Central Virginia I

Albemarle Barracks | Ashland Mill Redoubt | Buford's Knoll Battery
Chandler Crossing Redoubts | Clark's Mountain Signal Station | Cole's Hill Signal Station
Culpeper Encampment | Fort Germanna | Germanna Ford | Hanover Junction Defenses
Hassinunga | Henagan's Redoubt | Camp Henry (1) | Jericho Mills Earthworks
Manakin Town | Massinacack | Mine Run Earthworks | Monahassanugh | Monasukapanough
Montpelier Camp | Mount Pony Signal Station | Orange Enampment | Ox Ford Earthworks
Point of Fork Arsenal | Rapidan Line | Rapidan Station Battery | Rassawek
Shackaconia | Smith's Island Fort | Somerset Battery | Stegara | United States Ford

Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3 | Central Virginia II - page 4
Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6 | James River Area - page 7
Hampton Roads - page 8 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11

VIRGINIA CIVIL WAR TRAILS

Last Update: 17/OCTOBER/2016
Compiled by Pete Payette - 2016 American Forts Network

Buford's Knoll Battery
(Brandy Station Battlefield)
(Brandy Station Foundation)
(1862 - 1864), near Brandy Station
Two extant gun pits still remain on a hill above Beverly's Ford on the Rappahannock River. Originally built by the CSA after the Battle of Cedar Mountain (August 1862), re-used by the Union in November 1863. The battery itself was not used in the Battle of Brandy Station (June 1863). Publicly accessible site located on the Brandy Station Battlefield, north of the Culpeper Airport. Markers at site.

Camp Henry (1)
(1861 - 1862), Culpeper
A CSA recruiting and training camp at Clayton's Old Field on the west side of Mountain Run (west of Blue Ridge Ave.). Site was also used as part of the Union Army of the Potomac's winter encampment in 1863 - 1864. Most of the site is now part of Yowell Meadow Park. Markers on site. A stone monument (1971) is also here commemorating the 1775 mustering site of the famous Culpeper Minute Men. State marker on US 522 just west of downtown. Of interest in town in the old train station at 113 South Commerce Street is the Culpeper Museum of History with Civil War exhibits.

Mount Pony Signal Station
(1862 - 1864), near Culpeper
The Union built a signal station here in August 1862 before the Battle of Cedar Mountain. Used by the Confederates shortly afterwards. Used by the Union during the Army of the Potomac's winter encampment of 1863-64.

Union signal stations in 1862 - 1863 were also located on Cole's Hill and Stony Mountain near Stevensburg, Cedar Mountain to the southwest, and also on Thoroughfare Mountain in Madison County (captured by CSA in October 1863).

Culpeper Encampment
(1863 - 1864), Culpeper County
The main body of the Union Army of the Potomac spent the winter (November 1863 - May 1864) in various locations across the county, including Culpeper, Brandy Station, Stevensburg, and along the railroad south of town. State marker on VA 3 in Stevensburg. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia originally planned to winter here, but after the battles of Kelly's Ford and Rappahannock Station (November 1863), they were forced across the Rapidan River into Orange County.

Hassinunga
(c. 1600), Richards Ferry
A major Manahoac Indian town on the south bank of the Rappahannock River, about one mile upriver from the Rapidan River, noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Unknown if palisaded. The Manahoac Indians had seemingly disappeared from modern Culpeper/Orange Counties by 1670 when explorer John Lederer passed through.

United States Ford Earthworks
(1863), United States Ford
CSA / Union earthworks still remain on the south side of the Rappahannock River, one and one-half miles downriver from the Rapidan River. Site is named for the nearby United States Gold Mine (pre-Civil War). Private property, no vehicular access.

Fort Germanna
(History of Germanna)
(1714 - 1719 ?), Germanna
German immigrants were settled here by then colonial Governor Spotswood on the banks of the Rapidan River under the guise of "frontier defense", but were really intended for gold and iron mining operations. The original group of settlers left in 1719 for Germantown in Fauquier County. A second group of German settlers arrived in 1717 and left for Madison County in 1725. The site of the pentagonal stockade, with a central blockhouse and nine cabins, was probably built over by Governor Alexander Spotswood's manor house (1722 - 1750), which also no longer exists, but was excavated in the 1980's. The blockhouse was also used as a church/meetinghouse, and it may have existed for several years after the stockade was dismantled. A new regional visitors center was built in 2000 near Germanna Community College, in a form suggesting the fort's blockhouse/church.

Germanna Ford Earthworks
(1863), Germanna
Extensive CSA trenches and gun pits (two lines) still exist on the south side of the Rapidan River, mostly located on the present-day Locust Grove campus of Germanna Community College.

Shackaconia
(c. 1600), Indiantown
A major Manahoac Indian town on the south bank of the Rapidan River, upstream of the modern VA 3 bridge, noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Unknown if palisaded. Apparently abandoned by 1670. A group of Saponi Indians was living here in the 1730's to 1742, hence the modern name of the site.

Mine Run Earthworks
(1863), near Locust Grove
Extensive CSA and Union earthwork trench lines were constructed along both sides of Mine Run. Almost all of the Union works were destroyed by the Confederates after the Battle of Mine Run (November 1863). Traces remain of the CSA works in wooded areas along both sides of VA 20, between County Rts. 602 and 621. Private property.

Clark's Mountain Signal Station
(1862 - 1864), Orange County
A Union signal station first used during the Battle of Cedar Mountain (August 1862). Used by the Confederates afterwards, and fortified as part of the Rapidan Line. Traces of earthworks may possibly remain (?) along the northwest side of the mountain facing the Rapidan River.

Rapidan Station Battery
(1863 - 1864), Rapidan
A CSA earthwork on the north bank of the Rapidan River protected the railroad crossing into Orange County. Part of the Rapidan Line.

Orange Encampment
(1863 - 1864), Orange County
The winter encampment area of the CSA Army of Northern Virginia (November 1863 - May 1864), located in various sites across the county (Orange, Rhoadsville, Burr Hill, Rapidan, Madison Mills, Montpelier Station, Gordonsville) which were protected behind extensive earthworks along the Rapidan River from Liberty Mills to Mitchell's Ford (north of Burr Hill), termed the Rapidan Line, and then turning south along the previously constructed Mine Run earthwork lines. A small monument on private property (Middle Hill) about one mile east of Orange off of VA 20 marks General Lee's headquarters camp (state marker on VA 20). Extant earthworks and gun battery pits are located at several sites (all private property), including the Mitchell's Ford area along County Rt. 620, and on US 522 just south of the Rapidan River bridge.

Montpelier Encampment
(James Madison's Montpelier)
(1863 - 1864), Montpelier Station
The winter encampment site of elements of the CSA Army of Northern Virginia is located on the wooded grounds of Montpelier, President James Madison's former plantation (1760). Hut sites are still evident on a walking trail in the area on the north side of VA 20 across from the train station (excavated in 2002). Several log huts have been reconstructed behind the "Gilmore Cabin", which was built after the war with logs from the original huts.

Somerset Battery
(Hampstead Farm Archaeological District)
(1864), Old Somerset
Traces of three CSA gun pits still exist on high ground along the Rapidan River west of town at the intersection of VA 20 and County Rt. 609. Part of the Rapidan Line, this battery protected the road from the Liberty Mills river crossing (VA 231) to Gordonsville and the railroad junction. It was attacked and captured by Union cavalry in December 1864. Private property.

Stegara
(c. 1600), near Scuffletown
A major Manahoac Indian town noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Unknown if palisaded. A Late Woodland Period Indian burial mound (aka "Rapidan Mound") on the south bank of the Rapidan River was excavated in 1958, 1980, and 1988, but the actual townsite has never been found with certainty. Abandoned by 1700, probably before 1670. The last remnants of the burial mound have since disappeared (1995 flood).

Smith's Island Fort
(1725 - unknown), near Madison
A small fort and stockade built by German settlers after moving away from the Germanna settlement (see above). Site located on the north side of the Robinson River at White Oak Run near Hebron Lutheran Church (1726, rebuilt 1740), north of town. White Oak Run was originally known as Smith's Run, and there was once an island at the convergence of the two rivers, hence the name. "Hebron Church" state marker on VA 231 three miles north of town.

Monasukapanough
(c. 1600), near Charlottesville
A major Monacan Indian town on the north bank of the South Fork Rivanna River, north of town near the Carrsbrook community, noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Unknown if palisaded. A Late Woodland Period Indian burial mound was once located here, which was first excavated by Thomas Jefferson in 1784. Jefferson noted in the mid 1750's that a group of Monacans paid a visit to the mound to worship their dead ancestors. State marker on US 29 at the South Fork Rivanna River bridge.

Albemarle Barracks
(1779 - 1780), Charlottesville
A VA state militia supply depot and POW encampment for 2,577 British and 1,882 Hessian troops that were captured at Saratoga, NY in 1777. They were previously kept in Boston, MA, but were moved to a warmer climate. The officers were quartered in private houses within a twenty-mile radius of town. Aside from log huts for the winter, no permanent facilities were built. As the British army under General Cornwallis moved northward from North Carolina, the remaining prisoners (about 2,000 after death, desertions and exchanges) were moved to Frederick Barracks in Hagerstown, MD, via Winchester. No remains of the encampment site are left. Located northwest of downtown, north of Ivy Creek. State marker located at the end of Barracks Farm Road (County Rt. 658). Period graves were discovered in the early 1980's on Ivy Farm Road (County Rt. 1015) when the area was developed for upscale single-family homes. Monument (1983) at grave site.
Of interest is the "Colle Manor" state marker located on VA 53 about 1.5 miles southeast of town.

Monahassanugh
(c. 1600), near Wingina
A major Monacan Indian town, located on the north bank of the James River east of Cunningham Island (west of town), noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Unknown if palisaded. Later known as the Nahyssan Indians, they relocated to Manakin Town on the James River in 1654 after raids by northern Iroquois Indians.

Rassawek
(c. 1600), Columbia
A major Monacan Indian town, located on the west bank of the Rivanna River, noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Unknown if palisaded.

Point of Fork Arsenal
(1780 - 1801), Columbia
A state arsenal and military encampment located on the west bank of the Rivanna River southwest of town, on the north side of the James River. It was originally built to protect vital military supplies that were sent west from Richmond as the British army made moves towards Virginia in late 1780. It was abandoned by Patriot forces in 1781 under threat of a British attack. The British then captured and destroyed all remaining stores and supplies. Re-established after the war as a major state militia supply depot.

Massinacack
(c. 1600), near Michaux
A major Monacan Indian town located on the James River downstream of Mohawk Creek and the present US 522 bridge, noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Unknown if palisaded. Visited by explorer John Lederer in 1670.

Manakin Town
(1654 - 1699), Manakin
A Monacan Indian town/fort built on lands which were later officially set aside in 1680 by the colonial government according to the 1677 "Treaty of Middle Plantation". At first the English settlers downriver objected to the new settlement and then attacked in 1656 with help from Powhatan/Pamunkey Indian allies. The Monacans defeated the English and Pamunkeys, killing the Pamunkey leader Totopotomoy, in what was later termed the "Battle of Bloody Run". The Monacans were later evicted in 1699 during renewed troubles with white settlers. French Huguenot immigrants were resettled here by the colonial government in 1701.

The minor Monacan Indian town of Mowhemcho (c. 1600), which was noted on John Smith's map of 1608, was located on the south bank of the James River nearby at Watkins Landing. Unknown if palisaded or if only a hunting town.

Hanover Junction Defenses
(North Anna Battlefield Park)
(1864), near Doswell
On the south side of the North Anna River at Ox Ford, within the North Anna Battlefield Park, well-preserved Confederate earthworks still remain on the "Gray Trail", in a line towards Verdon and New Market Mill on the Little River. Extant Union trenchworks are also located here on the newly opened "Blue Trail". Other Confederate works were also once located at Chandler Crossing (two redoubts on the north bank of the river and one redoubt on the south bank at the wagon road bridge (present-day US 1), and rifle pits at the railroad bridge). The CS Henagan's Redoubt still remains on the north bank of the river on private property, but can be seen from Oxford Road (County Route 689). Info on the "Battle of the North Anna River" (May 1864) is available from both the Richmond and Fredericksburg NPS visitor centers, and the Hanover County Parks Dept. (Ox Ford site manager). Doswell was once known as Hanover Junction.

Near Noel's Station on the south bank of the North Anna River at Jericho Mills, on National Park Service property (administered by Richmond National Battlefield), are extant lines of preserved Union earthworks and several gun pits. This property is not yet developed for public visitation, but annual guided tours are offered by NPS staff.

Also in the area were two CS redoubts located near South Anna on the south side of the South Anna River at the railroad bridge, with rifle pits on the north bank; four CS redoubts and several rifle pits located along the railroad south of Taylorsville between the Little River and the South Anna River; and a CS redoubt on the north bank of the South Anna River at Ashland Mill.


NEED MORE INFO: Street names: Fort Myers Road in central Hanover County

Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3 | Central Virginia II - page 4
Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6 | James River Area - page 7
Hampton Roads - page 8 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11

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