Fort Adams |
Alibamu Indian Fort |
Fort Ann |
Fort la Base |
Beauregard Line | Big Black River Earthworks | Fort Biloxi | New Fort Biloxi | Camp Blythe
Fort Bogue | Bolivar Site | Briarfield Arsenal | Camp Cass | Fort Castle | Cat Island Post (1)
Cat Island Res. (2) | Chickasaw Battery | Fort Cobun | Cantonment Columbian Spring
Columbus Arsenal | Corinth Defenses | Camp Corrine | Camp Davis (2) | Camp Jeff Davis
Fort Dearborn | Drumgould's Bluff Battery | Post at Ecors Blanc | Camp Farmington
Camp Fisk | Fort Garrott | Fort Gayoso | Camp Glendale | Fort Grant | Fort Greenwood
Grenada Arsenal | Grenada Forts | Hayne's Bluff Battery | Camp Patrick Henry (1)
Camp Pat Henry (2) | Fort Henry | Fort Hill | Fort Ignatius | Jackson CSA Arsenal
Jackson Defenses | Krebs' Fort | Fort de La Pointe | Lake George Site | Camp Lawson
Fort Leflore | Post at Loftus Heights | Fort Loring | Lower Fort | Fort Massachusetts
Fort Maurepas | Fort McHenry | Camp McLaurin | Fort McPherson | Middle Fort
Miss. A&M College Battery | Camp Moore | Fort Moore | Fort Morgan | Fort Mount Vigie
Fort les Natchez | Post at Natchez | Fort (los) Nogales | Fort Panmure | Pascagoula Res.
Pass Christian Post | Patton's Fort | Fort Pemberton | Perkins Site | Camp Pettus
Post at Roche à Davion | Rogers' Fort | Fort Rosalie | Fort St. Claude | Fort St. Louis
Fort St. Pierre | Fort Sargent | Camp Shelby | Ship Island Fort (1) | Fort at Ship Island (2)
Fort Snyder | South Fort | Spanish Fort (1) | Old Spanish Fort (2) | Square Fort | Fort Sugarloaf
Fort Texas | Camp Twiggs | Fort Twiggs | Vicksburg Defenses | Fort Wade | Camp Walthall
Cantonment Washington | Fort Washington | Yalobusha Line
THE FRENCH COLONIAL PERIOD IN MISSISSIPPI
MISSISSIPPI UNDER BRITISH RULE
HISTORY MARKERS OF MISSISSIPPI
NOTE: The French relinquished control of the Gulf Coast to the British in 1763 as part of the new West Florida Province. Spanish troops then took over in 1779 during the American Revolution, but weren't actually present in any significant number until the 1810 Baton Rouge Rebellion.
Camp Jefferson Davis
(1848 - 1855), East Pascagoula FORT WIKI
A temporary American Army post established just after the conclusion of the Mexican-American War (June - October 1848), housing about 2000 infantry troops (1st-5th Infantry Regiments) for reorganization and discharge, located along the shore for about one-half mile. Officers were quartered in the town's various hotels. The site then became Camp Twiggs in 1849, used as a winter camp for various troops rotating from the coastal forts of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola. Also used as one of the first Military Asylums established in the country from 1851-55. Site was destroyed by a hurricane in 1860, but was not sold off until 1903. State markers located in the 3100 block of Beach Blvd. and at Beach Park.
Camp Corrine (1848) was located about two miles north of town along the river, for the returning 2nd Dragoons and their horses.
(1848), Greenwood Island, East Pascagoula
An American Army hospital during the Mexican-American War (July - November 1848), located on the southern point of the island. Consisted of four large wooden barracks (for 300 men) arranged in a square, with several store houses and a wharf. The complex was destroyed by a series of three hurricanes in 1859-60, but still remained a Federal military reservation until 1907. Greenwood Island is heavily industrialized today, and not accessible to the general public. State marker located in the 3200 block of Beach Blvd..
Old Spanish Fort (2) (Museum)
(1718 ? / 1775 - 1810 ?), Pascagoula FORT WIKI
A stockaded plantation house, originally known as Fort de La Pointe, built by Joseph Simon de La Pointe, located on Krebs Lake (Lake Chatahoula) at 4602 Fort Drive. Hugo Ernestus Krebs married La Pointe's daughter Marie in 1741 (?), and later took over the plantation, which was then sometimes referred to as Krebs' Fort. Krebs' wife died in 1751. Krebs remarried and kept the plantation. Krebs died in New Orleans in 1776. Claiming to be the oldest extant building in the Lower Mississippi Valley, this structure is made up of 18-inch thick walls of timber, oyster shells, mud and moss. It was still owned and occupied by the Krebs family until 1914. It was used as an American Legion clubhouse before WWII. Donated to Jackson County around 1940, it was operated by the Jackson County Historical Society after 1950. Restored in 1996 to the 1820's period. In 2007 the city took over administration of the site. Admission fee. Damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. See also Krebs Cemetery from Subculture Arts.net - Our Dying Past
(thanks to David M. Krebs for providing additional info)
NOTE: New research indicates that the present structure was probably built in 1775 during the British colonial period, on the site of the plantation's carpenter's shop. A major hurricane had struck the area earlier in 1772 destroying almost everything.
¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of PASCAGOULA
¤ Pascagoula Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), East Pascagoula
A two-gun 155mm battery was located here. Panama mounts were built in 1943. Broken concrete ruins exist in the surf and rocks beyond the seawall along the 3400 block of Beach Blvd. just south of the 1850 Longfellow House (aka "Bellevue"), located between the mouth of Chicot Bayou to the east, and Pascagoula Beach Park to the west.
Fort Maurepas (Park)
(1699 - 1702), Ocean Springs FORT WIKI
First French fort in the Louisiana Province. Originally called Fort Biloxi, it had barracks, warehouses, a bakery, a forge, a magazine, four bastions with 12 guns, all completely built with cut timber, surrounded by a stockaded moat. A possible detached outer battery was located just southeast of Plummer's Point, where several period French cannonballs and a 1699-dated French stone marker tablet were found in 1909 (now displayed in a New Orleans museum). The French moved the post to Fort Louis in Alabama in 1702. A reproduction of the fort was built in 1981, located one mile from what is believed to be the actual original site, which is on private property on Lover's Lane (no remains), or more probably eroded away just offshore, as the bluff and shoreline here has since receded well more than 100 feet inland since colonial times. Hurricane Katrina destroyed the 1981 replica fort in 2005. It was planned to have been rebuilt by 2012 at the same site, but apparently never was.
A stone monument was erected in 1920 by the D.A.R. in D'Iberville at the Town Green in the 9600 block of Church Ave., near Gorenflo Rd., but most sources do not agree with this location.
A second French settlement was later attempted here from 1719 to 1721. The former site of Fort Maurepas became known as Vieux (Old) Biloxi, and New Fort Biloxi, or Fort St. Louis, much more elaborate than the previous fort, was begun in 1720 at "New Biloxi" (present-day Biloxi), but was later abandoned in 1722 for New Orleans. This new site was just west of the present-day Biloxi Lighthouse. Four old French cannon salvaged from the bay in 1893 are displayed in Biloxi Community Park.
(1812 - 1815), Ocean Springs
A Federal fort located north of old Fort Maurepas, near Fort Point. No remains.
Ship Island Fort (1)
(1717 - unknown), Ship Island
A French fort and supply base was located on Ship Island in 1717, but did not last long. The island was also later used as a supply base by the Spanish, West Florida Republic, and the British during the 1814-15 New Orleans Campaign.
(Gulf Islands National Seashore)
(1857 - 1875/1903), West Ship Island FORT WIKI
Ship Island was first garrisoned by Federal troops in 1847. Actual construction of the brick fort did not commence until 1859. Union forces partially destroyed the unfinished Fort at Ship Island (2) to prevent it from being captured in early 1861. It was occupied by the Confederates for three months (July - October 1861), who then officially named it Fort Twiggs, but it was recaptured by the Union who then used it as a POW camp. Unofficially renamed for the ship that brought the Union troops in, the fort was never officially named by the U.S. Army. Placed on care-taker status after 1875. One 15-inch Rodman gun still remains mounted on the parapet. Hurricane Camille in 1969 split the island into two sections. A major beach replenishment project was started in 2019 to rejoin the two islands. Fee required for ferry to island.
See also Coastal Fortifications on the Gulf of Mexico by Andy Bennett.
Cat Island Post (1)
(1755), Cat Island
A French garrison was briefly located here.
Cat Island Military Reservation (2)
(1847 - 1878), Cat Island
A proposed gun battery location.
A U.S. Army Canine Training Center was located here during WWII.
Post at Pass Christian
(1812 - 1818), Pass Christian
A Federal garrison. May have been known as Fort Henry.
(1834), Bay St. Louis
A temporary summer encampment of troops from Fort Jackson, LA.
Fort la Base
A French fort.
Camp Shelby (State Military Reservation)
(1917 - present), near Hattiesburg FORT WIKI
A Federalized National Guard training encampment and demobilization center for the 38th "Cyclone" Division. Reverted to state ownership in 1920 for use as a MS National Guard training area. All buildings but four were demolished. Federalized again in 1940 with much new construction and reverted back to state ownership in 1947. This is the largest National Guard training base in the country at over 136,000 acres. The Mississippi Armed Forces Museum is located here.
Col. James Patton's Fort
A settlers' stockaded fort/mill during the First Creek War, but saw no action. Some ruins of the mill remain.
A settlers' fort located about six miles above Patton's Fort.
(1861 - 1863 ?), Enterprise
A CSA recruiting and training camp.
(1798 - 1810), Fort Adams FORT WIKI
A Federal blockhouse surrounded by an earthwork battery. Situated on top of Blockhouse Hill, now only a pile of stone rubble on private property. Also known as Post at Loftus Heights. At the time this was near the new international boundary with Spanish West Florida. Four miles to the east was Cantonment Columbian Spring (1807 - 1810). The town was originally named Wilkinburg.
The Spanish earlier had a post here in 1781 called Post at Roche à (Rock of) Davion to thwart the British in Natchez. A French mission was first established here in 1698.
Post at Ecors Blanc
(1781), near Sibley
A Spanish outpost at the White Cliffs on the Mississippi River.
(Natchez National Historic Park)
(1716 - 1808), Natchez FORT WIKI
A French earthen fortification also named Fort les Natchez, it was an irregular pentagon with a bastion and a moat. It was built to protect a trading post established here in 1713. Attacked by Natchez Indians in 1729 and left in ruin. The French rebuilt the fort on a new site in 1730. The British took control of West Florida in 1764, but did not rebuild the fort until 1778, renaming it Fort Panmure. The Spanish captured the fort in 1779, the British (or local Anglo settlers) briefly recaptured it in 1781, with the Spanish regaining control until 1798, when the border of West Florida was moved further south. The Americans took over in 1798, known as Post at Natchez, or Fort Sargent. The site is directly to the rear of the Rosalie House (1820) at 100 Orleans Street, which was named after the old French fort.
(1863 - 1865), Natchez
A line of earthworks and batteries surrounding the town, built by Union forces after they took control of the area.
(1803 - 1815), Washington FORT WIKI
A blockhouse built to protect the town which was the capital of Mississippi Territory at the time. It was a subpost of Fort Adams. Renamed Fort Washington in 1809, also known as Cantonment Washington. A staging area for the Creek War in 1812, and a stockade for British prisoners in 1815. No remains. An excavation was done in 1973.
Civil War Defenses of Grand Gulf
(Grand Gulf State Park)
(1863), Grand Gulf
Confederate defenses located on the Mississippi River northwest of Port Gibson were:
Fort Cobun at Point of Rock. It withstood a Union attack in April 1863 before it was abandoned in May. The earthworks and magazine still exist. FORT WIKI
Fort Wade less than one mile from Fort Cobun. Its guns were destroyed after the five-hour Union attack in April 1863. FORT WIKI
Admission fee to the park museum. See also Explore Southern History.com
Fort (los) Nogales
(1791 - 1800), Vicksburg FORT WIKI
A Spanish stronghold located on Fort Hill (formerly Walnut Hill) in Vicksburg NMP, north of the Old Courthouse. It had 12 cannon facing the river, and four howitzers in blockhouses racing the rear, with a powder magazine, commander's house, and barracks for 200 men. About 1000 yards to the rear was square-palisade Fort Mount Vigie, and about 400 yards to the right and left were two blockhouses, Fort Gayoso and Fort Ignatius. A blockhouse named Fort Sugarloaf was on a hill across a creek. The Americans took control in 1798 and renamed the complex Fort McHenry. It was abandoned in 1800.
Civil War Defenses of Vicksburg
(Vicksburg National Military Park)
(Vicksburg Battlefield Museum)
(The Vicksburg Campaign: A Virtual Tour)
(1862 - 1865), Vicksburg FORT WIKI
Confederate fortifications ringed the city, including Battery Selfridge, Fort Hill, Battery DeGolyer, Stockade Redan, 3rd Louisiana Redan, Great Redoubt, 2nd Texas Lunette, Railroad Redoubt (aka Fort Beauregard to Union forces), Fort Garrott (aka Square Fort) (three guns), and Salient Work. South of the city there is South Fort which is located outside the main park, near the shore of what is now the Yazoo River (formerly the Mississippi River). Admission fee. See also Explore Southern History.com
Fort Castle was the name given to the CSA fortified Castle Hill mansion (1840's) located just south of the downtown area overlooking the river. It was destroyed in 1863. At least a dozen CSA shore batteries were located along the river's edge. Confederate shore batteries were also located downriver at Warrenton.
After the city fell in 1863, the Union built their own line of fortifications closer in to the city, including Batteries Moore, Rawlins, Dollins, Castle, Comstock, Clark (located between Grove, Jackson, and Farmer Streets), Wilson, Boomer, Sherman, Crocker, Ransom, Smith, and Hickenlooper. The entire complex was thus known as Fort Grant. Union Camp Fisk (1865) was established in the area (location ?) for POW exchanges after the war ended.
Fort St. Pierre des Yazous
(1719 - 1729), Redwood FORT WIKI
A French palisaded four-bastioned work located on Snyder's Bluff by the Yazoo River. Also known as Fort St. Claude. The post was attacked and destroyed by Yazoo Indians in 1729. Monument at site.
(1862 - 1863), Redwood FORT WIKI
A Confederate 20-gun stronghold during the Seige of Vicksburg, located on Snyder's Bluff. It was built on the site of Fort St. Pierre. Confederate batteries were also located nearby at Hayne's (or Haine's) Bluff and Drumgould's Bluff. Monument and historic marker at site.
Big Black River Earthworks
(1863), near Edwards
CSA earthworks defended the east-side of the Big Black River railroad crossing, with two stockades on either side of the railroad at the bridge. Attacked before the Siege of Vicksburg. Union entrenchments were located on the west bank of the river. See also Civil War Album.com
Civil War Defenses of Jackson
Confederate trenches and earthworks surrounded the town on the north, west, and south, and are still located in Battlefield Park at Langley Street and Terry Road, and at the Manship House on East Fortification Street. Fortification Street marks the east-west defensive line. Union trenches were located west of the CSA line. A Union battery is still extant near the VA Hospital. The city was attacked after the fall of Vicksburg. See also Civil War Album.com
Camp Patrick Henry (1) (1861 - 1863) was a CSA recruiting camp located near today's Millsaps College.
Jackson CSA Arsenal and Ordnance Depot
A CSA Arsenal and/or Ordnance Depot was located in the city. Undetermined location.
Camp Pat Henry (2)
A Spanish-American War state muster camp, located one mile north of the then city limits. Site now Bailey Middle School at State Street and Woodrow Wilson Drive.
A Spanish-American War state muster-out camp at "Lauderdale Springs".
Spanish Fort (1) (Archaeological Site)
(Delta National Forest)
(200 - 500), near Holly Bluff
A large Woodland Period semi-circular earthen embankment (1,870 feet in diameter, nine feet high) with an outer moat (eight feet deep), enclosing about 44.5 acres, is located on the west bank of the Sunflower River about six miles south of town. Despite the name, the Spanish are not known to have ever visited this area.
Lake George Archaeological Site
(1100 - 1400), near Holly Bluff
A Mississippian Culture palisaded and moated temple mound complex located on the south bank of Lake George. Twenty-five mounds still survive on the heavily cultivated land.
Perkins Archaeological Site
(1000 - 1400), near Scott
A Mississippian Culture temple mound complex within a 730-foot diameter circular earthen embankment. There were two large platform mounds, and two smaller burial mounds. Described in 1848, there are no remains today. Also known as the Bolivar Site in some references.
Fort Pemberton (Park)
(1863), Greenwood FORT WIKI
A Confederate eight-gun work made of cotton bales and timber logs. A marker locates the actual site about four miles west of town on a narrow neck of land separating the Tallahatchie and Yazoo Rivers. Also known as Fort Greenwood. The Confederates sunk the captured Star of the West here to block the Union advance through Yazoo Pass during the Vicksburg Campaign of 1863. Of interest in town at 1608 Highway 82 West is the Museum of the Mississippi Delta (admission fee), with exhibits on the Civil War activities in the area. See also Civil War Album.com
Located one mile east on the Tallahatchie River were CSA Fort Ann, Fort Moore, and Fort Texas (no remains). Located on the west (south) bank of the Tallahatchie River about one-quarter mile above the confluence of the Tallahatchie and Yalobusha Rivers was CSA Lower Fort (trace remains). CSA Middle Fort was located one-half mile above Lower Fort on the same side of the river (no remains). Located on the east bank of the Yazoo River just below the confluence of the Tallahatchie and Yalobusha Rivers are the earthwork remains of CSA Fort Leflore.
(Florewood River Plantation State Park)
(1862 - 1863), near Itta Bena FORT WIKI
A CSA fort on the west bank of the Yazoo River, downriver from Fort Pemberton, established on the grounds of the "Cureton" plantation. No remains. The estate was renamed "Fort Loring" after the war. The state park was closed in 2005 and sold at auction.
(Grenada Lake History - US Army Corps of Engineers)
Eight Confederate earthwork forts were located along the Yalobusha river to protect the town, known as the Yalobusha Line. Seven of the forts are still extant, two are located within the USACE recreation area, including a restored "star" fort. The other five are located on private property. A marker is at the Grenada Lake Dam. The lake was created between 1947 and 1954.
Grenada CSA Arsenal and Ordnance Depot
A CSA Arsenal and/or Ordnance Depot was temporarily located in the city. Undetermined location. It was moved to Gainesville, Alabama in 1862.
Mississippi A. & M. College Training Battery
The Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College R.O.T.C. performed coast artillery training here on Battery Stephen D. Lee, a "dummy" battery officially named as such in 1926. The college is now known as Mississippi State University.
Alibamu Indian Fort
(1400 - 1600), Oktibbeha County ?
A Late Mississippian Period palisaded Alibamu Indian village located on or near Line Creek (location ?). Visited by Hernando DeSoto in April 1541. The Spanish attacked the fort, losing seven men. Only a few Indians were killed. Nothing of value to the Spanish was found here.
Columbus CSA Arsenal
A CSA Arsenal was located here. Also known as Briarfield Arsenal. A marker locates the site on 10th Avenue North.
A Spanish-American War muster camp. Located on the Tombigbee River about one-quarter mile from downtown, just west of Moore's Creek.
(18th century), Tupelo
A fortified Chickasaw Indian town, it was attacked unsuccessfully by the French in May 1736. A nearby town was flying the British flag, which the French refused to attack. The "Chickasaw Town and Fort" is one of the features on the Natchez Trace Parkway (NPS).
NOTE: The actual site of the Ackia Battleground is located in the nearby Lee Acres community.
French - Chickasaw War of 1736 - Part I || French - Chickasaw War of 1736 - Part II by Richard Green
(J. P. Coleman State Park)
A Confederate earthwork located at the mouth of Bear Creek on the Tennessee River, opposite Eastport, to protect the railroad bridge. It was abandoned before the Battle of Shiloh (April 1862). The site, located north of Iuka, is probably now underwater.
Civil War Defenses of Corinth
(Corinth Interpretive Center - NPS)
Located in Confederate Park at Polk and Linden Streets is Union Battery Robinett, one of several Union redoubts that protected the railroad junction through town, built in May 1862 after the Confederates abandoned the town. The others were known as Batteries Lothrop, Williams (five guns), Phillips, Tannrath, Powell (four guns), and Madison. A small portion of Battery Williams still exists, located near a brick manufacturing company. Battery Richardson (four guns) was located 0.75 mile west of town on the road to Kossuth. It was not attacked during the Battle of Corinth (October 1862). Union Batteries A - F formed an outer defensive ring along the south and west. Battery F still exists at Bitner and Davis Streets. Union Camp Davis (2) (1862) was located south of town on the Danville-Rienzi Road. The Corinth Interpretive Center is located at Confederate Park, an NPS unit of Shiloh National Military Park. See also Explore Southern History.com
A circular CSA rifle pit, about 50 feet in diameter, is located at MS 2 and 7th Street. The town was originally surrounded by Confederate trenches and rifle pits soon after the Battle of Shiloh (April 1862), known as the Beauregard Line (seven miles still extant). Other CSA defenses included Battery Chapman located east of the railroad. CSA Camp Blythe (1862) was located on the Monterey-Corinth Road (North Parkway) after the Battle of Shiloh. CSA Camp Moore (1862) was also located nearby.
A Union encampment during the Seige of Corinth. Located less than ten miles southeast of Corinth along the old Memphis and Charleston Railroad.
A temporary Union encampment during the Seige of Corinth.
(1862), Michigan City
A Union blockhouse converted from an old sawmill, and earthworks on an old Indian mound nearby, to protect the railroad bridge across the Wolf River. Unsuccessfully attacked several times by the Confederates. The settlement was then known as Davis' Mills.
NEED MORE INFO: Fort Oliver Road north of Ocean Springs.
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