Fort Abbott |
Fort Archer |
Fort Avery |
Fort Baldwin |
Bermuda Hundred Palisade | Blackwater Line | Fort Blaisdell | Fort Bratton | Fort Bross
Buckhorn Quarters | Charles Citie | Fort Christanna | City Point Fort | Fort Clarke | Fort Clifton
Fort Conahey | Fort Converse | Fort Craig (2) | Fort Cummings | Dalstonburg Magazine
Fort Damnation | Danville Earthworks | Camp Davis | Fort Davis | Fort Davison
Camp Distribution (2) | Dimmock Line | Fort Dushane | Fort Early | Fort Emery | Fort Fisher
Five Forks | Fort Friend | Fort Gould | Fort Graves | Fort Gregg (2) | Fort Gregg (3)
Fort Haskell | Fort Hays | Fort Hell | Fort Henry (2) | High Bridge Defenses | Fort Howard
Jones' Post | Fort Keene | Fort Kelly | Camp Lee (3) | Camp Lee (4) | Fort Lee (3) | Fort Lee (4)
Lynchburg Defenses | Fort McCausland | Fort McGilvery | Fort McKeen | Fort McMahon
Fort Mahone | Fort Mattapony (3) | Fort Meikle | Fort Merriam | Fort Morris | Fort Morton (2)
Mowhemcho | New London Arsenal | Fort New Orleans | Fort Nottoway | Occoneechee Town
Battery Pegram | Petersburg Arsenal | Petersburg Defenses | Peytonsburg Supply Depot
Fort Porter (2) | Camp Pratt | Fort Prescott | Reedy Creek Site | Fort Rice | Riverview Fort
Rochdale Hundred Palisade | Fort Sampson | Saponi Fort | Saponi Town | Fort Sedgwick
Fort Seibert | Fort Spring Hill | Staunton River Fort | Fort Stedman | Fort Stevenson
Tilghman's Fort | Tillman's Fort | Fort Tracy | Union Fort (2) | Fort Urmston | Fort Wadsworth
Fort Walker | Fort Warren | Fort Welch | Fort Wheaton | White Oak Road | Fort Whitworth
Northern Virginia - page 1 | Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3
Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6 | James River Area - page 7
Hampton Roads - page 8 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11
VIRGINIA CIVIL WAR TRAILS
Rochdale Hundred Palisade
(1613), near Meadowville
A four-mile long palisade surrounded the settlement on Jones Neck. This area was used primarily as a hog and cattle grazing area.
Bermuda Hundred Palisade
(1613), Bermuda Hundred
A two-mile long palisade surrounded the settlement. State marker on VA 10.
(1614 - 1622, 1624 - unknown), Hopewell
A palisaded settlement with several blockhouses and trenches, located at present-day City Point. The East India School was established here in 1621, the first college in America, but did not survive the 1622 massacre. The town was rebuilt after the Indian raids. Also known as Charles Citie after 1618 (not to be confused with the present-day Charles City located in Charles City County).
Roger Tillman's Fort
(1670's ?), near Hopewell ?
An early settlers' fort located on the south bank of the Appomattox River near Monk's Head (location ?). Also spelled Tilghman.
Civil War Defenses of Hopewell
(Petersburg National Battlefield - City Point Unit)
(1862 - 1865), Hopewell FORT WIKI
At City Point was Union City Point Fort (or Union Fort (2)) (1864) built to protect the newly established supply depot from a landward attack. Still extant on Appomattox Street at Fort Street. As the Siege of Petersburg progressed, additional Union forts were built in a defensive line around the town, running in a line alongside the west side of present-day 15th Avenue beginning at Broadway Avenue, and then south along Prince George Road to Bailey Creek. These included Fort Abbott, Fort Craig (2), Fort Graves, Fort McKeen, Fort Lewis O. Morris, Fort Merriam, Fort Gould, and Fort Porter (2). None remain.
In 1862-63 the Confederates fortified the point with an unnamed gun battery located adjacent to Appomattox Manor (1763), in the vicinity of General Grant's Cabin and the Army Quartermaster wharves (1864).
Fort Henry (2)
(1646 - 1649, 1676 - 1678, 1685 ?), Petersburg
A VA colonial militia fort at the falls of the Appomattox River. Garrisoned by ten men under Capt. Abraham Wood. Became a trading post after 1649. Expeditions to explore the west began from here in 1650 and 1671. It was regarrisoned by the militia in 1676, and probably again in 1685. Location probably at or near McKenzie Street Park. State marker located at West Washington and North South Streets. "Early English Exploration" state marker located at North Sycamore and Old Streets.
Peter Jones' Post (1675) was a trading post complex located near Market and Old Streets, just east of the fort site. Stabilized stone ruins remain of the "Old Stone Lumberhouse", which was destroyed by fire in 1980. The stone structure served as the city's powder magazine in 1785 - 1791, and also served as a POW facility during the Civil War. Maintained by the Historic Petersburg Foundation, Inc.. The city was founded and named after Peter Jones Jr. in 1732.
Civil War Defenses of Petersburg
(Petersburg National Battlefield)
Civil War Defenses of Petersburg - FORT WIKI
The Siege of Petersburg Online
Siege of Petersburg Tour
(1863 - 1865), Petersburg and vicinity
A total of 42 forts and 136 batteries were built by both sides during the 10-month long Siege of Petersburg (June 1864 - March 1865). The main NPS park unit (Eastern Front) includes the extant Confederate Battery 5, Union "Dictator" mortar battery, Confederate Battery 8 (later renamed Union Fort Friend), Confederate Battery 9, Union forts Fort Stedman, Fort Haskell, Fort Morton (2) (site only), and the CSA forts Colquitt's Salient, Gracie's Salient, and "The Crater" which is the remains of part of Elliott's Salient. There are also several other unnamed numbered batteries along the lines of trenchworks. Just outside the present NPS boundary at the north side of the mouth of Harrison Creek was CSA Battery 1, and on either side of the present intersection of Washington Street and Puddledock Road was Union Fort McGilvery and an unnamed Union redoubt (no remains). South of the Eastern Front park boundary was an unnamed Union redoubt on the south side of Hickory Hill Road near the junction with Winfield Road (US 460), CSA Battery 16 and Battery 20, and Union Fort Meikle, Fort Avery, Fort Rice, and Fort Sedgwick (aka Fort Hell) at South Crater Road and Morton Avenue.
The 1863 CSA Dimmock Line of 55 numbered batteries (352 guns total), which has not been preserved for the most part (although some sections do still remain), encircled present downtown Petersburg in a ten-mile line approximately along present-day South Blvd., Defense Road, Fort Lee Road, and Simpson Road (Old Boydton Plank Road), to Rohoic Creek and the Appomattox River. This included Rives' Salient, Battery 27, Fort Mahone (aka Fort Damnation or Battery 29), Fort New Orleans, Fort Walker, Battery Pegram (in Lee Park), Battery 40, Fort Lee (3) (aka Battery 45) marker at Fort Lee Road and Simpson Road, Battery 47, Fort Gregg (2) (NPS) (still extant on Seventh Ave. at Simpson Road), Fort Whitworth (aka Fort Baldwin) (still extant in picnic area wayside of Central State Hospital (built 1885)), Battery 55, and many other unnamed numbered batteries. The site of Battery 27 is marked by the "Old Men and Young Boys" Monument on South Crater Road south of South Blvd.. The site of Fort Mahone is marked by the Pennsylvania Monument on Wakefield Street north of Goodrich Street. The official headquarters of the Confederate command during the Seige was located downtown in the Hustings Circuit Courthouse located on Sycamore Street south of East Tabb Street.
Along Flank Road between US 301 and County Rt. 629 (Birdsong Road) lies Union Fort Davis (aka Fort Warren), Fort Alexander Hays, and Fort Howard.
Within the NPS Western Front park unit along Flank Road lies Union Fort Wadsworth, Fort Keene, Fort Tracy, Fort Urmston, Fort Conahey, Fort Fisher, Fort Welch, Fort Gregg (3), Fort Wheaton, (originally CSA Fort Archer), and CSA Fort Bratton.
Other Union forts along the secondary siege line just to the south included Fort Sampson, Fort Cummings, Fort Emery, Fort Seibert, Fort Clarke, Fort Dushane, Fort Davison, Fort McMahon, Fort Stevenson, Fort Blaisdell, Fort Patrick Kelly, Fort Prescott, Fort Bross, and many other unnamed redoubts and batteries.
Other forts in the area include CSA Fort Clifton, a riverine defense still extant at 100 Brockwell Lane, off of Conduit Road behind Tussing Elementary School, along the Appomattox River in Colonial Heights; an extant CSA battery to the west of Fort Clifton, marker (2003) located on Conjurers Drive 0.1 mile west of Red Fox Road; and CSA Fort Spring Hill (later Union Fort Converse) between Petersburg and Hopewell, at the present-day Federal Reformatory near the I-295 bridge.
Another interesting site just to the west is Pamplin Historical Park, which features the National Museum of the Civil War Soldier (admission fee). Several Confederate trenchworks (1865) are located here, as well as artillery emplacements and camp sites (original and reconstructed). Located further west near Burgess is White Oak Road Battlefield (1865), a Dinwiddie County park with CSA earthworks and trenches. The CSA earthworks extended west to Five Forks Battlefield (1865) (NPS).
Petersburg CSA Arsenal and Ordnance Depot
(1862 - 1865), Petersburg
The Confederate Gunpowder Works was located on the west side of Rohoic Creek along the old Southside Railroad, south of the Appomattox River Canal.
The Confederate Lead Smelting Works was located on the south side of Halifax Street (old Boydton Plank Road) east of the old Petersburg and Weldon Railroad.
Camp Distribution (2)
A Union occupation supply depot located in a former tobacco warehouse (William R. Johnson and Brother Tobacco Factory) on the southwest corner of High and Lafayette Streets. The building had been used to temporarily house captured Union officers in 1864. It was also known by locals as "James McCulloch's Factory". The original building on the site burned down in 1884.
Fort Lee (4) (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1917 - 1919, 1940 - present), Petersburg FORT WIKI
A National Army cantonment training encampment, infantry replacement center, and demobilization center for the 80th Division. Originally named Camp Lee (3). After the war all buildings were removed and the reservation was turned over to the state as a wildlife preserve, with the western portion going to the Petersburg National Military Park (now National Battlefield) in 1923. Located on National Park Service land are the extant remnants of about 3000 linear feet of training trenches used in 1917-18.
A new and larger Camp Lee (4) was constructed on the original site in 1940 as WWII approached, which became an Army Quartermaster Corps Replacement Center in 1941. Renamed in 1950. This is the headquarters post of the Army's Quartermaster Corps. Located here is the U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum, and the U.S. Army Women's Museum. The Women's Army Corps (WAC) Training Center was once located here from 1948 - 1954, when it was relocated to Fort McClelland, AL.
(1862 - 1865), near Franklin
A series of CSA defensive positions along the west bank of the Blackwater River, from Unity to New South Quay at the various fords. Union forces attacked several times. "Blackwater Bridge" state marker on County Rt. 603, "Joyner's Ford" state marker on County Rt. 611, "Blackwater Line - Franklin" state marker located on 2nd Ave. in town, and "New South Quay" state marker on VA 189.
(1831), near Courtland
Several slave quarters on the estate of Thomas Ridley, located about four miles west of town, were fortified by faithful Negro slaves during Nat Turner's Rebellion. Nat Turner was a Negro slave preacher in the county, and formented an insurrection of about 70 slaves which killed about 60 whites. Local militia finally put down the revolt in Courtland (then named Jerusalem) after several days. Turner was later captured and hanged, along with 30 followers.
Fort Nottoway ? ?
(unknown date), Fort Nottoway
A colonial era fort located on the Nottoway River in Sussex County, near Huske, west of I-95. Possibly associated with the Nottoway Indians. "Nottoway Indians" state marker located on US 58 near Courtland in Southampton County.
Fort Christanna (Archaeological Site)
(1714 - 1718), Fort Christanna
Built by the VA colonial militia (Surry Rangers) under Capt. Robert Hicks, for the protection of friendly Saponi, Tutelo (Totero), Occoneechee, and Catawba Indians against the hostile Tuscarora from the south. A six-square mile reservation was established around the fort. A school for the Indian children was also established here. Mohawk Indians from New York attacked the fort in 1718 and killed five Catawba men. The fort was soon thereafter abandoned by the government as too costly to maintain. In 1924 the site was marked by a cannon, one of five from the stockade. Site excavated in 1978. Some earthworks may possibly remain. Located on Hays Creek south of Lawrenceville. State markers located on VA 46 and on US 1 in Cochran. Artifacts on display at the Brunswick County Museum at 228 North Main Street in Lawrenceville.
Saponi Indian Fort
(1732 - unknown), near Skinquarter ?
After Fort Christanna was abandoned, the Saponi Indians went to live with the main group of Catawba Indians in South Carolina. When they later returned to Virginia, they found their former 1677 treaty lands sold off to white settlers. They then established a town/fort somewhere on the Appomattox River, possibly located on Sappony Creek in western Chesterfield County. The town was abandoned after a few years, with the Indians moving north (with the remaining Tutelos) to Pennsylvania (eventually to New York with the Cayugas), or south to North Carolina.
High Bridge Defenses
(High Bridge Trail State Park)
(1864 - 1865), near Farmville
Four CSA redoubts, two on each side of the Appomattox River, protected the railroad bridge about six miles downriver from the town. A small work guarded the northern approach to the wagon road bridge (long gone). At least one work still exists on private property on the north bank of the river. Another work guarded the road junction at the south end of the bridge. The original railroad bridge was replaced in 1914. The bridge and adjoining 34 linear miles of railroad right-of-way became a state park in 2008. The redoubt sites are still private property. The south end of the bridge is heavily wooded.
Additional CSA works (1865) were located to the south at Rice.
Dalstonburg Powder Magazine
(1755 - 1763 ?), Charlotte Court House
A colonial militia powder magazine was located here. The name of the town, founded in 1759, later changed to Marysville, then again to its present name in 1901.
Civil War Defenses of Lynchburg
Several miles of earthworks and trenches around the old town served as the Inner Defenses. State markers are located at Bedford Ave. and Holly Street/Monsview Place (gone); on Rivermont Ave. near Monsview Place; on 5th Street between Wise and Floyd Streets; on Park Ave. at Floyd Street; and on 12th Street between Fillmore and Floyd Streets. No remains. Traces may possibly exist at the Old City Cemetery along the railroad right-of-way. Wartime exhibits and museum inside cemetery (entrance on Taylor Street). Also in town was CSA Camp Pratt and Camp Davis, located near 12th and 13th Streets at Pierce Street (marker for Camp Davis erected in 2014). A POW camp was located at the old fairgrounds, now the site of E.C. Glass High School on Memorial Ave.. The "Battle of Lynchburg" occured in June 1864. See also Hunter's Raid Civil War Trail
(NOTE: a Battery Street is located downtown by the river. Unknown name origin.)
Fort Early was a square redoubt that was part of the Confederate Outer Defenses. It was known as the Salem Turnpike Fort during the battle, and renamed after the war. Union forces unsuccessfully attacked it soon after it was built. Earthworks still exist, located at Vermont, Memorial and Fort Aves., enclosed within a brick wall. A 1923 brick building inside the redoubt is the Fort Hill Women's Club. A small museum is inside, open by appointment. To the south is the Quaker Meeting House (1791, restored 1990), which existed as ruins during the war, and Sandusky (1808), used as Union headquarters during the battle. FORT WIKI
Fort McCausland was a large crescent-shaped redoubt to protect the westward approach to the city. It was known as the Forest Road Fort during the battle, and renamed after the war. A Union cavalry unit skirmished near here with the garrison, but were driven back. Remnants still exist, located on Langhorne Road west of Clifton Street. A CSA outer battery was also located just to the north on Clifton Street on Blackwater Creek (no remains). FORT WIKI
The Campbell Courthouse Road Fort was located on a hill near Falwell Airport (state marker on Campbell Ave. (US 501) at US 460, no remains). It saw no action.
The Lexington Turnpike Fort, or Rivermont Fort, was located at Langhorne Road and Rivermont Ave. (faint traces may possibly still exist on the landscaped grounds of the Villa mansion (built 1911) at 3012 Rivermont Ave.). It saw no action.
The Amherst Heights Fort (1863), actually two earthwork batteries, was located in Madison Heights along Colony Road adjacent to the present-day Central Virginia Training Center (established 1910) (traces of earthworks and gun pits still exist on private property). It saw no action.
Riverview Fort, opposite near Kelly in Campbell County, is a well-preserved CSA earthwork located about six miles east of the city off of Riverview Road on the James River, just downstream of the 1854 Six Mile Bridge (railroad). It was known as the Southside Railroad Bridge Fort during the battle. It saw no action. The original bridge was destroyed in 1864, rebuilt after the war. See also History of Riverview Farm. "Buffalo Lick Plantation" state marker located at end of County Rt. 672.
New London Arsenal
(1761 - 1785 ?), New London
A colonial militia powder magazine was located here on Buffalo Creek in 1761. During the American Revolution guns and gunpowder were manufactured and stored here for the state militia. Raided by the British in 1781. The state discontinued use of the complex after the war, replaced by the Harpers Ferry (WV) Arsenal. The town was founded in 1758, and was the Bedford County seat until 1782.
(1670), near Alta Vista ?
A Saponi Indian town located on the Big Otter River northeast of town. Unknown if palisaded. Visited by explorer John Lederer in 1670.
Staunton River Fort
(Staunton River Battlefield State Park)
CSA earthworks and a small redoubt remain on a walking trail in the park. Built to protect the railroad bridge across the river. The bridge was held after the June 1864 battle, but was burned in April 1865 on General Lee's retreat to Appomattox. The present bridge was built in 1902. See also Explore Southern History.com
Reedy Creek Archaeological Site
(900 - 1400), near Mount Laurel
A palisaded Indian village site of the Late Woodland Period, located on Reedy Creek at the Staunton River. Excavated in 1925. Artifacts also recovered from the Late Archaic Period (2000 - 1000 BC).
(Occoneechee State Park)
(1500 ? - 1676), near Clarksville
The Occoneechee Indians had their main town located on an island in the Staunton (Roanoke) River. Unknown if palisaded. Visited by explorer John Lederer in 1670. The town was destroyed during Bacon's Rebellion, the surviving Indians later absorbed into the Saponi tribe. The island is now submerged under the waters of Buggs Island Lake (John H. Kerr Reservoir).
Peytonsburg Supply Depot
(1770's), near Chatham
A supply depot for the Southern Continental Army during the American Revolution. The town, founded in 1759, no longer exists.
CSA earthworks are still extant on the hills above the Dan River, off of US 58. The city served as the last capital of the Confederate States of America in April 1865.
NEED MORE INFO: A possible fort location in Colonial Heights at Battery Place. Battery Street in Emporia. Battery Street in Lynchburg.
Towns: Fort Mitchell south of Keysville
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com