Southern Maine

Agamenticus Trade Post | Berwick Garrisons | Biddeford Pool Res. | Black Point Fort
Fort Buxton | Buxton Garrisons | Buxton Powder House | Fort Dayton
Dennett's Island Battery | Dunstan Garrisons | Fort Edward | Eliot Garrisons | Fort Foster (2)
Frank's Fort | Battery on Gerrish's Island | Gorham Powder House | Fort Gorhamtown
Fort Gray | Gray Powder House | Henderson's Point Battery | Camp Heywood
High Pine Camp | Fort (John) Hill (1) | Fort Hill (2) | Hollis Powder House | Jocelyn's Fort (2)
Josselyn's Fort | Kennebunk Point Fort | Kittery Garrisons | Fort Larrabee
Larrabee's Garrison | Camp Long | Fort McClary | Fort Mary (1) | Fort Mary (2)
Mt. Agamenticus Radar Station | Fort New Boston | Fort New Gloucester | Newichawannock
New Marblehead Garrisons | Fort Pepperrell | Pequawket | Phillips' Garrison | Pine Hill Fort
Prout's Neck Fort | Province Fort | Saco Blockhouse (3) | Saco Military Post | Fort Saco (2)
Saco Indian Fort (1) | Saco Powder House | Salmon Falls Fort | Scammon's Garrison
Scarborough Garrisons | Scottow's Fort (1) | Scottow's Fort (2) | South Berwick Garrisons
South Berwick Powder House | Stage Island Fort | Stratton's Fort | Fort Sullivan (2)
Wells Garrisons | Fort William | Woodman's Fort | York Garrisons | York Powder House

North Country and Down East - page 1 | Mid Coast Maine - page 2 | Casco Bay - page 3


Last Update: 29/NOVEMBER/2015
Compiled by Pete Payette - 2015 American Forts Network

(1696 - 1725), Fryeburg
A palisaded Saco Indian village with a French Jesuit mission (established 1696), located on the Saco River near the state border. Attacked by the colonial militia under Capt. John Lovewell in May 1725. See also Lovewell's Fight by Pat Higgins

Fort New Gloucester
(1754 - 1760), New Gloucester
A settlers' blockhouse was here, later also used as a church and town hall. It was sold in 1788. Site on Gloucester Hill Road.

Fort Gray
(1755 - unknown), East Gray
A town fort/blockhouse once located near the Royal River. May have been known as Fort New Boston as the settlement was known at that time.

Gray Powder House
(1813 - unknown), Gray
A local militia wooden powder house, later converted to a cemetery hearse house and tool shed. Still extant.

Province Fort
(1744 - 1755 ?), South Windham
A palisaded blockhouse that was attacked five times by Indians between 1747 and 1755. Also known as Salmon Falls Fort. At least five other palisaded blockhouses were in town in 1755. The settlement was originally called New Marblehead.

Fort Gorhamtown
(1743 - 1750 ?), Gorham
A blockhouse located on Fort Hill. Attacked in 1745 and 1746.

Gorham Powder House
(1798 - unknown), Gorham
A local militia brick powder magazine was once located on the east side of Fort Hill Road, near Pendleton Lane. No remains.

Joseph Woodman's Fort
(1754 - unknown), Buxton
A 40-foot square palisaded settlers' blockhouse located at Pleasant Point on the Saco River. Known as Fort Buxton by later historians.

There were at least three recorded garrison houses in Buxton during this period.

Buxton Powder House
(1813 - unknown), Buxton Center
A local militia square brick powder magazine still exists in town off of Long Plains Road (ME 22).

Hollis Powder House
(1812 - unkniown), Hollis
A local militia powder house was once located in a field on Dennett Road. No remains.

Fort Dayton
(1728 - unknown), Union Falls
A palisaded blockhouse and trading post located on the Saco River. It still existed in 1810. Also referred to as the Saco Blockhouse (3).

Scarborough Garrison Houses
(various dates), Scarborough FORT WIKI
Joshua Scottow's Fort (1) (1675 - 1677) was a settlers' garrison located at Black Point. It was attacked by Indians in 1676 and 1677. A marker is located by the town post office. Capt. Joshua Scottow's Fort (2) (1681 - 1690) was a palisaded militia fort located at Black Point. Also known as Black Point Fort. The settlement was abandoned in 1690. Re-established in 1702 as Jocelyn's Fort (2), built by Henry and John Jocelyn (also spelled Josselyn), it was defended by only eight men when attacked by a force of 500 French and Indians in 1703. A stone marker (1931) marks the site. The settlement was then abandoned again until 1720. The fort here may have been rebuilt again at that time and then known as Prout's Neck Fort when Timothy Prout bought the surrounding land.
(NOTE: Jocelyn's Fort (2) and Scottow's Fort (2) were probably at the same site.)

Richard Hunnewell's Garrison (1673 ?) on Winnocks Neck was attacked in 1703. It later became a tavern, and was relocated in 1976 to its present site at Black Point Road and Winnocks Neck Road. Andrew Brown's (Sr.) Garrison was located near Harmon's Landing (location ?). It was attacked and destroyed in 1675. (There is a Garrison Lane near Massacre Pond on Prouts Neck.) Roger Dearing's Garrison (1710 ?) was located at Oak Hill.

Dunstan Garrison Houses
(various dates), West Scarborough
Located here were the Alger Garrison (built 1651 by brothers Andrew and Arthur Alger, attacked and abandoned in 1675, both men killed), and Burnham's Garrison (built before 1675) at Blue Point. Richard Foxwell's Garrison (1650 ?) was located on Cascade (Foxwell) Brook, part of the Blue Point settlement. Henry Watts' Garrison (1650 ?) was also nearby. The town was originally named Dunstan until 1658.

John Stratton's Fort
(unknown dates), Stratton Island
A settlers' trading post built before 1650.

Fort Hill (2)
(1814), Old Orchard Beach
According to local legend, Fort Hill Avenue is supposedly named after a reference to a June 1814 British raid, where "great crowds of men and boys" gathered to watch the landing of British Marines who burned and sacked Biddeford Pool. The British thus regarded Old Orchard as a "Fort on the Hill" and therefore did not attack the town.

Scammon's Garrison
(1680's ?), Saco
A settlers' garrison house located on the east side of the Saco River about two miles below the falls (which falls ?).

Saco Powder House
(1813 ? - unknown), Saco
A powder house was once located near the town common. It was later moved and converted into a private residence, said to be still extant on High Street near the corner of Beach Street.

Major William Phillips' Garrison
(1675), Biddeford
A settlers' garrison attacked and destroyed by Indians in 1675. Phillips then relocated to nearby Winter Harbor. Located on Pierson's Lane, the site is now developed.

Fort Saco (2)
(1693 - 1708), Biddeford FORT WIKI
A colonial militia earthwork fort with a stone tower, located on high ground on the south (west) bank of the river at or just below Saco Falls. Built after the Saco River settlement was attacked and burned by Indians in 1688. Garrisoned by 20 men. Also known as Fort Mary (1), and as Fort (John) Hill (1), after its first commander (to 1700). The fort was unoccupied between 1697 to 1702. The fort was attacked by Indians in August 1703 and again in January 1704. The post was relocated to Winter Harbor in 1708 (see Fort Mary (2) below). The site was obliterated and leveled in 1843 due to mill factory construction. A 1907 D.A.R. plaque and 2007 city marker are located on the wall of the old Laconia Mills factory building near the corner of Main and Emery Streets.

Saco Military Post
(1942 - 1943), Saco
An Infantry Battalion coastal defense base camp, located at the High Shoe Company factory building at 18 Park Street (now Park Street Lofts condos). Posted here was the HQ 2nd Battalion, 181st Infantry Regiment; "G" Company, 181st IR; "H" Company, 181st IR; and "C" Battery, 211th Field Artillery Battalion (105mm howitzers). Nearby at the Saco Armory on Franklin Street was located "A" Company, 132nd Combat Engineer Battalion; and 1st Platoon, "A" Company, 22nd Quartermaster Regiment. Additional barracks, mess halls, and supply huts were built at each location. The infantry of "G" Company patrolled the coast between Higgins Beach and Camp Ellis, sometimes using the Town Hall in Old Orchard Beach as a base camp. The infantry of "H" Company patrolled the coast between Hills Beach and Kennebunkport. The field artillery was emplaced in several prepared earthwork positions along the coast, one known site was in Kennebunk (still extant).

Detached units included "E" Company, 181st IR posted at the Morley Button Manufacturing Company factory building at 855 Islington Street in Portsmouth, NH (now The Button Factory Artists' Studios). They patrolled the coast between Seabury, ME and Seabrook, NH. Also, "F" Company, 181st IR was posted at Highpine, ME (see below).

Saco Indian Fort (1)
(c. 1605), near Hills Beach
A Saco Indian palisaded village (Chouacoit) was located at the mouth of the Saco River, across from present-day Camp Ellis. Visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1605. It was abandoned by 1616.

Fort Mary (2)
(1708 - 1732/37), Biddeford Pool FORT WIKI
A colonial militia stone fort that replaced Fort Saco (2), located on a bluff ("Fort Hill") overlooking the "Gut" of Winter Harbor / Biddeford Pool. Additional funds were allocated in 1710 to finish/upgrade the fort. Became primarily a trading post after 1727. Abandoned in 1732 and then sold off in 1737. A D.A.R. stone monument was erected here in 1903, located at the end of Hill's Beach Road. It was accidently destroyed by a snow plow truck in the 1950's or '60's, later replaced in the 1980's by a simple stone marker.


Biddeford Pool Military Reservation
(1942 - 1945), Biddeford Pool FORT WIKI
Four concrete Panama mounts for 155mm guns were located on Fletcher's Neck near East Point (now buried or partially exposed within the present-day Abenakee Golf Club property, found along the fairway of the 4th hole and the tee for the 5th hole). In 1943 the gun position was briefly manned by troops from the Portsmouth Harbor Defenses.

A concrete fire-control station was also once located nearby (destroyed early 1960's), sited just east of the 3rd hole, about midway between the 4th and 6th tees on the golf course, about 0.4 mile west of East Point.

ALSO: Additional WWII fire-control stations in southern Maine associated with the Portland Harbor Defenses were located at Prout's Neck (destroyed 2004) and at Cape Porpoise (destroyed 1960's).

Stage Island Fort
(1689), Cape Porpoise
A temporary colonial militia fort located on Stage Island. The troops deserted when Governor Andros returned to Boston in April 1689. Indians attacked the small settlement days later.

Kennebunk Point Fort ?
(1775 ?, 1814 - 1815), Kennebunkport
A state militia earthwork fort. Some earthworks supposedly still remain (?) on Shore Drive at Old Fort Point, at St. Ann's Episcopal Church.

A Patriot work may have been located here earlier in 1775.

Fort Larrabee
(1735 - 1762), Kennebunk
A one-acre palisaded five-house complex, originally built as a single garrison house in 1714 by William Larrabee (Larrabee's Garrison), that was part of the first settlement of Kennebunk. This area was originally once part of Wells. William died in 1727. William's son Stephen expanded the fort in 1735. Attacked by Indians in 1747. A stone monument (1908) is at the presumed site along the Mousam River off of Ocean View Road (private property). One historian contends the actual site may be about one-half mile away at the "Indian Mounds".
(thanks to both Bob Larrabee and Bill Larrabee (distantly related) for info)

Wells Garrison Houses
(various dates), Wells
John Wheelwright's Garrison (aka Town's End Garrison) was located here in 1676 during King Philip's War. It was destroyed in 1692. Joseph Storer's Garrison (SHS) (1690) was located at present-day Storer Park (stone memorial built 1904). It was also attacked in 1692. The present house was built on the old foundation sometime between 1730 - 1760, and used the timber from the original house. See also Historical American Buildings Survey from the Library of Congress.
At least eight other garrison houses were built in the vicinity, some along the Webhannet River, and at least one on the Merriland River.

High Pine Camp
(1942 - 1943), Highpine
An Infantry coastal defense base camp, located at a former boarding school. The 25-30 room building still exists, now converted to apartments. Posted here was "F" Company, 181st Infantry Regiment. They patrolled the coast between Kennebunk and York Harbor.

Mount Agamenticus Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), Agamenticus Village
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-271 early-warning radar were located on Mount Agamenticus (692 feet elevation), adjacent to the old U.S. Forest Service 50-foot tall steel-frame fire-spotting tower (built 1934, replacing an earlier wooden tower from 1918). The site was manned by 25 soldiers of the 551st Battalion, U.S. Army Signal Corps. The first arrivals lived in tents until the barracks were built in 1942. One civilian was stationed in the forest fire lookout tower. In the winter of 1945, the entire complex was destroyed by fire, as fire equipment could not get up the road due to heavy snow. The last remaining military buildings were demolished in the early 1980's. No visible remains today, except for the radar tower's four concrete footings, which are now currently built over by a new (early 2000's) wooden viewing platform. The old 1934 Forest Service tower was replaced by a new 65-foot tower in 1981. A microwave radio communications tower was also built here in the early 1970's. See also Portsmouth's WWII Fire-Control Towers

Agamenticus Trading Post
(1624 - unknown), York Village
A Plymouth Pilgrims' trading post.

Fort Edward
(1814 - 1815), York Harbor
A Massachusetts (Maine) state militia fort at Fort Point. There is nothing left, site now the Stage Neck Inn complex.

York Powder House
(1760 - 1831), York Village
A local militia wooden powder house was originally located behind the present-day Town Hall, possibly near the old Preble Garrison House, relocated in 1831 to the "Little Parade" and converted into a private residence. It was later relocated again to 276 York Street, enlarged with a kitchen/dining room addition, and is still extant today as an art studio.

York Garrison Houses
(various dates), York Township
At least fourteen garrison houses were built here during varying times of Indian troubles, including the Joseph Junkins Garrison (1705 ?) in Scotland (no remains). The Daniel Dill (MacDill) Garrison (1670's ?) was also located in the Scotland area. At least one still exists, the McIntire Garrison, located on Route 91, also in Scotland. It was originally built sometime between 1660 and 1690 as the Alexander Maxwell Garrison, and was acquired in 1707 upon Maxwell's death by John McIntire (son of Micum McIntire, who had settled adjacent to Maxwell in 1670). It survived the 1692 Indian attack of York. It was known as the Scotland Garrison in 1711. It was partially rebuilt in 1909. Open by appointment. Indians attacked the settlement in February 1692, and again in 1711.

Portsmouth's WWII Fire-Control Towers
Harbor Defense of Portsmouth - FORT WIKI

Fort Foster (2) (Park)
(1873 - 1948/1960's), Gerrish Island
The 12-gun Battery on Gerrish's Island was built here in 1874 - 1876 but was never finished, later demolished for Battery Bohlen. Endicott batteries here were Battery Bohlen (1901 - 1942) partially buried, Battery Chapin (1904 - 1945), Battery 205 (1944) (proposed name Battery Curtis) never armed, and Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 952 (1943 - 1946) partially buried. Battery 205's Battery Commander's Station is unusual in that it resembles the many multi-story fire-control towers that were built along the coast, of which it is often mistaken for. A mine casemate, minefield observation tower, and a searchlight shelter are also located here. Fort Foster was later used by the U.S. Navy as a recreation area into the 1960's. Admission fee.

Fort McClary (State Historic Site)
(Friends of Fort McClary)
(1808 - 1918), Kittery Point
There was a previous fort nearby called Fort Pepperrell (also known as William Pepperrell's Garrison) dating back to 1680. Later came the six-gun Fort William from 1720 to 1779. Taken over by the New Hampshire militia in 1775, with two new batteries built just to the west of here. In 1808 Fort McClary was only a simple stone 10-gun battery and earthworks. The wooden and granite blockhouse, the last one built in this state, was built in 1845. During the Civil War a granite fortress with a caponier and two bastions was started around the blockhouse, and it was to resemble Forts Knox and Popham already mostly completed further up the coast. It was abandoned in 1868. Three old 15-inch Rodman guns were emplaced for the Spanish-American War in 1898. In World War I the blockhouse was used as an observation post for Fort Foster (2). Admission fee.

ALSO: Additional WWII fire-control stations in Maine associated with the Portsmouth Harbor Defenses were located at Gelaspus Point (Kennebunk Beach) (destroyed 1949), Moody Point (still exists, private), Bald Head Cliff (destroyed 1964), Cape Neddick (still exists, private, extensively modified 2001), Seal Head Point (destroyed 1979), and Sisters' Point (destroyed 2004). Another fire-control/radar tower is located on Appledore Island, Isles of Shoals, on the campus of Cornell University's Shoals Marine Lab (no public access to tower).

Fort Sullivan (2)
(Portsmouth Naval Shipyard)
(1775 - 1815, 1861 - 1865), Seavey's Island
Originally a New Hampshire state militia earthwork fort once located on the southern end of Seavey's Island from 1775 to 1815. Rebuilt and regarrisoned in 1861 as an 11-gun 8-inch Rodman naval battery, manned by Negro sailors who were training at the Naval Shipyard. No remains, site marked.

Another battery was built just to the west of here, on Henderson's Point, during the American Revolution. Fortifications were also put up on what was once Dennett's Island from 1801 to the 1840's.

Established in 1898 on Seavey's Island was Camp Long, a POW camp for Spanish sailors captured in Cuba; and Camp Heywood, for the returning U.S. Marines, located just north of Camp Long. The Portsmouth Naval Prison was built on the site of Camp Long in 1908. See also History of Portsmouth Naval Shipyard from Federation of American Scientists

Kittery Garrison Houses
(various dates), Kittery
In 1722 there were 30 (36 authorized) of these fortified houses but only three remain; William Whipple's Garrison (aka Robert Cutt's Garrison) (1665) on Whipple Road, Dennett's Garrison (1710) on Dennett Road, and Andrew Mitchell's Garrison (1665) on Mitchell Lane in Kittery Point. These three are still private residences but the Mitchell house no longer has the garrison characteristics. The Mitchell House was recently restored and relocated by the Kittery Historical and Naval Society. Another garrison house from 1720 was the Newmarch Garrison. Other garrison houses in 1690 included the Morrell, Shapleigh, Hammond, Tutherly, Fernald, Alcott, Curtis, Wilson, Pepperrell, (see Fort McClary above) and Champernowne Garrisons. (see also Eliot, South Berwick, and Berwick Garrison houses)

Frank's Fort
(1631 - 1634 ?), South Eliot
Located on Frankfort Island in the Piscataqua River, upstream from Kittery and Portsmouth. It was built by the Laconia Company for the protection and shelter of company employees in a salt industry project. The enterprise was a failure and did not last long.

Eliot Garrison Houses
(various dates), Eliot
Once a part of Kittery until 1810. Located here were Watt's Fort (2) (1650's) one mile upriver from Frankfort Island, also known as Jocelyn's Fort (1); Darby's Fort (1650's); and Leighton's Fort (1690) (possibly the same as Watt's Fort). Also here in 1700 (?) were David Libby's Garrison and Matthew Libby's Garrison, both near Libby Hill (location ?). Located in East Eliot on Frost Hill is the John Frost Garrison (1640 ?), a fortified barn that still exists. The Nicholas Frost Garrison (date ?) was located on Great Hill off of Goodwin Road (no remains).

South Berwick Garrison Houses
(various dates), South Berwick
Once a part of Kittery. Part of Berwick until seperated in 1810. The palisaded Humphrey Chadbourne Manor was built here at Newichawannock in 1660 (?). It was destroyed in 1690. The palisaded Ambrose Gibbins' Garrison was here in the 1630's, somewhere near the mouth of the Great Works (Asbenbedick) River. Attacked in 1675 during King Philip's War were the Richard Tozier, Jr. Garrison (aka Old Garrison House torn down in 1850's) located on Route 236 one-half mile from the railroad, and the Roger Plaisted Garrison located by the railroad on Route 236. The present-day houses at those sites were built on the original foundations. Also located here (or possibly in Rollinsford, NH) in 1675 was William Gerrish's Blockhouse one mile above Quamphegan Falls. The Key Garrison was located about one mile from Gerrish's (undetermined location). Located here in 1690 were the Frost (2), Benoni Hodgedon, John Mason, Richard Mason, Stone, Abbott, William Spencer (at or near the old Ichabod-Goodwin mansion), and Holmes' Garrisons.

A Powder House was built in 1809 on Powder House Hill (aka Butler's Hill). It burned down in 1851. See also History of Powder House Hill Ski Area

Berwick Garrison Houses
(various dates), Berwick
Located on Pine Hill was Hamilton's Garrison (aka Pine Hill Fort) (1720's ?). It was still in existence in 1750. William Goodwin's Blockhouse (1675) was somewhere along the Salmon Falls River. Nathan Lord's (Jr.) Garrison (aka Old Fields Garrison) (1680's ?) was also in the area (undetermined location). Lord died in 1733. The house was torn down in 1816.

North Country and Down East - page 1 | Mid Coast Maine - page 2 | Casco Bay - page 3

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