American Forts: East

WISCONSIN

Fort Edward Augustus | Aztalan | Fort Barbour | Camp Barstow | Fort de la Baye des Puants
Fort Blue | Blue Mounds Fort | Blue River Fort | Fort Bonaparte | Camp Bragg
Brisbois House | Fort Cass | Cassville Fort | Fort Chagouamigon (1)
Chagouamigon Post (2) | Fort Clark | Fort Crawford (1)(2) | Fort Defiance | Fort DeSeelhorst
Fort Dodge | Camp Douglas State Res. | DuBay's Post | Ebersol's Fort | Eversoll's Fort
Forts Folle Avoine | Fond du Lac Post | Funk's Fort | Fort Gratiot | Camp Hamilton
Fort Hamilton | Camp Harvey (1) | Camp Harvey (2) | Henry's Post | Hollingsworth's Fort
Camp Holton | Fort Howard | Fort Independence | Fort Jackson | G. Jones' Blockhouse
Kindle's Fort | Fort Koshkonong | Fort La Pointe | LaSalle's Fort | Linctot's Post
Camp McCoy | Fort McCoy | Fort McKay | Camp McKown | Fort Napoleon
Fort at New Diggings | Ocatagon House | Parish's Fort | Perrot's Post | Pig's Eye Fort
Platteville Blockhouse | Prairie du Chien Post | Price's Fort | Camp Randall | Camp Reno
Camp Robinson | Roundtree's Fort | Fort St. Antoine | Fort St. Croix | Fort St. Esprit
St. Feriole Island Posts | Fort St. Francis | Fort St. François | Fort St. Louis | Fort St. Nicolas
Fort St. Pierre | St. François Xavier Mission | Camp Scott | Fort Shelby | Shull's Fort
Camp Sigel | Camp Smith | Snake Hollow Blockhouse | Sparta Ordnance Depot
Spring Green Shot Tower | Superior Stockade | Camp Swanson | Thibault's Post
Camp Treadway | Fort Trempealeau | Camp Trowbridge | Fort Union | Camp Upton
Camp Utley | Fort Vaudreuil | Fort Wales Rock | Camp Washburn | White Oak Fort
Camp Williams | Fort Winnebago | Wisconsin State Res. | Camp Wood

Last Update: 20/JANUARY/2024
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2024 American Forts Network

Fort St. François
(1684 - 1728, 1732 - 1760, 1761 - 1763), Green Bay
Originally known as French Fort de la Baye des Puants, a frontier outpost and trading post built by Nicolas Perrot. A fortified French Jesuit mission (St. François Xavier) was first established here in 1669. The fort was rebuilt and renamed in 1717. Also spelled St. Francis. It was destroyed by Indians in 1728, and was not rebuilt for five years. It was abandoned in 1760. In 1761 it became British Fort Edward Augustus but was abandoned during the Pontiac Uprising of 1763. The original site is on the west side of the Fox River at the foot of the Dousman Street Bridge, marked by a flagpole. (Hisoric Plaque Photo) A circa 1800 French-style log cabin is on display at Heritage Hill Park to interpret the fur trade era.

Fort Howard
(Heritage Hill State Historical Park)
(1816 - 1841, 1849 - 1852, 1861 - 1863), Green Bay FORT WIKI
A Federal stockade with four log blockhouses, built on the site of Fort St. Francis/Edward Augustus. The original site is on the west side of the Fox River at the foot of the Dousman Street Bridge, marked by a flagpole. The post was part of the Federal "Factory system" of Indian trading posts during 1816 - 1822, serving the Menominee and Chippewa and other local tribes. Camp Smith was established in 1820 here at the present site of Heritage Hill Park, due to a malaria outbreak. The fort was rebuilt with frame buildings beginning in 1831. Abandoned between 1841 to 1849 for the Second Seminole War in Florida. The post became a local mobilization center during the Civil War, but was then sold off in 1869. Two original buildings (1835 mess and 1834 hospital) were moved to Heritage Hill Park in 1975, and two 1982 reconstructions (a school and Officer's quarters) were built on site. Admisson fee.

Camp Bragg (Memorial Park)
(1861 - 1862), Oshkosh
A Civil War training camp. Located at Hazel and Cleveland Streets.

Octagon House
(1817), Fond du Lac
Part of the house was supposedly first used as a settlers' blockhouse against Indians but later rebuilt into the present 12-room manor house in 1856. Used as a station on the Underground Railroad. Located at 276 Linden Street. Operated as a museum from 1975 - 2015. Now closed and is a private residence.

Camp Hamilton
(1861 - 1862), Fond du Lac
A Civil War training camp. Renamed Camp Wood in 1862.

John Baptiste DuBay's Post
(1834 - unknown), near Knowlton
An American Fur Co. trading post. Site located south of town, now underneath DuBay Lake in Portage County.

Fort Winnebago
(1828 - 1845), Portage FORT WIKI
A Federal fort. Only the Surgeon's Quarters, restored in the 1940's, remain today. This was originally built in 1819 as a portage house by François LeRoi. The fort's stockade was not built until 1832 during the Black Hawk War. The fort was later abandoned, and was burned in 1856. Located at 1824 State Highway 33. Admission fee. Camp McKown (1840) was located adjacent to the fort. The extant Garrison School (1850 - 1960) is also located here.

Of interest nearby is the restored Winnebago Indian Agency (1832), located at 1490 Agency House Road. Admission fee.

Camp Randall (Memorial Park)
(1861 - 1865, 1917), Madison
A Union training camp and Confederate POW camp. Later became the state fairgrounds until 1893 when acquired by the University of Wisconsin. The park was set up in 1911, the Memorial Arch built in 1912. Temporarily used as a National Guard training camp in 1917. Now the Camp Randall Sports Complex of the University of Wisconsin. Located between University Ave. and Monroe Street, from Randall Ave. to Breese Terrace.

Aztalan (State Park)
(900 - 1200), Lake Mills
A recreated palisaded Indian village of the Middle Mississippian Culture. Along the outer palisade were bastions or towers about every 80 feet. Enclosed were two temple mounds.

Fort Koshkonong
(1832), Fort Atkinson FORT WIKI
A stockade with four blockhouses located on the Rock River near Lake Koshkonong. Abandoned after the "Battle of Bad Axe", the last battle of the Black Hawk War (August 1832). Abraham Lincoln was mustered out of the Illinois militia here after his second term of enlistment expired . After 1836 the post was dismantled by area settlers for timber. Reconstructed in 1966 at Rock River Park on the north bank of the Rock River, just off of WI 106 on the west side of town. A memorial (1908) is at the original site on Milwaukee Ave. East near Roland Ave.. Settled in 1841, the town of Fort Atkinson was named after General Henry Atkinson, who built the original fort. There was no fort here by that name otherwise.

Milwaukee Civil War Camps
(1861 - 1865), Milwaukee
Camp Holton (1861 - 1865), located along North Prospect Ave. Renamed Camp Reno in 1864. Sold at auction in 1866, only the guardhouse still exists, now a private house located on Albion Street.
Camp Scott (1861), located on Wisconsin Ave. west of 12th Street.
Camp Sigel (1861), located at Oakland and Farwell Aves..
Camp Trowbridge (1862), undetermined location.
Camp Washburn (1861 - 1865), located at the old Cold Spring Racetrack west of 27th Street.

Camp Harvey (2)
(1898), Greenfield
A Spanish-American War state guard muster-in and training camp at the state fairgrounds north of town, at South 81st Street and West Greenfield Ave.. Marker erected in 1992.

Camp Utley
(1861 - 1862), Racine
A Civil War training camp.

Camp Harvey (1)
(1861 - 1862), Kenosha
A Civil War training camp. Located at present-day Green Ridge Cemetery.

Camp Barstow
(1861 - 1862), Janesville
A Civil War training camp.

Camp Treadway
(1861), Janesville
A Civil War training camp.

Joseph Thibault's Post
(1824 - 1830's), Beloit
An independent fur trading post.

Blue Mounds Fort
(1832), Blue Mounds
A fortified mining settlement and local militia defense located one and one-half miles south of the Blue Mound. A log stockade covering less than one-quarter acre, with two corner blockhouses and a central cabin, which sheltered about 50 settlers.

Spring Green Shot Tower
(Tower Hill State Park)
(1831 - 1860), Spring Green
A 185-foot shaft carved into the sandstone bluff, with a reconstructed lead smelter house at the top. A 90-foot long tunnel connects to the collection pool at the bottom of the shaft. Also known as the Helena Shot Tower. It was operated by the Wisconsin Shot Company. One of six remaining historic shot towers in the country (the others are located in Dubuque, IA, Columbus, OH, Philadelphia, PA, Baltimore, MD, and Wytheville, VA).

Fort Union
(1832), near Dodgeville
The territorial militia's area field headquarters during the Black Hawk War. A stockade surrounding the house of Col. Henry Dodge, the commander of the Iowa County Michigan Territorial Militia. Garrisoned by 26 men commanded by Capt. Francis Gehon. Marker located on County Road Y south of town, within Mineral Point Township.

Blue River Fort
(1832), Highland
A militia fort at James Jones' lead mine. Also known as Fort Blue. Garrisoned by 44 men of the Michigan Territorial Militia commaned by Jones.

Thomas Parish's Fort
(1832), Montfort
A settlers' two-story log blockhouse on a stone foundation, built during the Black Hawk War. The settlement was originally known as Wingville.

Fort Napoleon
(1832), Linden Township, Iowa County
A militia stockade built on John Terry's property at Diamond Grove during the Black Hawk War, about three miles northwest of Mineral Point. Also sometimes known as Fort Bonaparte. Terry commanded a militia company of 59 men here.

Fort Jackson
(1832), Mineral Point
A settlers' and miners' stockade during the Black Hawk War. Timber and logs gathered from all the houses and buildings in town (save three) were used to construct the stockade and two blockhouses, and several garrison houses inside the stockade, which was on a hill in the center of town. Also used as a militia supply depot. Garrisoned by 58 men of the Michigan Territorial Militia commaned by John Moore. After the war the town was rebuilt with the fort's timber and logs. Site marked at Commerce and Fountain Streets.

Fort Defiance
(1832), Willow Springs Township, Lafayette County
A settlers' and miners' 120 by 80 feet stockade with two blockhouses and two large barracks that sheltered settlers, built on the property of Daniel Parkinson near Otter Creek during the Black Hawk War. Garrisoned by 40 men commanded by R.C. Hoard. Site located about five miles southeast of Mineral Point. Stone monument erected in 1928. Marker erected in 1995 on WI Highway 23 at Irving Lane.

Fort Hamilton
(1832), Wiota
A local militia 40-foot square log stockade with two corner blockhouses and a central cabin, built during the Black Hawk War protecting Hamilton's lead mine and smelter located near the Pecatonica River. Built by William Stephen Hamilton, son of founding father Alexander Hamilton. Garrisoned by 54 men. A nearby farm was attacked by Black Hawk's warriors on June 14, 1832, killing five settlers. The fort was not directly attacked. Marker on WI Highway 78.

James Kindle's (Sr.) Fort
(1832), Kendall Township, Lafayette County
A local militia stockade during the Black Hawk War, located on Kindle's property.

Capt. Benjamin Funk's Fort
(1832), Monticello Township, Lafayette County
A militia fort built during the Black Hawk War. Garrisoned by 31 men commaned by Funk. The settlement was originally known as Wiley's Grove.

Fort Clark
(1832), White Oak
A 100-by-50-foot log stockade during the Black Hawk War, built by S.M. Journey, and commanded by Capt. Benjamin Clark of the Michigan Territorial Militia with 78 men. Also known as White Oak Fort.

Another unnamed 50-foot square stockade (1832) was located nearby.

Capt. Jesse Shull's Fort
(1827), Old Shullsburg
A 30-man local militia stockade during the Winnebago War.

Capt. Hollingsworth's Fort
(1827), near Old Shullsburg
An 80-man local militia stockade during the Winnebago War.

Fort Independence
(1832), Old Shullsburg
A local militia log stockade during the Black Hawk War, near John Coons' homestead. Garrisoned by 31 men commanded by Isaac Hamilton.

Fort Gratiot
(1827, 1832), near Shullsburg
A local militia stockade and blockhouse built during the Winnebago War, later strengthened during the Black Hawk War. Garrisoned in 1832 by 56 men commanded by Fortunatus Berry. Located at Gratiot's Grove, which was once located a few miles south or east of town. This was not located at the present-day town of Gratiot, which was settled later.

Fort at New Diggings
(1832), New Diggings
A settlers' and miners' stockade during the Black Hawk War. Located on the farm of Abraham Looney. Garrisoned by 69 men of the Jo Daviess County militia of Illinois.

Christian Eversoll's Fort
(1832), Hazel Green
A local militia sod earthwork built around Eversoll's house during the Black Hawk War, commanded by Capt. Charles McCoy. Also spelled Ebersol in some sources.

George Jones' Blockhouse
(1832), Sinsinawa
A settlers' log blockhouse built on Sinsinawa Mound during the Black Hawk War. It sheltered the Jones family and slaves, hired men, and several of the neighbors. (NOTE: a massive buttressed stone structure located at the Dominican Sisters' Sinsinawa Mound Center, historically attributed as a Black Hawk War fortification, was most likely not built until 1844 at the earliest, according to recent research by members of the Old Lead Region Historical Society.)

Fort (Justus) DeSeelhorst
(1832), Elk Grove Township, Lafayette County
A settlers' and miners' one-acre log stockade with two blockhouses during the Black Hawk War. Commanded by Cornelius DeLong with 67 men.

John Roundtree's Fort
(1832), Platteville
A local militia 100-foot diameter circular stockade with one two-story blockhouse, built during the Black Hawk War. Also known as Fort Dodge. Garrisoned by 33 men commanded by Capt. John Oharra.

Platteville Blockhouse
(1827), near Platteville
An otherwise unnamed blockhouse was located on Blockhouse Creek about three miles south of town during the Winnebago War.

Snake Hollow Blockhouse
(1832 or 1833), Potosi
A miners' blockhouse defense built during, or just after (?), the Black Hawk War.

Cassville Fort
(1832), Cassville
A temporary town fort during the Black Hawk War, a single log building surrounded by a log stockade. Also known as Fort Cass, or Price's Fort. Garrisoned by 28 men of the Michigan Territorial Militia commanded by C.M. Price. Site located at Lot #3 in Block #13.

Fort Vaudreuil
(1753 - 1754), near Bagley ?
A French stockaded fur trading post built by Joseph Marin, located on the Mississippi River about four French leagues below the mouth of the Wisconsin River. Possibly sited on French Island south of town.

LaSalle's Fort
(1682), near Prairie du Chien
A French post built by René-Robert Cavalier de LaSalle, located at the mouth of the Wisconsin River.

Fort St. Nicolas
(1683 - 1684 ?), near Prairie du Chien
A French fur trading post built by Nicolas Perrot, located at or near the mouth of the Wisconsin River. Possibly still in use as late as 1689.

Prairie du Chien Post
(1737, 1754 - 1756 ?), Prairie du Chien
A temporary French fort was built here after Sioux hostilities to the north at Lake Pepin. Later in 1754 a French trade post was established here by Joseph Marin, probably abandoned by 1756, if not earlier.

Located at the Pig's Eye Slough on the south edge of the old town were once stone chimney ruins and mounds/trenches attributed to an earlier French fort, known locally by the early American settlers as the "Old French Fort", or the "Pig's Eye Fort". This may be one of the French forts referenced above.

St. Feriole Island Trading Posts
(1781 - 1860 ?), Prairie du Chien
French-Canadian fur trappers first established a permanent white settlement and trading post here in 1781. A British North West Company fur trade post was built here in 1808. A small one-story stone building on the mainland at present North Beaumont Road and Blackhawk Avenue was the NWC's office and auxiliary warehouse. The NWC's large warehouse, built on the riverfront on the west side of the island, was later razed in 1910. The Hudson's Bay Company was never here. The American Fur Co. came here in 1817 and first built a log warehouse, replaced in 1828 with the stone Astor Fur Warehouse on North Water Street at Bolvin Street, restored and now operated by the Villa Louis Historic Site as the Fur Trade Museum. (NOTE: the Villa Louis website identifies this building as the 1851 Brisbois Warehouse)
See also History of Prairie du Chien by the Prairie du Chien Area Chamber of Commerce

Fort Shelby
(1814 - 1815, 1816 - 1829), Prairie du Chien FORT WIKI
A Federal triangular stockade with two corners as blockhouses, armed with six guns, located on an ancient Indian mound near the center of St. Feriole Island. It was captured by the British in July 1814, only two months after it was first built (but not completed), renamed Fort McKay, and then burned by the British when evacuated at the end of the war (May 1815). It was never recaptured by the Americans. The exact site has not been archaeologically found, although it is believed to have been sited on the present grounds of the Villa Louis Historic Site.

The much larger square stockaded Fort Crawford (1) (about 340 feet square) was then built here in July 1816, and then abandoned in 1829/30 after several years of periodic flooding. Two blockhouses were at opposing corners, the sides lined with barracks and storehouses. All structures were wood, except the stone powder magazine. The post was part of the Federal "Factory system" of Indian trading posts during 1816 - 1822, serving the Winnebago and Sioux and other local tribes. The Indian Factory and Factor's House were outside the fort just to the south (actually built about one month before the fort). A large mansion, the Villa Louis Historic Site (1843, rebuilt 1873), was built on the southeast corner blockhouse of the fort's foundations. Site first excavated in 1937. The northwest blockhouse of Fort Crawford (1) has been reconstructed, and paver stones mark the foundation outlines of other known former fort buildings on the grounds. Admission fee.

Fort Crawford (2)
(1829 - 1849, 1855 - 1856, 1861 - 1863, 1864 - 1865), Prairie du Chien FORT WIKI
A replacement for Fort Crawford (1), built in 1829-34 mostly of stone and brick construction, was located on higher ground (Lockwood's Ridge) about one mile southeast of the old fort (centered near present Taylor Street and Beaumont Road). Four barrack blocks were arranged around a rectangular parade (about 500 by 340 feet), with no outer defense wall (except for the south and north walls, the east and west sides of the barracks serving as the fort walls), and with several outer buildings for the commanding officer's quarters, post hospital, and horse barns. Transfer of all military stores from the old fort was completed by 1831. Used in the Civil War as a recruitment and muster-in center and then as the Swift General Hospital (1864 - 1865). The military reservation was sold off in 1868 and all remaining buildings were demolished or removed by then. The site later became St. Mary's Academy (College) from 1872 - 1926. The Fort Crawford Museum, the former post hospital restored in the 1930's, is at 717 South Beaumont Road, operated by the Prairie du Chien Historical Society. Admission fee.
See also Fort Crawford II 1999 Site Excavations by the Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center

Fort Wales Rock
(unknown), La Farge
A geological formation. Name origin unknown.

Camp Williams (State Military Reservation)
(Volk Field Air National Guard Base)
(1888 - present), Camp Douglas
Originally named Wisconsin (or Camp Douglas) State Reservation until renamed in 1926. The village of Camp Douglas was first established in 1864 as a logging camp. The post is a state National Guard training area and rifle range. This was the primary training area for the WI NG until 1946. Briefly named Camp Swanson in 1903. Permanent structures were built beginning in the mid 1890's. Used as a state mobilization center in 1898 and 1917. The 32nd "Red Arrow" Division trained here during WWI. Located on post is the Wisconsin National Guard Museum, housed in a 1890's log building near Volk Field (built 1935, named in 1957). The Wisconsin Military Academy moved to Fort McCoy in 1995, and was replaced by the Wisconsin Youth Leadership Training Center in 1996. The Camp Williams (aka Hardwood) Weapons Firing Range (1954) is located to the north near Finley.

Fort McCoy (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1909 - present), Fort McCoy FORT WIKI
A WI National Guard training area, originally two tracts named Camp Robinson and Camp Upton. Became an Army field artillery training area in 1917. Became the Sparta Army Ordnance Depot in 1919 - 1923. The two tracts were combined and renamed Camp McCoy in 1926. Federalized and expanded in 1942 for WWII infantry training. Held a Japanese POW camp in 1942 - 1945. Redesignated in 1974. Still in use as a major regional training center.

Nicolas Perrot's Post
(Perrot State Park)
(1685 - 1686), Trempealeau
Originally a stockaded winter trading post located at Mount Trempealeau. Also known as Fort Trempealeau.

Another French fort (Linctot's Post) (1731 - 1736) was built here later by René Godefroy, sieur de Linctot. An American Fur Co. post was also located here in the 1820's. A site later found to be Linctot's Post was excavated in 1995-96. Admission fee to the state park.

Fort St. Antoine
(1686 - 1689), Stockholm
A French fort built by Nicolas Perrot. Marker located on Lake Pepin two miles southeast of town.

Fort St. Pierre
(1736 - 1737), Malden Rock
A French trade post. Abandoned and burned because of Indian hostilities, the French fled to Prairie du Chien.

Fort Barbour
(1825 - 1830's), St. Croix Falls
A Columbia Fur Co. trading post.

Forts Folle Avoine (Historical Park)
(1802 - 1805), Danbury
Reconstructions of two adjacent French Canadian winter trading posts (North West Co. and the XY Company) and a Woodland Period Ojibwe Indian village along the Yellow River. The North West Co. post was stockaded, and the XY Co. men took shelter in the stockade when threatened by the Dakota Indians, enemies of the Ojibwe. The undisturbed site was discovered in 1969. Operated by the Burnett County Historical Society. Admission fee. See also A Burnett County Treasure from Century 21 - Sand County Services

Fort St. Louis
(1793 - 1816), Superior
A North West Co. stockaded trading post on the St. Louis River (Superior Bay). Also known as Fond du Lac Post. Site located at Connor's Point near present-day Second (Bay) and Winter Streets. It had two one-gun blockhouses, two 40-foot long houses and a 60-foot long warehouse. It was the major trading depot for the area up until 1805, when the NW Co. post at Leech Lake, MN was established. After 1813 it became a post of the short-lived South West Co., a joint venture between the British North West Co. and the American Fur Co.. (see also Fond du Lac Post, MINNESOTA)
(thanks to Paul Gaboriault for providing info and correct location)

Superior Stockade
(1862 - 1863), Superior
A state militia stockade with two blockhouses and a 40-foot by 60-foot community building, built to protect the town residents during the Sioux Uprisings in Minnesota. There was no real threat this far east. Garrisoned by Company B, 18th Wisconsin Infantry. Site located between 17th and 18th Aves. East, and between Third Street and the bay. A replica blockhouse and stockade was constructed in 1954 on East 2nd Street. It was demolished in 1997.

Fort St. Croix
(1683 - unknown), near Upper Eau Claire Lake
A French post located at the headwaters of the St. Croix River.

Fort Chagouamigon (1)
(1663 - 1670), near Ashland
A French trade post located at the head of Chequamegon Bay. It burned down in 1670.

A state marker describes a crude log structure built in 1659 by French traders Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Medard Chouart des Groseilliers. When the governor of New France later stripped them of their trading licenses for refusing to share the proceeds, they went to England to persuade Prince Rupert to sponsor an expedition to Hudson Bay. A not-faithful reproduction log stockade with two corner blockhouses and a gate house was once located at Bay View Park on Lake Shore Drive East, but was torn down in July 2008. A small log cabin with the marker is now located at the entrance to Masalowski Beach Park on Front Street/Lake Shore Drive West. A second marker dedicated to Radisson and Groseilliers is located to the southwest of town on WI 70 at Reserve Road in Reserve / Stone Lake.

Henry's Post
(1765 - unknown), near Ashland
An independent British trade post located at the head of Chequamegon Bay. Also known as Chagouamigon Post (2).

Fort La Pointe
(Madeline Island Museum)
(Friends of the Madeline Island Museum)
(1693 - 1698, 1718 - 1759), La Pointe, Madeline Island
French Fort St. Esprit (1693 - 1698), a trading post/fort built by Pierre Charles Le Sueur, was originally located here, protecting a French Jesuit mission established earlier in 1660. The fort was rebuilt in 1718 at or near the same site. This was the principal French trading post on Lake Superior. It was abandoned in 1759. The British North West Company then later established their own trading post nearby in 1793, built by Michel Cadotte. It was taken over by the American Fur Co. in 1815 or later. Admission fee to museum. Fort marker at the end of Old Fort Road. See also History of Madeline Island from the Madeline Island Chamber of Commerce


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Eastern Forts