Anderson's Blockhouse |
Benham's Fort |
Bickley's Fort |
Big Crab Orchard Fort
Big Crab Orchard Site | Black's Fort | Fort Blackmore | Blackmore's Fort | Blackwater Fort
Boone Cabin | Bowen's Fort | Fort Breckinridge (2) | Brown's Station | Burke's Fort
Bush's Fort | Buzzard Rock Site | Fort Byrd (2) | Callaway's Fort | Calloway's Fort
A. Campbell's Fort | J. Campbell's Fort | Carter's Fort/Station | Chadwell's Station
Fort Chiswell | Fort Christian | Cocke's Station | Compton's Fort | Craig's Creek Fort
I. Crissman Sr.'s Fort | I. Crissman Jr.'s Station | Cornett Site | Cowan's Fort | Dale's Fort
Davidson's Fort | Davis' Fancy | J. Davis' Fort/Station | Dorton's Fort | Draper's Meadows Fort
Duncan's Fort | Dunkard Bottom Fort | Elk Garden Fort | Ewing's Fort | Faris' Station
Fort Fauquier | Ferris' Station | Flanary Site | Fowler's Station | Fort Frederick
Fugate's Station | Fort George (3) | Gibson's Station | Glade Hollow Fort | Guesses Station
Guest's Station | Harris' Fort | J. Harrison's Fort/Station | Fort Hattan | Hickey's Fort
Hogg's Fort (3) | Houston's Fort | Jackson Ferry Shot Tower | John's Creek Fort
Kilgore's Fort | Fort Lee (1) | Fort Lewis (3) | Fort Littleton | Fort Lyttelton | Looney's Fort
Maiden Springs Fort | Martin's Station (1) | Martin's Station (2) | Martin Site | Mason's Fort
Mayo Fort | McClelland's Station | McNeill's Fort | Moore's Fort | Mumps' Fort
New Garden Fort | Nicholson's Fort | Osborne's Fort | Osman's Fort | Owen's Station
Paul's Fort | P. Porter's Fort | Fort Preston | Priest's Fort | Rentfroe's Fort
Richlands Fort/Station | Ritchie's Fort | Rocky Station | Royal Oak | Russell's Fort
Rye Cove Fort | Saltville Defenses | A. Scott's Fort | Shell's Fort | D. Smith's Fort
Snoddy's Fort | Standiford's Fort | Fort Statham | Stock Creek Fort | Tate's Fort | Terry's Fort
Fort Trial | Vance's Station | Vass' Fort | Fort Vause (2) | Vause's Fort (1)
Wallen's Station Camp | Fort William | T. Witten's Fort | W. Witten's Fort | Wynne's Fort
Wolf Creek Village | Yokum's Station
Northern Virginia - page 1 | Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3
Central Virginia II - page 4 | Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6
James River Area - page 7 | Hampton Roads - page 8 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9
Eastern Shore - page 11
FRONTIER FORTS OF SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA
VIRGINIA CIVIL WAR TRAILS
Buzzard Rock Archaeological Site
(1000 - 1400), Roanoke
A palisaded Indian village site of the Late Woodland Period, located on the Roanoke River near 13th Street, north of Tayloe Street.
Martin Archaeological Site
(900 - 1600), near Allison
A palisaded Indian village site of the Late Woodland Period, located on the New River near the Wythe County - Pulaski County line.
Cornett Archaeological Site
(900 - 1600), Austinville
A palisaded Indian village site of the Late Woodland Period, located on the New River.
(1758 - 1790), Fort Chiswell
A Virginia colonial militia outpost until 1776, built as a supply depot for expeditions against the Cherokee in North Carolina and Tennessee. After 1776 it served as the county seat of Montgomery County, and as a defense for the nearby lead mines on the New River. The British unsuccessfully attacked it in 1780. The Wilderness Road to Kentucky started here. The site was excavated in 1976 prior to highway construction, which destroyed most of the site. Site marked by a stone cairn.
Jackson Ferry Shot Tower
(Shot Tower Historical State Park)
(1807 - 1839), Jackson Ferry
Reportedly the oldest extant lead shot tower in the United States, one of only six antebellum shot towers remaining in the country. Admission fee. The other extant historic shot towers are located in Baltimore, MD, Philadelphia, PA, Columbus, OH, Spring Green, WI, and Dubuque, IA.
Wolf Creek Indian Village
(c. 1500), Bastian
A reconstructed palisaded Indian village of the Late Woodland Period, with artifacts on display in the museum. Located at or near the original Brown-Johnston Archaeological Site, which was excavated in 1970. Operated by the Bland County Historical Society. Admission fee.
Big Crab Orchard Archaeological Site
(Historic Crab Orchard Museum and Pioneer Park)
(800 - 1600), Witten's Fort
A palisaded Indian village site of the Late Woodland Period. Site in field near the Historic Crab Orchard Museum.
Six-foot high CSA earthworks still exist along a hiking path off of Walnut Street, north of town. Additional earthworks were once located along the west bank of Cedar Creek east of town. The town was attacked twice by the Union, in October and December 1864 (see also Battle of Saltville). Three CSA earthwork forts were built southwest of town after the first attack. Located in the hills just past the Washington County line were CSA Fort Statham, Fort Breckinridge (2), and Fort Hattan, of which remnants of all three still exist in a heavily wooded area. They were captured by the Union and destroyed after the second battle, but were later rebuilt. The Confederates tried to repair the saltworks before the war was over. This was the Confederacy's largest salt works, producing over 200 million pounds of salt in 1864. See also Virginia Historic Register Photos
(1774 - 1794), Fort Blackmore FORT WIKI
A settlers' stockaded fort on the Wilderness Road, also known as Capt. John Blackmore's Fort. Located at the mouth of Stony Creek. This was the first permanent settlement (1771) in Scott County. The fort was unsuccessfully attacked by Indians several times. Settlers from the Powell Valley fled here in 1776, as well as those from Rye Cove, prior to the outbreak of the Cherokee War. A stone monument is on VA 72 about one mile south of town.
Flanary Archaeological Site
(955 - 1550), Dungannon
A palisaded Indian village site of the Late Woodland Period, located on the Clinch River at Osborne's Ford. Site excavated in 1977 during highway construction.
Wallen's Station Camp
(1761), Lee County
A camp for "Long Hunters" led by Elisha Wallen. Site located along the Powell River near the mouth of Wallen Creek, about six miles southwest of Jonesville.
Settler and Militia Forts of Western Virginia
See also Indian Atrocities Along the Clinch, Powell, and Holston Rivers of Southwest Virginia, 1773 - 1794 by Emory L. Hamilton, courtesy of the Russell County VAGenWeb
near Rocky Point: Capt. Audley Paul's Fort (1757 - 1763), a stockaded blockhouse at the Big Spring where settlers took refuge during a Shawnee Indian raid in 1761. (FORT WIKI)
Buchanan: Fort Fauquier (1758 - 1763), a VA colonial militia fort that replaced Looney's Fort.
near Buchanan: Robert Looney's Fort (1755 - 1759), a settlers' fortified home at Looney's Ferry, the north side of Looney Creek (Looney's Mill Creek), west of town. Site excavated in 1968. (Looney Creek Archaeological Site)
near Bessemer: Craig's Creek Fort (1757 ?), built by the VA colonial militia, located at the mouth of Craig's Creek. Also spelled Craik.
near Haymakertown: Fort William (1756 - 1763), built by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 50 men, attacked by Indians in October 1756. Settlers took refuge here during Pontiac's War in 1763. Located on Catawba Creek.
Amsterdam: Stephen Rentfroe's Fort (1740's ?), an early settlers' fort was once located here according to local tradition. Col. William Preston built his home "Greenfield" here after 1759 (burned down in 1956).
near Newcastle: John's Creek Fort (1756 - 1760's), built by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 50 men, located on John's Creek.
near Glenvar: John Mason's Fort (1756 - 1760's), a VA colonial militia fort garrisoned by 30 men, located on the south side of the Roanoke River about 20 miles from Fort Vause.
Glenvar (?): Fort George (3) (1756 - 1760's), located on the Roanoke River west of Salem. Possibly the same as Capt. Peter Hogg's Fort (3) (1756) on the Roanoke River, garrisoned by 150 men.
City of Salem:
Fort Lewis (3) (1756 - 1760's), used by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 30-50 men, it was 60 feet square with two bastions. Built by Major Andrew Lewis, located 2.5 miles west of downtown. Also known as James Campbell's Fort. Garrisoned by 200 men in 1761.
near Montvale: Robert Ewing's Fort (1755 - 1760's), a settlers' home or blockhouse, probably stockaded. Mary Draper Ingles sought refuge here during the 1756 attack on Fort Vause. It still exists, modified. Located southwest of Peaks of Otter. (info provided by Kay Dorneman)
near Rocky Mount: Blackwater Fort (1756 - 1760's), a stockaded fort built by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 20 men, located northwest of town on the Blackwater River. Also known as Capt. Nathaniel Terry's Fort.
unknown location: James Standiford's Fort (1756 - 1760's), a settlers' fort located somewhere near the Blackwater River (undetermined). Indians attacked the place at least once during the war.
near Stanleytown: Capt. Thomas Callaway's Fort (or Calloway) (1756 - 1760's), built by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 20 men, and intended as a place of refuge during Indian raids. Located on the Smith River. Also known as John Hickey's Fort, on whose land it was built. George Washington referred to it as Fort Trial.
near Craig: Mayo Fort (1756 - 1760's), used by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 20 men. Also known as Capt. Samuel Harris' Fort. It was the southernmost of the Virginia military forts, located on the North Fork Mayo River off of Old Well Road south of present-day US 58. State marker is in error.
near Lafayette ?: Neal McNeill's Fort (or McNeal's) (1756 - 1760's), used by the VA colonial militia, garrisoned by 30 men. Located about 13 miles from Fort Lewis (3).
Shawsville: Fort Vause (2) (1756 - 1758), a 100-foot square four-bastioned earthwork with a 15-foot high log palisade, with barracks, built by the VA colonial militia, located on the western edge of the present town. Garrisoned by 70 men, it had replaced the earlier Capt. Ephraim Vause's Fort (1), a settlers' 1749 farmstead on nearby "Fort Hill" (or possibly further east at "Walnut Grove" ?) that was palisaded before August 1755, and was garrisoned at times by local rangers and/or a detachment of the Virginia colonial militia. Also spelled Voss, Vass, Vaulx, Vauss, Vaux, Vauce, Vance, Vanse in various sources. The first fort was attacked and burned by French and Indians in June 1756, killing or capturing several people, including Vause's wife. The fort was rebuilt and improved a few months later by Capt. Peter Hogg, on a nearby site just to the west of the original Vause farmstead, but it was never fully finished and then later abandoned. It was also renamed as Fort Littleton (or Lyttelton) by the summer of 1757. Vause left the valley in 1757 after a failed attempt to rescue his wife, and sold off his land in 1760. The first fort site has not been found with certainty. The second fort site was excavated in 1968 and in 2005-2006, located on County Road 753 (Oldtown Road) at Basham Hollow Road (private property). Low grassy mounds mark the site of three of the bastions. A small monument is also located on site. A replica of the stockade fort was built in 2004 at Explore Park located on the Blue Ridge Parkway at Milepost 115 (operated by the Roanoke County Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism since 2013). The replica fort was dismantled in 2017.
Blacksburg: Draper's Meadows Fort (1756 - 1760's), a small stockade built by the VA colonial militia after the Draper's Meadows Massacre in July 1755. A small granite monument to the massacre is located on the campus of Virginia Tech at the Duck Pond. Of interest nearby, the Smithfield Plantation manor house, at 1000 Smithfield Plantation Rd., was built in 1774 by Col. William Preston. Owned and managed by Preservation Virginia.
near Centerville: Jacob Shell's Fort (1752 - 1755), a settlers' fort located near Peppers Ferry. Actual site probably located on the grounds of the U.S. Army's Radford Arsenal (no public admittance).
near Dublin: Dunkard Bottom Fort (1756 - 1760's), first fort in Virginia west of the New River. The settlement was founded in 1750 by Dr. Thomas Walker. Mary Draper Ingles returned from captivity near this fort in 1756. Actual site is submerged under Claytor Lake near the state park.
Ingles' Ferry: Fort Frederick (1756 - 1760's), a VA colonial militia fort located on the west bank of the New River opposite Radford. The Wilderness Road passed through here.
near Bluefield (?): John Compton's (Sr.) Fort (1778), a settlers' fort located on the Bluestone River. Undetermined location. (info provided by Judy Llamas)
near Cove Creek: Davidson's Fort (1777 - 1786), a settlers' fortified home on Cove Creek used by the state militia. Brothers William, Joseph, and Andrew Davidson lived here and served in the militia here.
Burkes Garden: James Burke's Fort (1774), a settlers' fort built as a defense against Indians and used by the state militia.
North Tazewell: William Wynne's Fort (1774 - 1780's), a neighborhood fort built on Locust Hill. The settlement here was first established in 1752. The VA state militia used the fort after 1776.
Tazewell: Boone Cabin-Fort (1767 - 1768). Built by Daniel Boone. Later the site of the Harman House, used as Tazewell County's first courthouse in 1800. A farmhouse now occupies the site.
Wittens Fort: William Witten's Fort (1767), a settlers' blockhouse; and Thomas Witten's Fort / Big Crab Orchard Fort (1771 - 1774), built as a neighborhood place of refuge, later used by the VA colonial militia during Dunmore's War in 1774. (NOTE: unless the names are confused, William and Thomas were brothers.) Reconstructed in 1926. Now located here is the Historic Crab Orchard Museum and Pioneer Park (admission fee). (FORT WIKI)
Maiden Spring: Maiden Springs Fort (1772 - 1781), used by the VA colonial militia during Dunmore's War in 1774. Also known as Reese Bowen's Fort. Bowen was killed at the Battle of King's Mountain, SC in 1780. (FORT WIKI)
Richlands: Richlands Station (1772 - 1778), a settlers' fortified home used by the state militia. Also known as Richlands Fort. Very probably the same as James Fowler's Station (1772 - 1778).
Richlands: (Robert ?) Brown's Station (1792), a settlers' fortified home also used by the state militia.
Richlands: Fugate's Station (1792), a settlers' fortified home also used by the state militia.
near Groseclose: James Davis' Fort/Station (aka Davis' Fancy) (1778), a settlers' house that served as a neighborhood fort. Located on Dry Run north of the Middle Fork Holston River.
Marion: Arthur Campbell's Fort (aka Royal Oak) (1769), a settlers' house that later served as a neighborhood fort. The first Smyth County court was held here in 1832.
Abingdon: Joseph Black's Fort (1774 - 1781), a palisaded settlers' fort located on Town Creek. The fort served as the first Washington County court from 1777 - 1778 until the town was established.
unknown location: Jeremiah Harrison's Fort/Station (1774 - 1780's), a settlers' fort located somewhere on the North Fork Holston River in Rich Valley.
unknown location: Alexander Vance's Station (1774 - 1780's), a settlers' fort on the North Fork Holston River about five miles from Harrison's Fort. Used by the state militia.
Mendota: John Benham's Fort (1774 - 1780's), a settlers' fortified home located on the North Fork Holston River.
near Belfast Mills: Capt. Daniel Smith's Fort (1774), a settlers' fortified home located on Indian Creek. The state marker naming it Fort Christian is in error (see Glade Hollow Fort listed below).
Elk Garden: Elk Garden Fort (1774 - 1794), a colonial militia stockaded defense commanded by Capt. John Kinkead. The present Elk Garden Methodist Church is next to the presumed site. State marker located on US 19 about eight miles east of Lebanon. (FORT WIKI)
near Artrip: New Garden Fort (1774) a settler defense on the south side of the Clinch River near Thompson's Creek.
near Lebanon: Glade Hollow Fort (1774), a colonial militia defense garrisoned by 21 men during Dunmore's War. Also known as Fort Christian and later as Robert Dale's Fort (1777). Converted to the Glade Hollow Baptist Church in 1775. Located on Little Cedar Creek southwest of town. State marker located on VA 71 about one mile west of town. (FORT WIKI)
near Castlewood: Capt. William Russell's Fort (1774), located on a hill across the Clinch River north of town, near the present-day Masonic Lodge. Also known as Fort Preston, David Cowan's Fort, and later as Charles Bickley's Fort. This was Russell County's first courthouse from 1786 - 1799. (FORT WIKI)
near Castlewood: Bush's Fort (unknown date), a settlers' fort that was possibly the same structure as Russell's Fort.
near St. Paul: William Moore's Fort (1769, 1774 - 1777), a colonial militia defense that was ambushed by Indians. Also known as Fort Byrd (2) and Capt. John Snoddy's Fort. Daniel Boone and a group of settlers heading to Kentucky stopped here in 1773. Boone's family stayed here for a few months in 1774 after returning from Kentucky. Attacked in 1774 by Mingo Chief John Logan just days after the attack on Fort Blackmore. Located just west of town on the Clinch River, about five miles below Russell's Fort. (FORT WIKI)
near Collinwood or Willow Spring: Col. John Tate's Fort (1776), a settlers' stockaded fort on Big Moccasin Creek.
Coeburn: Guest's Station (1777), a settlers' fortified home. Also spelled Guesses. Ruins were still visible in 1838.
(Daniel Boone Wilderness Trail in Scott County)
Nickelsville: Rev. Robert (Robin) Kilgore's Fort (1786 - 1790's), located on Copper Creek, it is the sole survivor of 12 forts ranging from Cumberland Gap to Castlewood to defend against Indians. It was restored in 1974. Exterior viewing only.
Nickelsville: William Dorton's (Sr.) Fort (1774), a settlers' fortified home located one mile southeast of town.
south of Nickelsville: William Houston's Fort (1774). Cherokee Indians attacked the fort in the summer of 1776. This is also the site of the first settlement in Scott County (1769 - 1771). Located on Big Moccasin Creek.
near Dungannon: Patrick Porter's Fort (1774 - 1780's), a settlers' fortified home. Located on Fall(ing) Creek.
near Dungannon: Raleigh Duncan's Fort (1775 - 1790), a settlers' fortified home located on the Clinch River south of town.
Grays: Osman's Fort (1777 - 1792), a settlers' fortified home later used by the state militia. Possibly aka William Osborne's Fort. Located near Gray's Island on the south side of the Clinch River. This fort may have been known as Alexander Ritchie's (Sr.) Fort (1774 - 1777), a settlers' fortified home that was purchased by William Osborne in 1777, and sold in 1792 and again named Ritchie's Fort (Alexander Jr. or Samuel ?).
near Clinch: Benjamin Nicholson's Fort (1774 - 1792), a settlers' fort located across the Clinch River from Osman's Fort.
unknown location: McClelland's Station (1770's - 1780's), a settlers' station located along the Wilderness Road.
Rye Cove: Rye Cove Fort (1774 - 1794), a fortified station and trading post on the Wilderness Road. It was originally called Isaac Crissman's (Sr.) Fort until 1776, when it was attacked by Cherokee Indians, killing Crissman. The property was then acquired by Thomas Carter. The fort was rebuilt in 1777 by Col. Joseph Martin and renamed Fort Lee (1) by the state militia. (FORT WIKI)
Rye Cove: Thomas Carter's Fort/Station (1784 - 1792), a settlers' palisaded fort/station on the Wilderness Road, also used by the state militia. Located west of Rye Cove Fort.
Clinchport: Stock Creek Fort (1777 - 1780), a state militia fort located on Stock Creek.
Gate City: Elisha Faris' Station (1782 - 1791), a settlers' fortified house and tavern on the Wilderness Road. Attacked and destroyed by Cherokee Indians (August 1791), killing Faris and several others. Also spelled Ferris. Exact location undetermined.
near Weber City: Capt. John Anderson's Blockhouse (1775 ? - 1790's), a two-story loopholed settlers' blockhouse on the Wilderness Road, built before 1778, possibly as early as 1775. Destroyed by fire in 1876. Located on the North Fork Holston River in Carter's Valley about four miles southeast of Moccasin Gap. A small monument marks the spot on County Rt. 606 (Smith Hollow Road) about 200 feet off County Rt. 704 (East Carter Valley Road). A replica blockhouse was built in 2003 at Natural Tunnel State Park.
See also Daniel Boone Wilderness Trail Association
near Stickleyville: Archibald Scott's Fort (1775 - 1785), a settlers' fortified home located on Scott's Branch of Wallen Creek near Kane's Gap of Powell Mountain. Attacked by Indians in 1785.
near Woodway: Rocky Station (1775 - 1792), a settlers' fortified home along the Powell River east of town. Also known as Isaac Crissman's (Jr.) Station, and also as Col. Charles Cocke's Station in 1780 - 1782.
near Woodway: George Yokum's Station (1780 - 1792), a settlers' fortified home in Turkey Cove on the Powell River near the present-day highway bridge. May have been used by the state militia in 1792.
Jonesville: William Mumps' Fort (1775 - 1776), a settlers' fort at Sinking Springs. Abandoned, but possibly used by the state militia in 1777. Site located at the present courthouse.
unknown location: Capt. David Chadwell's Station (1790), a settlers' fortified home on the Powell River along the Wilderness Road. The present-day Chadwell Station Church is near the site.
near Beech Spring: William Priest's Fort (1775 - 1776), a settlers' fort located on Wilson Hill, about five miles from Martin's Station (1). It was soon abandoned.
Rose Hill: Joseph Martin's Station (1) (1769, 1775 - 1776), a stockade around five or six cabins, located on the north side of Martin's Creek. Abandoned shortly after it was built, it was not re-established until several years later. State marker on US 58 east of town. Reconstruction located in Wilderness Road State Park in Caylor. (FORT WIKI)
near Cowan Mill: (William ?) Owen's Station (1777), a settlers' fortified home located about ten miles from Martin's Station (1).
Gibson Station: Major George Gibson's Station (1785 - 1792), a settlers' fortified home, located 300 yards from the present-day railroad underpass.
near Cumberland Gap: Gen. Joseph Martin's Station (2) (1783 - 1788), a state militia blockhouse located on Station Creek two miles from Cumberland Gap.
NEED MORE INFO: Stoney Battery Road in Troutville
Towns: Stony Battery in Smyth County.
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com