Northwestern Virginia

Austin's Fort | Banks' Fort | Barren Ridge Camp | Bellefont | Berryville Earthworks
Bower's Hill Redoubt | Bowman's Fort | Fort Braddock | Fort Breckenridge (1)
Brock's Gap Fort | Burner's Fort | W. Byrd's Fort | Carpenter's Fort (1) | Carysbrooke Redoubt
Cedar Creek Earthworks | Christy's Fort | Clover Creek Fort | Fort Collier | Colvill's Fort
Fort Colvin | J. Crisman's Fort | Fort Defiance | Dickenson's Fort | Fort Dickinson
Fort Dinwiddie | Dunlap's Fort | Fort Egypt | Estill's Fort | Flag Fort | Froman's Fort
Front Royal Remount Depot | Fry's Fort | Fort Garibaldi | Fort George (4) | Fort George (5)
Glass' Fort | Harmony Hall | Fort Harper | Harper's Fort | Fort Harrison (1) | D. Harrison's Fort
Heiston's Fort | Helm's Fort | John Hite's Fort | Jost Hite's Fort | Hogg's Fort (1)
Hogg's Fort (2) | Hollingsworth's Fort | Camp Holly | Holman's Fort | Camp Hoover
Hupp's Fort | Hupp's Hill Earthworks | Fort Jackson (2) | Fort Edward Johnson
Kauffman's Fort | Keller's Fort | C. Keyser's (Jr.) Fort | C. Keyser's (Sr.) Fort | Fort Lewis (1)
Fort Lewis (2) | Little Fort | Long Meadows Fort | Locust Grove | Paul Long's Fort
Philip Long's Fort | Fort Loudoun | Fort Lynne | Madison Hall | Madison's Fort | Fort Mann
Fort Massanutten | Miley Site | Jacob Miller's Fort | John Miller's Fort | Fort Miller
Fort Milroy | Mueller's Fort | Fort Nelson (1) | Nieswander's Fort | Nisewanger's Fort | Old Fort
Opequon Creek Defenses | Painter's Fort | Paris Signal Station | Parkins' Mill Redoubt
Fort Pearis | Pearis' Fort | Petticoat Gap Signal Station | Powell's Fort
Quicksburg Site | Camp Rapidan | Rhodes' Fort | Fort Ricketts | Rinehart's Fort
Rockfish Gap Camp | Rodes' Fort | Round Hill Signal Station | Camp Russell
Camp Shenandoah | Camp Sheridan | Signal Knob Signal Station | Jeremiah Smith's Fort
Smithfield Line | Springdale | Star Fort | Steele's Fort | Stephen's Fort | Old Stone Fort
Stone Church Fort | Stover's Fort | Strickler's Fort | Teaford Farm Camp | Fort Turley
Warwick's Fort | Fort Washington | West Fort (3) | White's Fort | White Hall | White House
Wilson's Fort | Winchester Defenses | Fort Windham Rocks | Wolfe's Fort | Woodstock Fort
Fort Young

Northern Virginia - page 1 | Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3
Central Virginia II - page 4 | Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6
James River Area - page 7 | Hampton Roads - page 8 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11



Last Update: 11/APRIL/2011
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2011 American Forts Network

Paris Signal Station
(1861 - 1864), near Paris
A Civil War signal station was located on the mountain just west of town, used by both CSA and Union troops during the war. State marker on US 50/17.

Berryville Earthworks
(1864), Berryville
Union earthworks, part of an eight-mile line, were located just northwest of town at VA 7 (Bus.) and County Rt. 636 (High School Rd.) near Cooley School. No remains (?). Attacked by the CSA during Battle of Berryville (September 1864).

Fort Loudoun
(1756 - 1780), Winchester FORT WIKI
This was the frontier headquarters of the Virginia colonial militia. It was an earthen and horizontal log square redoubt on stone foundations with four bastions and armed with 18 guns (out of 24 embrasures). Wooden barracks and Officers' quarters were within. Also known as Fort Washington early on. Construction was halted in 1758 after the fall of Fort Duquesne in Pennsylvania. The guns were finally removed, save one, in 1775 to be used elsewhere. It remained a state militia supply depot and rendezvouse through the American Revolution. The earthworks of Fort Loudoun were still visible in 1838. The site was just north of the old town area, at present-day North Loudoun and Peyton Streets. Remnants of the northeast bastion are located at 420 North Loudoun Street, and remnants of the south bastion and magazine are at 410 North Loudoun Street. An interpretive center will be built at 419 North Loudoun Street, the site of the north bastion and well.

Nearby is the George Washington's Office Museum, a log and stone house built in 1748, located at Cork and Braddock Streets, where Washington supervised Fort Loudoun's construction. Two of Fort Loudoun's guns are on display here. Admission fee. The town was originally named Fredericktown until 1752.

Fort George (5)
(1780), Winchester
A temporary POW stockade for British and Hessian prisoners that were being moved to Frederick Barracks, MD from Charlottesville, located on a hill behind the "Braddock Street" church.

Civil War Defenses of Winchester
Tour Winchester's Civil War Sites by Steve Hawks
(1861 - 1864), Winchester
Fort Collier (1861 - 1864), originally built as a CSA redoubt early in the war. Known as Battery No. 10 by the Union during the Second Battle of Winchester (June 1863). Abandoned by the CSA during the Third Battle of Winchester (September 1864). Located near US 11 and VA 764, north of town. (FORT WIKI)
Star Fort (aka Battery No. 3) (1862 - 1864) (eight guns), originally built in 1862 by Union forces, but abandoned after the First Battle of Winchester (May 1862). This was later manned by CSA troops after Second Winchester, and was captured by the Union during Third Winchester. Well preserved, located just north of the city line on US 522 in Sunnyside. Restoration in progress for future park (2011). (FORT WIKI)
Fort Milroy (aka Battery No. 2) (1862 - 1864), a Union 14-gun redoubt south of Star Fort. Originally named Fort Garibaldi by the Union in July 1862. Rebuilt and renamed Flag Fort by the Union in January 1863, then renamed again in May 1863. Renamed Fort Jackson (2) by the CSA after Second Winchester. Still extant but heavily overgrown, located on Fairmont Ave., now the Shenandoah Valley Cooperative.
West Fort (3) (aka Battery No. 5) (1863), a Union three-gun lunette and redan west of Fort Milroy, south of US 522, along Apple Pie Ridge and VA 37. A portion still exists in a wooded area (private property).
Bower's Hill Redoubt (1863), a CSA redoubt built during Second Winchester, located on the north bank of Abram's Creek near Milltown.
Confederate trenchworks (Smithfield Line) (1864) were located south of Fort Collier and east of the Valley Pike (US 11) along the present-day city limits.

Other Union works in 1863 before Second Winchester:
Battery No. 1 a six-gun lunette south of Fort Milroy; Battery No. 4 a six-gun lunette north of Star Fort; Battery No. 6 a three-gun lunette north of West Fort (3); Battery No. 7 an eight-gun lunette and redan north of Battery 6; Battery No. 8 between Battery 7 and Star Fort; and Battery No. 9 (unknown location). No remains. A Union redoubt was located east of the city along Ash Hollow Run, on the south side of the Berryville Pike (VA 7), west of County Route 656, near the present-day Shenandoah Hills community. A Union signal station was located to the west on Round Hill at Petticoat Gap (along present-day US 50).

Of interest in town is Stonewall Jackson's Headquarters Museum, located at 415 North Braddock Street. Admission fee. Also of interest is the Old Courthouse Civil War Museum at 20 North Loudoun Street.

Opequon Creek Defenses
(1864), near Kernstown and Bartonsville
Three Union redoubts formed part of the southern defenses of Winchester and Kernstown, along the north bank of Opequon Creek. One unnamed work was located near Jones Road (County Rt. 621). Another unnamed work was located on Middle Road (County Rt. 628). Fort Ricketts was located on Shady Elm Road (County Rt. 651) near Bartonsville. The main encampment was named Camp Sheridan.

Around Bartonsville on the Valley Pike was Camp Russell, protected by extensive trenchwork lines east and west of the Valley Pike (US 11) and present-day I-81. The Carysbrooke Redoubt was located on the north bank of Opequon Creek southeast of the present-day VA 37 and I-81 interchange. To the east at Parkins Mill was the Parkins' Mill Redoubt (1863). The 1854 Pritchard House at 610 Battle Park Drive is operated by the Kernstown Battlefield Association.

Cedar Creek Earthworks
(Cedar Creek Battlefield Foundation)
(Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park)
(1864), near Middletown
Union encampment sites and trenchworks were built on the east side of Cedar Creek along both sides of present-day US 11 (Valley Pike) southwest of town before the Battle of Cedar Creek (October 1864). Traces still remain.

Of interest on the battlefield is Belle Grove Plantation (1797), used as Union headquarters. Admission fee.

Hupp's Hill Earthworks
(1864), Strasburg
Confederate artillery positions were first built here during the Third Battle of Winchester (September 1864) and the Battle of Cedar Creek (October 1864). Union trenchworks were built here after the Battle of Cedar Creek. Earthworks still extant, located on the grounds of the Hupp's Hill Civil War Park (admission fee). Also of interest here is Crystal Caverns at Hupp's Hill, which was used in the Civil War for ammunition storage.

Banks' Fort
(1862), Strasburg FORT WIKI
A Union hilltop redoubt built during the 1862 Shenandoah Valley Campaign, named for Union Major General Nathan Banks. A water tower has been built on the site.

Round Hill Signal Station
(1864), near Fishers Hill
A CSA signal station during the Battle of Fisher's Hill (September 1864). Located southwest of town near the junction of I-81 and Mt. Olive Road.

Signal Knob Signal Station
(George Washington National Forest - Elizabeth Furnace Recreation Area)
(1862 - 1864), Signal Knob
A CSA signal station located on the summit of Three Top Mountain (2100 feet elevation), overlooking Strasburg. Used by both sides throughout the lower Shenandoah Valley campaigns. Site accessed via the U.S. Forest Service's Signal Knob Loop Trail (10.6 miles) near the Elizabeth Furnace Recreation Area.

Little Fort
(George Washington National Forest - Little Fort Campground)
(unknown dates), Woodstock Gap
An old stage line rest stop located in a meadow on Powell Mountain. Now a minimally developed campground in the George Washington National Forest.

Front Royal Quartermaster Remount Depot
(Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)
(Northern Virginia 4-H Educational and Conference Center)
(1911/1915 - 1948), Front Royal
The Army established a 4200-acre remount and breeding station for half-breed hunter horses, used to replenish the western remount depots, and for the public market in Virginia and other eastern states. The main purpose of a remount depot was to concentrate the horses/mules in one location after purchase for quarantine and conditioning, prior to shipment for whatever military use (cavalry, field artillery, transportation, etc.). This was the only major Army remount depot in the Army's Eastern Zone (Service Command Areas I, II, III). The depot consisted of eleven barn and stable facilities, a veterinary hospital, several large paddocks, a hilltop exercise track, housing for about 400 military and civilian workers, hundreds of miles of split-rail fencing, many miles of access roads, and even a rail yard facility for the import and export of animals. Some unused land was later transferred to the newly created Shenandoah National Park in 1935. In 1942, with the demise of the horse cavalry, the post began conducting K-9 dog conditioning and training for the Coast Guard and Army coastal beach patrols. See also Dogs and National Defense from US War Dogs Association. About 600 German and Italian POWs were also housed here in temporary barracks in 1944 - 46.

In 1948 4135 acres of the post became a Virginia Tech / U.S.D.A. beef cattle research station. During the Cold War the U.S. Department of State leased part of the compound for use as an emergency relocation and communications site, with support infrastructure for the Secretary of State and 700 other departmental employees. Only the communications station remained by 1972. In 1974 about 3200 acres of the main complex became a satellite facility of the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park to breed endangered mammals and birds. Formerly known as the National Zoo Conservation and Research Center, it was repurposed and renamed in 2010 as the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute. Most of the original Army facilities are still in use. The equine exercise track and an adjacent unaltered horse barn still exist. The center is open to the public only during the annual Autumn Conservation Festival (admission fee). Located two and one-half miles south of town at 1500 Remount Road (US 522).

Virginia Tech retained 229 acres of the original reservation and in 1978 developed the Northern Virginia 4-H Educational and Conference Center, opened in 1980. The James E. Swart Animal Center, currently used for 4-H horse programs, utilizes one the original Army horse barn facilities, located off of US 522 on County Rt. 604 (Harmony Hollow Road) in Arco.

In 1974 the U.S. Customs Service took possession of 240 acres of the original reservation and relocated the Narcotic Detector Dog Program from Texas. The property then consisted of several hay barns, cattle stalls, large pastures, and wooded areas. Over a period of several years, these facilities were renovated into administrative offices, classrooms, and kennel buildings. In 1980 it was renamed the Canine Enforcement Program, then by 1988 renamed again as the Canine Enforcement Training Center (CETC). In 1993 new construction and renovation of the old facilities was undertaken, providing upgraded utilities, a new 100-run kennel building, a laundry facility, a training building, a small arms firing range, vehicle training areas, and improved training roads. A new academic building was opened to provide improved classroom facilities. In 2003 the facility came under the jurisdiction of the new Customs and Border Protection Agency (CBP) of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The center, located on County Rt. 604 (Harmony Hollow Road), is not open to the public.

Fort Windham Rocks
(Shenandoah National Park)
(unknown), near Compton Gap
A natural rock formation on Carson Mountain, off of Skyline Drive at mile 10.4, at 2580 feet elevation. Access by the Dickey Ridge Trail via the Appalachian Trail. Origin of name unknown.

Miley Archaeological Site
(900 - 1600), near Maurertown
A Late Woodland Period Indian palisaded village in the Seven Bends area. Site excavated in 1964.

Quicksburg Archaeological Site
(900 - 1600), Quicksburg
A Late Woodland Period Indian palisaded village.

Camp Holly
(1812), Rockingham County
A VA state militia training camp. Undetermined location.

Camp Hoover
(Shenandoah National Park - Rapidan Camp)
(1929 - 1939/present), near Big Meadows
President Herbert Hoover's summer retreat located at the headwaters of the Rapidan River, at about 2500 feet elevation. Also referred to as Camp Rapidan. The main camp (President's Camp) was on 164 acres of land personally bought by Hoover in 1929, surrounded by about 2000 acres leased by him. The U.S. Marines built an access road from Criglersville and 13 wood-frame structures at the camp, and provided a 50-man guard detail for the President on all his visits. The Marines, generally 150-200 men during the summer season, and only 12 or so during winter months, were bivouaced at Marine Camp one mile downriver from the main camp. Originally a tent city with only three frame buildings, several additional frame structures were built in the 1930's. The Marines left for good in 1939, and their camp was demolished in 1944. A third camp (Cabinet Camp), consisting of six frame buildings, was built in 1930 another mile further downriver on private land for visiting Cabinet members and other government officials. The Cabinet Camp was sold off in 1953, now within the state's Rapidan Wildlife Management Area. President Hoover donated his land to the National Park Service in 1933, for the future use of government officials. The camp went unused between 1941 and 1949. The Boy Scouts used the site from 1949 to 1959, and had built an additional 14 structures. All buildings but three were demolished in 1960. The three restored buildings are still often rented by government officials, although no sitting president, except President Carter in 1979, ever used the camp after Hoover. Designated a National Historic Landmark in 1988. The buildings are closed to the public except for one weekend every August (Hoover Days), with a fee-based shuttle service from the Big Meadows Visitor Center. The grounds are open to hikers year-round. Admission fee to park.

Rockfish Gap Camp
(1781), near Afton
A local militia mobilization camp for the surrounding counties as the British Army was making its way into Virginia from North Carolina. Exact location undetermined.

Barren Ridge Encampment
(1864 - 1865), near Fishersville
A CSA winter quarters log-cabin encampment for the remaining infantry and artillery units of General Jubal Early's forces from late December 1864 to late February 1865. Site located north of present-day US 250 along County Rt. 642 (Barren Ridge Road), east of Christians Creek.

Teaford Farm Encampment
(1864 - 1865), near Swoope
CSA winter quarters for General Early's remaining cavalry forces, located on the Teaford Farm just south of Swoope's Depot and north of Sugar Loaf Mountain.

Fort Edward Johnson
(George Washington National Forest)
(1862 - 1864), near Headwaters FORT WIKI
A CSA fortified camp at the crest of Shenandoah Mountain. Remnants of infantry trenches and a one-gun battery are located on the 0.5 mile Confederate Breastworks Trail located off of US 250 in the George Washington National Forest. Site maintained by the U.S. Forest Service.

CSA Camp Shenandoah (1862) was located about four miles east near Ramsey's Draft and West Augusta.

Fort Dinwiddie
(1754 - 1760's, 1770's - 1789), near Bacova FORT WIKI
A stockaded settlers' house known as William Warwick's Fort, and also as Capt. Peter Hogg's Fort (2) or Col. William Byrd's Fort, used by the VA colonial militia. Located on the Jackson River north of town. Supposedly still in use during the American Revolution, it was torn down in 1805.

Settler and Militia Forts of Western Virginia

City of Winchester:
Abraham Hollingsworth's Fort (1735 - 1755 ?), a settlers' stockaded log house. His son Isaac built Abram's Delight, a stone house named after the father, adjacent to the fort site in 1754. Located at 1340 South Pleasant Valley Road. Admission fee.

Frederick County:
near Albin: Fort Pearis (aka Capt. Robert Pearis' Fort) (1755 - 1760's), a settlers' and VA colonial militia (after 1756) stockade fort located 3.6 miles northwest of Fort Loudoun, at the head of Parish Run near the junction of Indian Hollow Road (County Route 679) and Dicks Hollow Road (County Route 608).
Hayfield: Major Robert White's Fort (1755 - 1764), a settlers' stockaded house on the west side of Hogue Creek near the mouth of White's Run, 7.5 miles west-northwest of Fort Loudoun and 3.5 miles west of Pearis’ Fort, that was first built in the 1740's. It was also known as White Hall. It was attacked by Delaware Indians in 1764. Site near County Routes 615 and 600.
Gore: Capt. Jeremiah Smith's Fort (1755 - 1760's), a settlers' stockaded house used as a supply depot for the VA colonial militia. Located ten miles northwest of Fort Loudoun, on the west bank of Back Creek on County Route 750, the old trace for the Fort Loudoun Road.
near Opequon: Robert Glass' Fort (aka Long Meadows Fort (1755 - 1760's), a stockaded settlers' fort located 4.4 miles southwest of Fort Loudoun on the north side of the bend of Opequon Creek, west of Jones Road (County Route 621) and south of Cedar Creek Grade (County Route 622). There is no record that it was ever garrisoned by the Virginia Regiment or militia troops.
near Opequon: Joseph Colvill's Fort (aka Fort Colvin) (1755 - 1760's), a settlers' stone house on the east side of Opequon Creek, located 0.7 mile south of Long Meadows Fort and 4.6 miles southwest of Fort Loudoun, near the 90-degree bend of Jones Road (County Route 621), one-half mile west of County Route 628. The structure identified as the fort was depicted in 1751 as a springhouse on the land of Thomas Marquis and John Willson and across Opequon Creek from the land of Joseph Colvill. The present structure is a stone and frame dwelling house with the spring in the cellar. An archaeological study done by the College of William and Mary in 2003 found no evidence that the structure had been used by the militia or the Virginia Regiment. The springhouse may have been designated as a settler refuge under the leadership of Colvill in late 1755 following General Braddock’s defeat.
near Marlboro: Paul (or William ?) Froman's Fort (1755 - 1760's), a stockaded stone house built in 1751, located on Cedar Creek at Froman's Run. Located one mile east of Fry’s Fort and 1.15 miles north of Stephens’ Fort.
Marlboro: Capt. Lewis Stephens' Fort (1756 - 1760's), a stockaded fort located 11.5 miles southwest of Fort Loudoun on the north side of Cedar Creek near the mouth of Fawcett's Run (Stephens Mill Branch), at the present-day crossing of County Route 628. Garrisoned by the VA colonial militia in the fall of 1757. Still extant on private property is a small whitewashed hexagonal stone powder magazine.
Stephens City: Jost Hite's "Fort" (1734), an early settlers' "blockhaus" (log cabin), site located south of son John's home (Springdale). State marker on VA 7 at County Rt. 656 in Shenandoah Hills area of Winchester.
Stephens City: Col. John Hite's Fort (1755 - 1760's), ruins of a settlers' stone house (Springdale) originally built in 1753. Son of Jost. The state marker here is in error.
Stephens City: Jacob Crisman's Fort (1755 - 1760's), a stone house built in 1751, located two miles south of town. The town was formed as Stephensburgh in 1758.
near Middletown: John Nisewanger's Fort (aka Old Stone Fort) (1756 - 1760's), a stone house used as a refuge for several families after the Indian massacre at White's Fort in 1764. Also spelled Nieswander. There is no evidence of militia troop utilization. Located 12 miles southwest of Fort Loudoun, and 2.6 miles southeast of Stephens’ Fort, on the west bank of Middle Marsh Run about 1.5 miles northwest of town, just south of Chapel Road (County Route 627).
unknown location: Helm's Fort (1750's), a settlers' house.

Shenandoah County:
near Wheatfield: Benjamin Fry's Fort (1755 - 1760's) a settlers' stockaded house (built 1744) on the south bank of Cedar Creek at Moores Ford north of town. Located 11.7 miles southwest of Fort Loudoun and about 2 miles northwest of Stephens’ Fort. Forty-six settlers from the Great Cacapon River fled to the fort in September 1757, shortly after 34 inhabitants had been killed or captured between Cedar Creek and Stony Creek. Still exists (private property) between Cedar Creek and County Route 606 (Mountain Falls Road), a short distance west of its intersection with County Route 623.
near Cedar Creek: George Bowman's Fort (aka Harmony Hall) (1755 - 1760's), a stockaded stone house built in 1751, located on the west side of Cedar Creek south of the US 11 bridge. Located 15.5 miles south of Fort Loudoun, 3.5 miles from Nisewanger’s Fort, 5.3 miles from Stephens’ Fort, 6.35 miles from Froman’s Fort, and 6.75 miles from Fry’s Fort. Still exists (private property). (FORT WIKI)
Strasburg: Peter Hupp's Fort (1755 - 1760's), a stone house that was used as a fort during Indian attacks, located on the west side of US 11 on the north side of town at Cool Springs Road. Still exists (private property). Addition added 1956. Located three miles southwest of Bowman's Fort. (FORT WIKI)
Fort Valley: Powell's Fort (1740's ?), unknown location, about 15 miles (?) from Painter's Fort. The valley takes it's name from this supposed outlaw settler fort.
Woodstock: Jacob Miller's Fort (1756 - 1760's) (aka Woodstock Fort), a settlers' fort. Also spelled Mueller. Possibly attacked by Indians in 1766. The town was founded in 1761, previously known as Millerstown.
St. Davids Church or Carmel: George Keller's Fort (1756 - 1770's), a settlers' fort located on Passage Creek. It was used by the VA colonial militia.
Lantz Mills: Jacob Wolfe's Fort (1755 - 1760's), a settlers' stockaded blockhouse on Stony Creek.
*Hamburg: George Painter's Fort (1750's - 1758), a log house with a deep vaulted stone cellar, located at the head of Painter Run. It was attacked and destroyed by Indians.
near Quicksburg: Jacob Holman's Fort (1750's - 1760's), a settlers' fort at the mouth of Holman's Creek.

Page County:
*Springfield: Rev. John Rhodes' (or Rodes) Fort (1760's), a settlers' log house over a vaulted stone cellar, located on the west side of the South Fork Shenandoah River. Attacked by Indians in 1766, all were killed. The house was destroyed by fire in 1990.
Springfield: Charles Keyser's (Sr.) Fort (1765), a settlers' home on the west bank of the river.
*Springfield: Michael Rinehart's Fort (1750's), a settlers' home with a vaulted stone cellar, located on the west bank of the river near Keyser's (Sr.) Fort. Later known as Charles Keyser's (Jr.) Fort sometime after 1765.
*Springfield: Samuel Stover's Fort (1760), a settlers' stone house with a vaulted stone cellar, located on Sandy Hook directly opposite from Rhodes' Fort. Still exists (private property).
Springfield: Heiston's Fort (1750's), a settlers' home near Bixley's (Bixlers) Ferry.
*Hamburg: Martin Kauffman's Fort (aka White House) (1760), a white-washed stucco house with a vaulted stone cellar. Still exists (private property).
*Salem: Jacob Strickler's Fort (aka Fort Egypt) (1758), a log house with a vaulted stone cellar located at Egypt Bend, opposite Hamburg. Still exists (private property).
Salem: Fort Massanutten (aka Locust Grove) (1750's), a settlers' fort on the west bank of the river.
*Salem: Paul Long's (or Lung) Fort (1750's), a settlers' house with a vaulted stone cellar, located on the west bank of the river.
*Leaksville: Philip Long's (or Lung) Fort (1750's), a settlers' stone house with a vaulted stone cellar. Still exists (private property). Located on the east bank of the river. State marker C-31 "Fort Philip Long" located on US 211 about two miles west of Luray.
unknown location: Burner's Fort (1750's), a settlers' home near Ruffner's Ferry (location ?). Possibly near Burner Bottom near the Warren County line.

*(NOTE: the eight houses listed above with vaulted stone cooling cellars, called "Gewölbekeller", were mistakenly believed by 19th-century historians to have been built as "forts" by their owners, based on their defensive appearance. Modern archaeology has shown otherwise. Traditionally called "forts", they are included here for historical purposes. An excellent example that is open for public tours is the 1758 Schifferstadt House - Architectural Museum located at 1100 Rosemont Ave. in Frederick, Maryland.)

Rockingham County:
Coote's Store: Brock's Gap Fort (1756 - 1760's), a VA colonial militia fort. May have been known as Captain James Dunlap's Fort (or Dunlop) or Captain Peter Hogg's Fort (1).
Turleytown: Fort Turley (unknown).
Green Mount: Fort Lynne (unknown).
Dayton: Capt. Daniel Harrison's Fort (aka Fort Harrison (1)) (1755 - 1760's), a two-story stone house with stockade on Cook's Creek that served as a refuge for settlers from Indian attacks. Built in 1748, rear brick addition added 1856. It was restored in the 1980's, and is operated as a museum by the Harrisonburg-Rockingham Historical Society. Located at 335 Main Street (Old US 11).
Port Republic: John Madison's Fort (1755 - 1760's), a stockaded stone house, also known as Madison Hall. The original house was razed in 1915 and replaced with the current house now standing, at 8080 Main Street (private property). Marker at site.

Augusta County:
Fort Defiance: Augusta Stone Church Fort (1755 - 1760's), a stone church built in 1747-49 that was stockaded for the protection of settlers. It was never attacked. Still exists at 28 Old Stone Church Lane on US 11. It was enlarged in 1921 and 1956. The Session House Museum was opened in 1975 adjacent to the church. The town was so named later in the 19th century for the bravery of the early settlers.

City of Staunton:
Fort Lewis (2) (aka Bellefont) (1755 - 1760's), a stone house built by John Lewis in 1732, later palisaded. It was in use by the VA colonial militia. Site located just north of US 11 and VA 254. John Lewis was the father of Andrew and Charles.

Rockbridge County:
near Steele's Tavern: Steele's Fort (1756 - 1763), a two-story stone house (1754) with a stockade used as a refuge for settlers. Still exists, located at 31 Steeles Fort Loop (private property), off of Steeles Fort Road (County Route 706), along Moores Creek, about one quarter mile north of US 11. The house was modified in 1777 and 1812. The Kerr Creek Massacre (1763) took place about 15 miles southwest of here.

Highland County:
near Doe Hill: Fort Harper (1750's) (aka Matthew Harper's Fort), used by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 40 men, located on the Bullpasture River north of McDowell.
near Clover Creek: Fort George (4) (1757), an 80-foot square log fort on the Bullpasture River, built by the VA colonial militia. Also known as William Estill's Fort and/or Wallace Austin's Fort. Also referred to as Clover Creek Fort and Fort Nelson (1). Trace still remains (?). State marker located on County Rt. 678 about six miles south of McDowell.
near Vanderpool: Fort Miller (aka Capt. John Miller's Fort) (1756 - 1760's), used by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 50 men, located on the Jackson River.

Bath County:
near Bolar: Christy's Fort (1756 - 1760's), built by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 40 men, located on the Jackson River about 15 miles from Fort Dinwiddie.
Fort Lewis: Fort Lewis (1) (1756 - 1763), a small stockade first known as Wilson's Fort, used by the VA colonial militia, located on the Cowpasture River. Also known as Capt. Charles Lewis' Hog Pen. The estate was later known as the "Fort Lewis Plantation". The fort's remains were still evident after 1900. The Lewis manor house still stands at the Fort Lewis Lodge at 603 Old Plantation Way. Charles Lewis was the brother of Andrew Lewis, and the son of John Lewis. (FORT WIKI)
near Millboro Springs: Fort Dickinson (or Dickenson's Fort) (1756 - 1760's), built by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 40 men, attacked by Indians in 1756 and 1757. Located on the Cowpasture River southwest of town. (FORT WIKI)

Alleghany County:
Falling Spring: Fort Breckenridge (1) (or Brackenridge) (1756 - 1763), built by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 50 men, it survived an attack by Shawnee Indians during Pontiac's War in 1763. Also known as Fort Mann.
near Earlehurst: Carpenter's Fort (1) (1750's), a settlers' fortified house located on Snake Run. Fort Carpenter Cemetery is here.

City of Covington:
Fort Young (1756 - 1763), used by the VA colonial militia. A relief force that was sent to Fort Breckenridge in 1763 was ambushed by Indians. Exact location not known, believed to be in the Sunnymeade area of town. The log stockade and blockhouses were reconstructed in 1979 in a park on West Liberty Street. No longer standing.

NEED MORE INFO: Fort Braddock and Old Fort in Winchester. Fort Run in Rockingham County near Timberville.

Northern Virginia - page 1 | Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3
Central Virginia II - page 4 | Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6
James River Area - page 7 | Hampton Roads - page 8 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at