers' fort abandoned after an Indian attack.
¤ HARBOR DEFENSES of
Harbor Defense of Portland - FORT WIKI
¤ Fort Preble
(Portland Harbor Museum)
(Southern Maine Community College)
(1808 - 1947), South Portland
Originally this was a 14-gun star-shaped earthwork and stone fort. Built on the site of Patriot Spring Point Battery from 1776, which was renamed Fort Hancock in 1778. The 12-gun North Battery and 10-gun South Battery were built in 1845 and rebuilt again (33 guns total) in the 1870's with new magazines. The South Battery was enlarged to 24 guns in 1887. The outer casemates along the seawall were built in 1863, and the brick face of the old fort was covered with granite. The fort was unsuccessfully attacked in June 1863 by a Confederate raider ship, the Archer. Seacoast batteries here were Battery Kearny (1901 - 1942) destroyed, Battery Chase (1901 - 1942) destroyed, Battery Rivardi (1906 - 1917) built on top of the old fort, Battery Mason (1906 - 1942), and New Battery Mason (1942 - 1946) eroded away from the cliff face. AA Battery #1 (1921 - 1945) was emplaced on Battery Rivardi. A detached 37mm AMTB battery (Battery 361) was also located on post during WWII. Many of the post buildings are still in use by Southern Maine Community College, which acquired the land in 1952. The remaining concrete support shaft of the former Fort Command observation station (1906) is now a Coast Artillery Memorial. The former Ordnance Machine Shop (1902) is now used by the Portland Harbor Museum. The Spring Point Ledge Lighthouse was built in 1897, and the stone breakwater was built in 1951. See also Spring Point Ledge Lighthouse info by Jeremy D'Entremont
¤ Portland Armory
(1915 ? - unknown), Portland
Also known as the Milk Street Armory, this was the headquarters of the 240th Coast Artillery, Maine National Guard. The Drill House contained a dummy 10-inch DC gun for training purposes, as well as stations for fire command and battery command, and a searchlight station and meteorological station. Now the Portland Regency Hotel, only a portion of the Head House is original.
¤ Fort Gorges
(1857 - 1946), Hog Island Ledge
Construction of this hexagonal fortress was never fully completed, nor was it ever fully garrisoned. Several new gun platforms were built on the parapet in the 1870's. A torpedo (mine) storehouse was built in 1901. The fort was still kept on the Army rolls until WWII. A unmounted 10-inch Parrott gun is still located on the parapet. The fort is now owned by the city of Portland, but no regular public transportation is currently available. Tours can be arranged.
¤ Fort Scammell
(1808 - 1898/1946), House Island
Originally a six-gun octagonal blockhouse, with a semi-circular 15-gun earthwork battery and a lunette battery, which were connected in 1845. It was enlarged with three bastions (fourth never built) during the Civil War to mount up to 17 guns. Additional work was done in the 1870's. It was used through the Spanish-American War. A lighthouse / navigation light was built here in 1914. A two-gun AA battery was located here in 1929 - 1939. The island was also the site of an immigration quarantine station from 1907 to 1937. The 1920 brick detention barracks has been demolished, but the original 1907 buildings remain, including the doctor's house, the detention barracks, and the quarantine hospital. The entire island is now private property, but tours of the fort can be arranged for a fee.
¤ Fort Levett
(1894 - 1948), Cushing's Island
Batteries here were Battery Foote (1924 - 1948) casemated in 1944, Battery Bowdoin (1903 - 1943), Battery Kendrick (1903 - 1942), Battery Ferguson (1906 - 1947), Battery Daniels (1903 - 1920) partially buried, and Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 962 (1943 - 1946). AA Battery #2 (1921 - 1945) was located next to Battery Kendrick. Several observation towers and stations still exist, mostly at White Head. An SCR-296A radar was also here. Private property since 1957, now owned by the Cushing's Island Conservation Corporation. Restricted access to island with written permission from Cushing's Associates, Inc., or any property owner. See also History of Cushing's Island from the Maine Olmsted Alliance for Parks and Landscapes
¤ Fort Williams (park)
(Fort Williams Charitable Foundation)
(Portland Head Lighthouse)
(1872 - 1963), Cape Cottage
Located at Portland Head, this was a subpost of Fort Preble until 1894, originally named Portland Head Military Reservation. The 17-gun Battery at Portland Head was built in 1873 - 1876, but never finished. A few surviving gun mounts and magazines still exist next to Battery Hobart. An early mine casemate was built in 1891, remodeled in 1903. Camp Burdette was located on the future parade ground during the Spanish-American War (1898), garrisoned by Connecticut state troops on Coast Reserve duty. The fort was formally named in 1899. In 1899 an unnamed battery of one 6-inch Armstrong gun was emplaced on the 1873 battery, which later became Battery Hobart. Fort Williams commanded the Portland Harbor Defenses in World War II, including all batteries and fire-control stations from Popham Beach to Cape Porpoise. Batteries here were Battery Blair (1903 - 1943) partly buried, Battery Sullivan (1898 - 1938) buried, Battery DeHart (1898 - 1942) buried, Battery Garesché (1906 - 1917), Battery Hobart (1900 - 1913), Battery Keyes (1905 - 1946), and Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 961 (1943 - 1946) buried. AA Battery #4 (1921 - 1941) was located on Battery Garesché. Field emplacements for a four-gun 155mm gun battery (1934 - 1943) were located in front of Battery Sullivan. A disappearing searchlight emplacement (1920) was located behind Battery Garesché. The central powerhouse (1907) and protected post switchboard (1920) (buried) still exist near the main gate. The mine casemate still exists below Battery Hobart, near the ruins of the mine tramway and wharf. It was used until the late 1990's as a Civil Defense shelter. The WWII HECP/HDCP with an SCR-582 radar was also located on post. A semi-permanent National Guard tent camp was established here in 1930. The Air Force briefly installed an AN/TPS-1B LASHUP radar here on post in 1950-51. All battery observation posts and fire-control stations were removed before 1960. Became a town park open to the public in 1979. A few of the old post buildings still survive. The Fort Williams Memorial is located at Battery Blair. The ruins of the Goddard Mansion (1858) are located near Battery Keyes. The Portland Head Lighthouse was built in 1790. Admission fee to the lighthouse museum.
¤ Peaks Island Military Reservation
(Peaks Island Land Preserve)
(1905/1942 - 1948), Peaks Island
Batteries here were Battery Steele / 102 (1942 - 1948), Battery Cravens / 203 (1945 - 1948) built on, an unnamed battery (1942 - 1943) partly covered, replaced by Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Batteries 963 (1943 - 1946) (gun blocks exist) and 964 (1943 - 1946) (gun blocks buried). Two WWII fire-control stations are still here, as are a mine casemate and two mine command stations. An SCR-296A radar tower was once located nearby. A 1920 double command station is also located on the island. Two searchlight towers were built here in 1905 and 1911. A small triple observation station was built in 1909 (no longer exists). All sites are private property, except Battery Steele, which is open to the public. See also Peaks Island Indicator Loop Receiving Station by Dr. Richard Walding
Also of interest on the island is the Fifth Maine Regiment Museum.
¤ Fort McKinley
(Diamond Cove Homeowner Association)
(Great Diamond Rentals)
(1896 - 1947), Great Diamond Island
Centered around Diamond Cove on the northeast portion of the island to defend the Hussy Sound approach to Portland. On the North Fork were located the main post buildings and parade ground, Battery Ingalls (1904 - 1942), Battery Berry (1901 - 1943), Battery Thompson (1902 - 1942), Battery Acker (1902 - 1943), and Battery Farry (1902 - 1920), as well as the 1900 and 1921 mine casemates. On the South Fork were located additional mine casemates (1890, 1900, 1912) and the mine depot, as well as Battery Honeycutt (1901 - 1942), Battery Ramsey (1902 - 1920), Battery Weymouth (1901 - 1942), and Battery Carpenter (1906 - 1947). A temporary battery from 1898 was located on the site of Battery Carpenter. A disappearing searchlight emplacement (1920) was located behind Battery Carpenter. A Navy signal station and operating base was also located here during WWII. There were many observation and command stations here before development began on the housing community. Most of the former post buildings still survive, converted to upscale housing units, although several are still derelict. Several of the surviving observation stations have also been converted to modern housing units. Most sites are private property. Public areas include the dock landing, restaurant, museum, and general store, all converted from original post buildings.
¤ Fort Lyon
(Rippleffect Youth Summer Camp)
(1873/1896 - 1946), Cow Island
A subpost of Fort McKinley. Batteries here were Battery Bayard (1907 - 1917), and Battery Abbot (1909 - 1946). AA Battery #3 (1921 - 1945) was also located here. Concrete emplacements still exist for the AA height finder, gun director, and BC station. The double Mine Command station (1909) is in ruins, located behind Battery Bayard. A detached 37mm AMTB battery (Battery 365) was located here in WWII. Private property. The island is now in use by the Rippleffect Youth Summer Camp and Corporate Leadership Retreat. The Maine Coast Heritage Trust holds a conservation easement for the island.
¤ Long Island Military Reservation
(1917/1942 - 1946), Long Island
Located here was an unnamed battery (1942 - 1943), which was replaced by Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Batteries 965, which is partially built over, and 966 (both 1943 - 1946), on opposite ends of the island. The concrete BC station for AMTB 966 is still here. A concrete fire-control station with an SCR-296A radar generator house still exists between the two AMTB positions. A 1917 double searchlight station is also located nearby. All sites private property. A U.S. Navy fuel depot and seaplane base were located on the opposite side of the island during WWII, now town property (Long Island Conservation Area - about 200 acres).
¤ Great Chebeague Island Military Reservation
(1942 - 1946), Great Chebeague Island
Located here was an unnamed battery (1942 - 1944), which was replaced by Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 969 (1943 - 1946), which still remains. A detached 37mm AMTB battery (Battery 367) was located at Division Point. Private property.
¤ Jewell Island Military Reservation
(Jewell Island State Park)
(1922/1943 - 1946), Jewell Island
Batteries here included Battery 202 (1944) (proposed name New Battery Thompson), and Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Batteries 967 and 968 (both 1943 - 1946). A base-end station for Battery Foote (Fort Levett) was built here in 1934. It still remains, and looks like a castle tower. Another concrete fire-control station from WWII is also still located here (open in summer), as well as several original post buildings. An SCR-296A radar was once located behind Battery 202. The entire island is state owned and publicly accessible, but undeveloped as a formal state park. Managed by the Maine Island Trail Association. Private boat access only.
¤ Bailey Island Military Reservation
(1943 - 1946), Bailey Island
Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 970 is here, and is partly covered. Two fire-control stations are still here. An SCR-296A radar was also here. Private property.
¤ Cape Elizabeth Military Reservation
(Two Lights State Park)
(1922/1942 - 1946), Cape Elizabeth
Located here was Battery 201 (1944) (proposed name Battery Fessenden). Battery 101 was planned but never built. A concrete fire-control tower is still here, located behind the battery. Opened to the public in 1961. Admission fee.
Nearby outside of the park, the west tower of the Cape Elizabeth Two Lights (built 1874) was discontinued as an active light in 1924, and was converted in 1942 into a fire-control station (private property since 1959). An SCR-296A radar was located on Dyer Point below the lighthouses. A steel-frame fire-control tower for Battery Foote (Fort Levett) was built in 1927 on Blue Hill near Broad Cove (no remains).
¤ ALSO: A detached 37mm AMTB battery (Battery 370) was located at Drinkwater Point in Yarmouth, opposite Cousins Island, during WWII. A four-gun 155mm gun battery was located at Biddeford Pool (see page 4). Underwater minefields in WWII were located between Portland Head and Cushing Island, and between Peaks Island and Long Island. Additional fire-control stations not listed above were located at Trundy Point (1943 concrete and 1922 steel towers both still here), Prout's Neck (destroyed 2004), Fletchers Neck (Biddeford Pool) (destroyed 1960's), and at Cape Porpoise (destroyed 1960's). The steel tower at Trundy Point is the last remaining steel-frame observation tower north of New Jersey. Fire-control stations for the Portland Defenses were also located at Small Point (Bald Head) and at Fort Baldwin (see page 2 - Coast Defenses of the Kennebec River).
Some information provided by Joel Eastman of the Coast Defense Study Group.
Dominicus Jordan's Fort
(1680's - 1690), Cape Elizabeth
A settlers' blockhouse. The settlement was then known as Spurwink. The entire area was abandoned in 1690 for about ten years. Jordan returned in 1703 but was killed by Indians.
NEED MORE INFO: Fort Point at end of Ocean House Road in Crescent Beach State Park in Cape Elizabeth. Old Fort Road in Cape Elizabeth, near Fort Williams. Battery Point Lane in Yarmouth.North Country and Down East - page 1 | Mid Coast Maine - page 2 | Southern Maine - page 4
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com