Camp Alexander |
Fort Algernourne |
Camp Ashby |
Fort Barbour |
Barrel Point Battery
Belleville Site | Camp Bowers | Camp Bowers Hill | Camp Brooke | Bushy Bluff Battery
Camp Butler | Camp Byrd | Castle Calhoun | Fort Calhoun | Cape Henry Fort
Cedar Point Battery | Fort Charles (1) | Chesapeack | Craney Island Fort | Fort Farthing
Fort George (1) | Camp Getty | Camp Grant | Great Neck Site | Camp Haines | Half Moon Fort
Camp Hamilton | Hampton Defenses | Camp Patrick Henry | Fort Henry (1) | Camp Hill (1)
Hospital Point Battery | Kecoughtan | Lambert's Point Battery | Fort/Fortress Monroe
Camp Morrison | Fort Murray | Camp Naglee | Nansemond Fort (2)
Nansemond Ordnance Depot | Fort Nelson (2) | Fort Nelson (3) | Fort Norfolk
Old Point Comfort Proving Ground | Camp Pendleton | Camp Perry | Pig Point Battery
Pig Point Ordnance Depot | Pinner's Point Battery | Point Comfort Fort | Camp Pollard
Portsmouth Defenses | Camp Price | Sewell's Point Battery (2) | Sewell's Point Fort (1)
Camp Simpson | Skicoac | Camp John Smith | Fort Story | Camp Stuart (2) | Camp Talbot
Fort Tar | Camp Thalia | Town Point Battery (2) | Town Point Fort (1) | Camp Trinkle
Camp Warburton | Fort Wool
Norfolk's Cold War AAA Defenses
Northern Virginia - page 1 | Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3
Central Virginia II - page 4 | Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6
James River Area - page 7 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11
VIRGINIA CIVIL WAR TRAILS
Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation
(1898, 1917 - 1919, 1942 - 1945), Newport News FORT WIKI
POE Headquarters was located in the Federal Building downtown. Assembly camps for the Spanish-American War (Puerto Rico Campaign) POE were located at the C&O rail terminal on the Casino Grounds (28th Street); at present-day Christopher Newport Park; along 23rd Street one block away from Hotel Warwick; on a field between 34th and 36th Streets; and along the James River between 45th and 50th Streets (Camps Grant and Haines). (NOTE: Brig. General Peter C. Hains spelled his name without the "e".) These were all subcamps of Camp Brooke.
Pennsylvania state light artillery troops arrived earlier to protect the Newport News Shipyard, and encamped just north of the yard at Camp Warburton on the Collis Huntington property.
Assembly camps associated with the World War I POE (July 1917 - September 1919) include:
Camp Hill (1) located north of 64th Street and into Huntington Park, between the C&O Railroad and the James River. Primarily used as a Motor Transport Depot and Remount Station. The Virginia War Museum (admission fee), 9285 Warwick Blvd., is now on site.
Camp Alexander was originally the northern section of Camp Hill, separated in 1918. Used for Black troops and stevedores. Site located between Warwick Blvd. and Jefferson Ave., now a residential area. Markers at 71st Street and Huntington Ave. recall both camps. State marker located on Warwick Blvd. (US 60) at 69th Street.
Camp Stuart (2) located near the Small Boat Harbor between Ivy Ave. and Salter's Creek near Newport News Point, was the largest (309 acres) of the four camps. Became a golf course after the war. The Horace E. Dodge Boat and Plane Corporation factory was built on the site in the 1930's. Later became a Defense Housing Corporation residential development in 1941, known as Stuart Gardens. Marker at 16th Street and Roanoke Ave..
Camp Morrison located in the Morrison area, one mile east of the James River. On 295 acres along the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad, used for the Army Air Service and Balloon Corps personnel, with 24 supply warehouses.
During World War II (June 1942 - January 1946) the POE utilized Camp Patrick Henry as a troop shipment center, a 1700-acre site that after the war became the Patrick Henry Hospital, and in 1949 924 acres became Patrick Henry Airport (now Newport News-Williamsburg International Airport). German and Italian POWs were also held here in 1944 - 1945.
(Greenlawn Memorial Park)
(1861 - 1865), Newport News
A fortified Union camp on Newport News Point, including a four-gun water battery with ordnance transferred from Fort Monroe. A 25-acre POW camp for 3,490 Confederate prisoners was also located here at the end of the war, active for five months after Appomattox. Greenlawn Cemetery was established on a portion of the original site in 1888. In 1900 163 Confederate POW dead from Camp Butler were formally re-interred in the cemetery, marked by a 25-foot tall granite obelisk. Additional markers located in Christopher Newport Park at the foot of 27th Street.
Early Hampton Forts
(1610 - 1637), Hampton
Fort Henry (1) (1610 - 1637) was located on the east side of the mouth of the Hampton River, between John's Creek and Strawberry Banks, near the present V.A. Hospital campus. Fort Charles (1) (1610 - unknown) was built opposite on the west side. There were reportedly 15 men posted at each. They were briefly abandoned in 1610. A trading post was established on the west side in 1630, at the former Kecoughtan Indian town site, which had been burned down by the English in 1610. Settled by the English in 1611, known as Kecoughtan until renamed Elizabeth City in 1619, this is the oldest continuously inhabited English settlement in North America. State marker located at the V.A. Hospital on Strawberry Banks Blvd..
An early colonial palisaded homestead site (1628 - 1655) was recently discovered and excavated near Hampton University. In 1625 there were 24 palisaded structures listed in records.
Two VA state militia batteries, manned by 450 troops, were captured and destroyed by the British in June 1813 after their defeat at Norfolk (Craney Island). Located in the Little England area, above Blackbeard Point.
(1861 - 1865), Hampton
A large Union encampment for the overflow at Fort Monroe. Hampton Army General Hospital was also located here. Located in the Phoebus section of town. State marker located at College Place and East Queen Street.
¤ COAST and HARBOR DEFENSES of HAMPTON ROADS
Harbor Defense of Chesapeake Bay - FORT WIKI
¤ Fort Monroe (National Monument)
(Fort Monroe Authority)
(City of Hampton - Fort Monroe)
(1819 - 2011), Old Point Comfort
Fort Algernourne (1609 - 1622), aka Point Comfort Fort after 1612, was first located here. A Spanish spy reported in 1611 that the fort had 25 men and four guns. It was reported to have seven guns and fifty men in 1614. It fell into disuse after 1622 and was then abandoned. A new fort was built in 1632 (name unknown). It was abandoned in 1665, and then destroyed by a hurricane in 1667. Fort George (1) (1727 - 1749) with 20 guns was later built on the site, but it also was destroyed by a hurricane in 1749. It may have been rebuilt in 1755 - 56 with 25 guns. During the American Revolution at the time of the Battle of Yorktown (1781), the British built several batteries on the point.
The present moated hexagon-shaped masonry fortress is the largest in the United States, enclosing over 62 acres, with 412 planned gun emplacements. It was first garrisoned in 1823 and had been continuously occupied since then. Prior to 1832 the official name was Fortress Monroe. The Army's Old Point Comfort Proving Ground was located here from the 1830's to 1861. Gun proofing was then relocated to Fort Hancock at Sandy Hook, New Jersey after the Civil War. This was one of the five southern permanent seacoast forts that were never taken by the Confederacy at any time. Several detached batteries were located outside of the fortress. These included the Water Battery (1832 - 1898), which is now in ruins; and Endicott coastal batteries, which include Battery Irwin (1903 - 1920, 1946 - 1949) (two guns here from Fishermans Island), Battery Parrott (1906 - 1943), converted to Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 23 (1943 - 1949) (one gun remains from Fishermans Island), Battery DeRussy (1904 - 1944), Battery Church (1901 - 1942) modified before WWII, and the combined Battery Anderson (1898 - 1943) and Battery Ruggles (1898 - 1943) partially destroyed. Battery Gatewood (1898 - 1914), the Experimental Battery (modified), and the WWII harbor entrance control tower are located on the fortress parapet. Other batteries once located here were Battery Humphreys (1897 - 1910) destroyed, Battery Eustis (1901 - 1942) destroyed, Battery Bomford (1897 - 1940) destroyed, Battery Barber (1898 - 1915) destroyed, Parapet Battery (1898 - 1915), and Battery Montgomery (1904 - 1920's, 1941 - 1948) destroyed. Battery 124 was planned for Buckroe Beach but never built. In WWII AA Battery #1 (three 3-inch AA guns) was located at Wilson Park, and AA Battery #2 was located on and adjacent to Battery Irwin. The Artillery School of Practice was located here in 1824 - 1834, re-established in 1858 - 1861, and returned in 1868. It was renamed the Coast Artillery School in 1907, and remained until 1946 when moved to Fort Winfield Scott in San Francisco, CA (then subsequently disbanded in 1949). A four-gun 90mm AA battery was located on post in 1953 - 1955 (N-03). NIKE missile battery headquarters were located here in 1955 - 1960 (N-08). The Casemate Museum is located in one section of the casemates. The Old Point Comfort Lighthouse is located next to the fortress. Built in 1802, it was used by the British as a watch tower in 1813 after Hampton was captured. The Post Hospital became (Camp) Josiah Simpson Army General Hospital in 1898, which expanded to a tent camp within the parade ground. Additional infantry troops from Maryland had arrived in 1898 to guard the post. There were once several fire-control towers and stations over the years located from Old Point to North Buckroe Beach. The last remaining fire-control tower (1903), located near Battery Anderson, was demolished in late 2001. Hurricane Isabel in 2003 severely flooded the old fortress. The military base was closed in 2011. The old stone fort and most of the Endicott batteries were declared a National Monument in 2012 and are now maintained by the National Park Service. See also Virginia Military Places
(City of Hampton - Fort Wool)
(1823 - 1946), Rip-Raps, Hampton
Formerly named Fort Calhoun until 1862. It was also referred to as Castle Calhoun. It is located on a man-made island (the Rip-Raps) at the entrance to the harbor of Hampton Roads. The island was created between 1819 and 1823. Construction of the fort was then begun but the foundation kept sinking causing numerous delays. Construction was finally halted in 1830. Fort Wool was to have consisted of three tiers of casemates plus a barbette tier with 232 guns. Only about one and a half tiers were completed. More foundation stones were added to the island in 1858. The fort finally received 10 cannon in 1861 and the Union held it throughout the Civil War. They were able to fire on the Confederate position at Sewells Point, located on the present-day Norfolk U.S. Naval Base.
In 1902 most of the old fort was torn down. Modern batteries were built, incorporating eight of the original casemates and the remaining outer wall. They were Battery Claiborne (1908 - 1918), Battery Dyer (1908 - 1917), Battery Gates (1908 - 1942) converted to #229, Battery 229 (1944), Battery Lee (1905 - 1942) (guns to Fishermans Island), and Battery Hindman (1905 - 1946). The fort was a subpost of Fort Monroe in World War I. During the world wars a huge anti-submarine net was stretched across the channel to Fort Monroe. Two WWII fire-control towers were located at either end of the island. A BC station tower still stands. Transferred to the state in 1970, presently managed by the city. The island is accessable by private boat, or also the Miss Hampton II tourboat (fee) operating out of downtown Hampton, regularly stopping at the fort since 1985. Hurricane Isabel in 2003 damaged the boat dock. Since 2005 the island may be subject to public closure during Homeland Security alerts. The Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel complex (I-64 / US 60) was originally completed in 1957. See also Virginia Military Places
Sewell's Point Fort (1)
(1692, 1861 - 1862), Norfolk
A small local militia fort was once located here, at the present-day Norfolk U.S. Naval Base.
CSA Sewell's Point Battery (2) (1861 - 1862) was later located here. No remains. State marker located at site.
Camp Captain John Smith
An Army camp that provided security at the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition, located on the grounds of the Norfolk U.S. Naval Base.
Fort Norfolk (U.S. Army Reservation)
(Norfolk Historical Society - Fort Norfolk)
(Visit Fort Norfolk - USACE)
(1794 - 1802, 1809 - 1880), Norfolk FORT WIKI
A state militia battery was once located here in 1775. First built in 1794, the original Federal fort was destroyed to build the new 30-gun fort in 1809. This is one of the best preserved "Second System" forts in the country. Confederates occupied this fort in 1861 but it was recaptured by the Union a year later. The Confederates had built a five-gun naval battery by the wharf. The U.S. Navy used the fort for weapons storage beginning in 1863. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers now occupy the site (since 1923), but they do not occupy the historic fort, which is presently overseen and managed by the Norfolk Historical Society, which opened the fort to the public in 1992. The view of the river is now obscured by the U.S.A.C.E.'s Waterfield Building. See also Historic Fort Norfolk from Historic Forrest.com
(1812 - 1815, 1861 - 1862), Norfolk
American Fort Barbour (1812) was located at Princess Anne Road and Church Street, and Fort Tar (1812) was located on Monticello Avenue north of Virginia Beach Blvd.. These earthen redoubts protected the landward approach to Fort Norfolk during the British attack in June 1813.
Lambert's Point Battery (1813, CSA 1862) was north of town, directly across the channel from Craney Island. No remains. CSA four-gun Bushy Bluff Battery (1862) was once located at Boush's Bluff at the mouth of the Lafayette River, opposite Tanner Point. A line of CSA earthworks were located just east of the present-day downtown area, between the Lafayette River and Broad Creek.
Half Moon Fort
(1673 - unknown), Norfolk
Built to defend against the Dutch, it was named after its semi-circular shape and renamed Fort Farthing (1682) after the city was established. It was located at Four Farthing Point, now known as Town Point Park. State marker located near the end of West Main Street.
British Town Point Fort was located at Town Point in 1781. No remains.
(1861 - 1862), Norfolk
A Confederate encampment for the city's defenders until the city was evacuated in May 1862. Site located one-half mile west of the intersection of Oak Grove Road and Granby Street. State marker located at the intersection.
(1862 - 1864), Norfolk
A Union camp and hospital established after the city surrendered. Located around the former Norfolk Academy Building (1840), now the Chamber of Commerce Building on 420 Bank Street.
Fort Nelson (2)
(History of Portsmouth Naval Medical Center and Hospital Point)
(1776 - 1782, 1794 - 1802, 1804 - 1826), Portsmouth FORT WIKI
Located at Hospital Point, just across the river from Norfolk. It was built by troops under Benedict Arnold, the Patriot, for a 150-man garrison. Some entrenchments were previously built in the area during 1774. In May 1779 the fort was evacuated just before the British destroyed it. British Admiral Sir George Collier and General Edward Mathew led a 1800-man force to capture and occupy Portsmouth and Norfolk. The British later returned in January 1781, under Arnold, the Traitor, and occupied the city until August 1781 (British General Cornwallis and his army arriving from North Carolina in July).
The fort was later rebuilt in 1794 and 1804 with 37 guns, and repaired in 1808. It was discontinued in 1826 and torn down the next year to make way for the Naval Hospital. Most of the bricks were reused in the construction of the hospital, which was completed in 1830. State marker located on Crawford Parkway near Fort Nelson Towers. (NOTE: There is a street named "Fort Lane" located nearby.)
The site was also used as a Confederate strongpoint in 1861 - 1862 with the erection of an 18-gun battery, known as Hospital Point Battery, or Fort Nelson (3). Captured by the Union in May 1862.
(1781, 1861 - 1862), Portsmouth
British forces, commanded by Benedict Arnold, the Traitor, built several earthen redoubts in March 1781 as they occupied the city (since January 1781), to defend against a landward Patriot attack from the west. The works extended in an arc along Dinwiddie and Washington Streets, from Crawford Parkway and Court Street on the north waterfront on the Elizabeth River, south to Gosport Creek (Southern Branch). No remains. Arnold established his headquarters at the Patrick Robinson House, and used the old sugar house on Crawford Street as a prison and barracks. State markers are located at Bayview and Maryland Aves.; at Washington and King Streets; on Crawford Parkway at Court Street; on Crawford Street near Harbor Court Road; and on Crawford Parkway east of Court Street.
CSA naval 12-gun Pinner's Point Battery is now the site of the Portsmouth Marine Terminals. A line of CSA earthworks were just west of the present-day downtown area.
Craney Island Fort
(Craney Island Naval Fuel Depot)
(Craney Island Dredged Material Management Area)
(Craney Island - Port of Virginia)
(1813 - 1815, 1862), Craney Island, Portsmouth FORT WIKI
Successfully defended Norfolk from British attack in June 1813. Consisted of a mile-long earthwork, with the main seven-gun fort on the southeastern end, a small redoubt in the center, and an outer battery and a blockhouse on the northwestern end. A larger blockhouse was later built in the main fort. It was also a Confederate strongpoint (20 guns) and it is where the CSS Virginia had its anchorage. No trace exists today, site not publicly accessible. Became a Navy Fuel Depot in 1918. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers created the man-made 2500-acre Craney Island Disposal Area in 1957. State markers are located on US 17 at the Churchland bridge; on US 17 at the Hodges bridge; and in Norfolk at the Norfolk Southern Railroad piers at the Old Dominion Wharf. "Battle of Craney Island" state marker located at the entrance to Hoffler Creek Wildlife Preserve on Twin Pines Road. See also 2013 Bicentennial of Battle of Craney Island from Historic Forrest.com
(c. 1600), Chesapeake
A major Chesapeack Indian town located at the junction of the East and South Branches of the Elizabeth River. Probably palisaded. Never a part of the Powhatan dominion, the entire town was exterminated by them in 1607 to deny the fulfillment of a prophecy warning the Powhatans of a rival kingdom overpowering them. Chief Powhatan resettled the area with his own people later.
John White, Thomas Hariot, and Ralph Lane visited the palisaded village of Skicoac in 1585 - 1586, travelling overland from Roanoke Island in North Carolina. This may have been the same site as above. A small fort may have been built here during the winter. Some accounts have the 1587 Roanoke Colony survivors migrating here in 1589, and were thus killed off in 1607 with the rest of the population.
(1862 - 1865), Bowers Hill
A Union camp during the Civil War, located four miles west from downtown Portsmouth. Also known as Camp Bowers Hill. This was part of the Union front lines defending Portsmouth from the west, after Suffolk was abandoned in June 1863. Also known as Camp Getty (or a nearby camp ?).
Belleville Archaeological Site
(1625 ? - 1650 ?), Belleville
An undetermined English settler's fortified homestead site located on a branch of Knotts Creek, about 1000 feet west of the present-day intersection of US 17 and County Road 658 (Town Point Road), on the north side of US 17. Excavated in 1990-91, two interlocking palisaded enclosures with a ditch and corner bastions and other related features were discovered, along with other earthfast structures outside the palisade, and numerous period artifacts. Probably palisaded for defense during the 1644-46 Second Powhatan War. Site protected and access restricted by VDOT. This site may be related to the Nansemond Fort (2) listed below, which is located about 1500 feet to the north.
Nansemond Fort (2)
(1636 - 1646), near Huntersville
A settlers' trapezoidal palisaded compound with two rounded bastions, enclosing two earthfast buildings (house and livestock barn), located on the east bank of Knotts Creek. Michael Wilcox lived here at the time with his family, and the compound was palisaded for defense, probably on orders from militia Capt. Daniel Gookin, Jr., during the Second Powhatan War in 1644. The compound remained occupied afterwards by another family until about 1680. Site located near the present-day Harbour View residential area. Excavated in 1988.
Nansemond River Batteries
(1861 - 1862), near Huntersville
Confederate defenses for Suffolk located on the lower Nansemond River included:
Pig Point Battery, located at the mouth of the river at the present-day Portsmouth Campus of Tidewater Community College.
Town Point Battery (2), upriver from Pig Point on Bennett's Creek, near the US 17 bridge.
Cedar Point Battery and Barrel Point Battery, both near the mouth of Chuckatuk Creek near Eclipse, on the western side of the Nansemond River.
Pig Point Ordnance Depot
(History of Nansemond Ordnance Depot)
(1917 - 1960), Suffolk
A U.S. Army Ordnance Depot was located at Pig Point at the mouth of the Nansemond River, a subpost of the Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation. Renamed Nansemond Ordnance Depot in 1929. Transferred to the Navy in 1950, renamed Marine Corps Supply Forwarding Annex. Closed in 1960. The original 975-acre site now comprises the Portsmouth campus of Tidewater Community College, General Electric, VA DOT, Dominion Power, and the Hampton Roads Sanitation District. Portions of the property are slated for future redevelopment. See also E.P.A. Superfund site info
(Great Bridge Lock Park)
(Great Bridge Battlefield and Waterways History Foundation)
(1775), Great Bridge
This small British fort was located on the south bank of the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River where the old wooden causeway crossed over (today's Battlefield Blvd. - VA 168 Business). The Battle of Great Bridge (December 1775) took place along the causeway, afterwards the British retreated back to the fort. The fort's site is currently in the marshes between the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal and the old river channel. The city now owns the old causeway parcel and the site of the Patriot (VA state militia) breastworks on the other side of the canal, on the south side of the old causeway. A visitor center will be built here in the future. "Battle of Great Bridge" state marker located on VA 168 at Great Bridge. Other state markers are located at Lock Park at 100 Locks Road, and at VA 168 and Cedar Road.
Great Neck Archaeological Site
(1500's), Great Neck
A protohistoric palisaded Indian townsite, located on Great Neck along Broad Bay, within the present Broad Bay Colony housing development. This may have been the site of the Chesapeack Indian village of Chesipiuk, which was visited by White, Hariot, and Lane in 1585, and which may have been the capital town of the Chesapeacks in the 1580's before moving to the Chesapeack town (see above). White's party also visited the minor village Apasus (not palisaded) in 1585, located near the historic Adam Thoroughgood House (1680) on the Western Branch Lynnhaven River.
Cape Henry Fort
(1757), Cape Henry
A VA colonial militia fort with 20 guns was proposed for this location. It was never built.
(1942 - 1946), Thalia
Originally built as a WWII infantry mobilization camp. Also known as Camp Thalia. Located on 22 acres near the old Tidewater Victory Memorial Hospital, a former state tuberculosis sanitarium at Virginia Beach Boulevard and Thalia Road. That building became the camp's headquarters. Used as the Regimental HQ for the 101st Cavalry Group (Mechanized) from October 1943 to June 1944. Coastal defense shore patrols were conducted by the 101st Cavalry Recon Squad (Mech) from the North Carolina border to Myrtle Beach, SC; and by the 116th Cavalry Recon Squad (Mech) from Ocean City, MD to Cape Charles, VA. The Army troops sarcasticly called the place "Camp Swampy". The camp was then later used as a German POW camp from September 1944 to April 1946. The original hospital building (built in 1937) is now part of the Willis Wayside Furniture complex. The Virginia Beach Central Library is also located on the original grounds. Although several barracks buildings were converted and are still extant as private residences, little else remains of the original camp.
¤¤ HARBOR DEFENSES of CHESAPEAKE BAY (partial - see also page 11)
Harbor Defense of Chesapeake Bay - FORT WIKI
Story (U.S. Military Reservation)
(Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek - Fort Story)
(1914 - 1949/present), Cape Henry
Batteries here include the combined Battery Pennington (1922 - 1947) and Battery Walke (1941 - 1947), Battery Ketcham / 120 (1943 - 1948), Battery 121 (1943 - 1948), Battery Worcester / 224 (1942 - 1947), Battery Cramer / 225 (1943 - 1949), Battery 226 (1943 - 1949), Examination Battery, which was also Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 19 (1942 - 1945) buried, two unnamed batteries (both 1917 - 1919), both of which broke up in the surf, and Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Batteries 21 (broke up in surf) and 22 (broke up in surf), both from 1942. Railway artillery was also used here over the years. There were two four-gun 155mm batteries on Panama mounts; on the ocean-side (exposed) and on the bay-side (buried). A three-gun AA battery was located near the two lighthouses, exposed on the dune line/high water mark (now eroded away). On the Chesapeake Bay shore is a Mine Casemate with a small fire-control station on top of the dune. A second FC station on a steel-frame tower was demolished in late 2006. During World War I the fort was a subpost of Fort Monroe. It became a subpost of Fort Eustis in 1961. Became a NIKE missile launch site 1957 - 1974 (N-25 / N-29). The launcher area is abandoned, but still intact (no public access). The U.S. Navy took over operational control of the post in 2009. The first Cape Henry Lighthouse was built here in 1792. The second lighthouse was erected in 1881. Both still remain standing. A small mine casemate is located under the old lighthouse. The Cape Henry Memorial (NPS) (1935) commemorates the first landing of the English settlers in 1607 before they moved on to Jamestown, and also the 1781 French naval victory in the "Battle of the Capes".
Additional WWII fire-control towers were once located in the area at Chesapeake Beach, Granite, Parcel C - 67th Street (demolished 1960, 2003), Emerson (demolished 1949), Sandbridge (demolished 1996), and Little Island (demolished 1986). A mobile 90mm AA battery was located on Willoughby Spit in Oceanview (Norfolk) in WWII.
Of interest nearby along the resort boardwalk is The Old Coast Guard Station museum, a former Life-Saving Station (1903 - 1969), with exhibits of the area's WWII defenses.
¤¤ Camp Pendleton (State Military Reservation)
(1912 - present), Virginia Beach
A Virginia National Guard training center. Previous names include Camps Trinkle, Byrd, Pollard, Perry, and Price, after state governors of the time. In WWII it was Federalized into a coastal artillery training area and overflow cantonment area for that portion of the 246th Coast Artillery VA NG that could not be accommodated at either Fort Story or Fort Monroe. Two temporary four-gun batteries of 155mm guns in revetments (no Panama mounts) were once located on the beach, Batteries X and Y. The WWII era barracks and post chapel still exist, and are in excellent condition. Some of the barracks have been set up inside to look exactly as they were during that time. Two WWII fire-control towers for Fort Story were once located here. Located on post is the Virginia Commonwealth Challenge Youth Academy. See also Virginia Military Places
Cold War AAA Defenses of Norfolk
(1953 - 1958), various locations
Several permanent sites were established for the Army's Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) Gun Site Program, the precursor to the NIKE missile defense program. Four 90mm AA guns were positioned at each site, with troop barracks and other support buildings. Known sites include:
Newport News (1953 - 1955): undetermined.
Hampton (1953 - 1955): at Pine Chapel Road.
Phoebus (1953 - 1955): between Ireland Street and Edson Terrace near the present Phoebus High School parking lot and sports fields.
Fort Monroe (1953 - 1955): on post (N-03).
Oceanview (1953 - 1957): at Third Oceanview (N-20 ?).
Oceanview (1954 - 1957): battery headquarters only, at Capeview and Parkview.
Norfolk (1953 - 1954): at Lafayette Station.
Portsmouth (1953 - 1954): undetermined.
Churchland (1953 - 1954): undetermined.
Other nearby sites included:
Fort Story (1953 - 1958): on post (N-25).
NIKE missile defense sites (1955 - 1974) are beyond the scope of this website.
See also Carrollton NIKE Site N-75 (1955 - 1961) located in Isle of Wight County.
NEED MORE INFO: Street names: Battery Park Road and Battery Circle in Chesapeake on St. Julian Creek; Battery Road and Rampart Ave. in Virginia Beach (Chesapeake Beach area).Northern Virginia - page 1 | Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3
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"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com