Camp Allegheny |
Camp Anderson |
Arbuckle's Fort |
Camp Atkinson |
Camp Bartow | Baughman's Fort | Fort Beauford | Fort Belleville | Big Sandy Station
Camp on Big Sewell Mountain | Fort Blair | Camp Bolles | Fort Boreman | Briscoe's Station
Bulltown Fort | Fort Burnsides | Fort Byrd | Fort Byrnsides | Fort Charles | Cheat Summit Fort
Clendenin's Fort/Station | Clover Lick Fort | Coal Fort | Camp Connell | Cook's Fort
Cooper's Fort | Crawford's Camp | Fort Culbertson | Culbertson's Bottom Fort
Fort Davidson-Bailey | Day's Fort | Donnally's Fort | Drennan's Fort | Drinnon's Fort
Droop Mountain | Fort Dunmore | Fort Eckley | Estill's Fort | Camp Ewing | Farley's Fort
Feamster's Fort | Fort Field | Camp Flat Top | Flinn's Fort/Station | Fort at Fort Lick
French Fort | Camp Gauley | Fort Gay | Fort Greenbrier (2) | Fort Green Bryer (1)
Hamilton's Fort | Fort Henrey | James' Blockhouse | Camp Johnson | Camp Jones
Kanawha Station | Fort Keckley | Fort Keekley | Keeney's Fort | Kelly's Fort/Station (1)
Le Tart's Trade Post | Camp Lee | Fort Lee | Little Levels Camp | Fort Logan
Camp McClellan | McCoy's Fort | Camp McDonald | McGuire's Station | Mann's Fort (2)
Mare's Station | Camp Maskell | Meadow Bluff Camp | Fort Milroy | Milton Earthworks
Fort Moore | J. Morris' Fort | W. Morris' Fort | Mud Fort | Muddy Creek Fort
Neal's Fort/Station | Newport Blockhouse | Camp Northwest | Camp Piatt | Fort Pickens
Camp Point Pleasant | Price's Old Fort | Fort Randolph | Renick's Fort | Camp Reynolds
Robinson's Fort | Ruffner's Fort | Fort Savannah | Fort Scammon (1) | Fort Scammon (2)
Spy Rock Camp | Stuart's Fort | Summersville Post | Sutton Post | Tackett's Fort | Fort Toland
Camp Tompkins (1) | Camp Tompkins (2) | Camp Two Mile | Camp Union | Fort Union
Upper Shawnee Town | Van Bebber's Fort | Van Bibber's Fort | Jacob Warwick's Fort
John Warwick's Fort | Camp White | Winfield Earthworks | Wolf Creek Fort | J. Wood's Fort
M. Woods' Fort
Northern West Virginia - page 1 | Eastern West Virginia - page 2
VIRGINIA FRONTIER DEFENSES 1719 - 1795
WEST VIRGINIA IN THE CIVIL WAR
A Union camp to protect the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and other important roads in the area. Located on County Rt. 15 south of Petroleum.
(1773 - 1774), Boaz
A settlers' station. The inhabitants fled in 1774 after several incidents with the local Indians. It is unclear if they returned to rebuild.
(Fort Boreman Park)
(1863 - 1865), Parkersburg
A Union fort built on Mt. Logan (Boreman Hill) on the south side of the Little Kanahwa River. Originally known as Fort Logan until just after statehood was granted. The barracks were burned after the war. Camp Bolles was a Union Cavalry camp also located here in 1861. A "pest house" was built nearby in 1862, was converted into a private home after the war, and survived until it was destroyed by fire in 1916. The county park was rededicated in 2007 with a partial reconstruction of the breastworks and a scenic overlook. See also The West Virginia Encyclopedia
A second fort was planned for Prospect (Quincy) Hill, but it was never completed.
Capt. James Neal's Fort
(1785 - 1795), Parkersburg
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse located on the south side of the Little Kanawha River, about one mile from the Ohio River. Also known as Neal's Station or Kanawha Station. Attacked by Indians in the summer of 1789. Six families were sheltered here after 1791. The exact location was washed away in an 1832 flood. Marker located at East Street and Camden Ave..
(1792 - unknown), Parkersburg
Built by the VA state militia at present-day Point Park. Still standing in 1803. The town was originally named Newport until 1811.
Capt. John James' Blockhouse
(Blennerhassett Island Historical State Park)
(1792 - 1795 ?), Blennerhassett Island
A settlers' blockhouse. The abandoned blockhouse was expanded and became the first home of Harman Blennerhassett and his wife in 1798, used until their mansion was built and completed in 1800. The blockhouse was then later demolished. Site located on the eastern end of the island near the still extant Neale House (1833). The island was known as Belpre Island from 1784 to 1799.
In 1805-06 the island was the scene of an illegal scheme by Aaron Burr, General James Wilkinson, and Blennerhassett to conquer Spanish Texas for their own empire. Virginia militia troops invaded the island in December 1806, but Burr and Blennerhassett had fled to Mississippi. The Blennerhassett Mansion burned down in 1811, but was reconstructed on the exact site from 1984 to 1991. Admission fee. Access by ferry from Parkersburg.
Major William Crawford's Camp
(1774), Harris Ferry
A Virginia colonial militia encampment during Dunmore's War (October 1774), established prior to the building of Fort Gower on the opposite bank of the Ohio River.
(1785 - unknown), Lee Creek
A settlers' stockaded fort, also known as Flinn's Fort, located on the north side of the mouth of Lee Creek at what was called the "Indian Clearing". Built by brothers Thomas and Jacob Flinn, among others.
(1785 - 1791), Belleville
A VA state militia two-story blockhouse, enlarged in 1786 with a 100 by 300-foot square palisade with four blockhouses and several cabins to be used for town defense. Also known as Capt. Joseph Wood's Fort.
A Union encampment. CSA forces attacked the camp in May 1862.
A Union 30-by-30-foot log blockhouse, later burned by Confederates in December 1864. Marker on Pioneer Way east of North Court Street. Traces of surviving earthworks are located on Tank Hill behind the Glenville State College campus (established in 1872).
(Burnsville Lake Project)
(1861 - 1864), Bulltown
A Union fort located at the old Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike bridge over the Little Kanawha River. Union earthworks from the Battle of Bulltown (October 1863) still remain within the Burnsville Lake Project, operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. A visitors center is also here.
(1861 - 1864), Duffy
A Union blockhouse protecting the old Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike (Old US 19), built on the land of James Pickens. Burned by "bushwackers" in December 1864. Monument at site.
(1861 - 1864), Sutton
A Union garrison post was in town. Several blockhouses were located along the route of the old Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike (Old US 19). Earthworks protected the bridge here over the Elk River. Attacked by Confederates in May 1863. Marker at 300 Main Street.
James Le Tart's Trading Post
(unknown - 1738), Letart
A British trading post among the Shawnee Indians. Raids by Catawba Indians forced Le Tart to leave the area in 1738.
Capt. Isaac Robinson's Fort
(1794 - unknown), near York
A settlers' blockhouse on the Ohio River adjacent to Six Mile Island (location ?). Attacked by Indians in 1794.
Upper Shawnee Town
(1751 - 1756), near Point Pleasant
A Shawnee Indian village located at the mouth of Oldtown Creek. Probably fortified.
(NOTE: The "Lower Shawnee Town" was located downriver near Portsmouth, Ohio.)
(Tu-Endie-Wei State Park)
(1776 - 1779, 1785 - 1792), Point Pleasant
A VA state militia stockaded fort. In November 1777 Shawnee chief Cornstalk and his son were detained here during a conference with militia leaders, but were killed by disgruntled soldiers. The fort was attacked by Indians in May 1778. It was abandoned and then burned in July 1779. A 1974/1996 reconstruction of the 1776 fort is located in Krodel Park, about one mile east of the 1774 battle monument. See also History of Fort Randolph from West Virginia Archives and History || The West Virginia Encyclopedia
A third fort (unnamed ? or a rebuild of Fort Randolph ?) was later built just upriver from here in 1785, consisting mainly of a cluster of cabins. In Krodel Park is a marker noting the location of Daniel Boone's Trading Post (1790 - 1793), simply an unfortified cabin (same ?).
Originally located here was Camp Point Pleasant (October 1774), a fortified encampment of the Virginia colonial militia under the command of Col. Andrew Lewis. The Battle of Point Pleasant occured here in October 1774, the climax of Dunmore's War against the Shawnee and Mingo Indians (see also West Virginia History article). Fort Blair (1774 - 1775) was then constructed here after the battle, and was burned by Indians just after it was abandoned by the troops in the spring.
Capt. Leonard Cooper's Fort
(1792 - unknown), near Brighton
A settlers' blockhouse located on the north bank of the Kanawha River eight miles from Point Pleasant.
Extant Union-built earthworks are located adjacent to Union Baptist Church on Fairgrounds Road.
Big Sandy Station
(1773 - unknown), Kenova
A settlers' station built at the mouth of the Big Sandy River.
(1789 - unknown), Fort Gay
A settlers' log fort located at the confluence of the Tug and Levissa Forks of the Big Sandy River. Charles Vancouver and party attempted a settlement here.
Union rifle pits are still visible from the October 1864 battle here. A marker is at the county courthouse.
Lewis Tackett's Fort
(1787 - 1790), St. Albans
A settlers' stockaded fort also known as Coal Fort, located one-half mile north of the mouth of Coal River. Built by Lewis Tackett and John Young. Attacked by Indians in 1790 and destroyed, in which all but one person were captured or killed.
Camp Tompkins (1)
(1861), St. Albans
A CSA fortified camp located at the mouth of the Coal River.
Camp Two Mile
(1861), North Charleston
A CSA camp located at the Kanawha River and Two Mile Creek.
(1788 - 1815), Charleston
Originally named Col. George Clendenin's Fort or Station. Legend says that when it was attacked by Indians in 1789, "Mad Ann" Bailey made the round trip to Fort Savannah in Lewisburg on the run in three days to get relief supplies. The stockade was removed in 1815 and the blockhouse was used as a private residence. Later moved to Virginia and Brooks Streets where it burned down in 1891. Original site located at Kanawha Blvd. and Brooks Street. The city was founded in 1794.
(1788 - unknown), Charleston
A settlers' fort located one mile up the Kanawha River from the mouth of the Elk River.
A Spanish-American War muster and assembly camp for the WV Volunteer Infantry. Located on the north bank of the Kanawha River across from Elk, about one-half mile below the mouth of the Elk River, near present-day Patrick Street Plaza.
Fort Scammon (2)
(1863 - 1865), South Charleston
A Union earthworks fort located on Fort Hill on the west (south) bank of the Kanawha River at the mouth of Ferry Branch. Originally named Camp White in 1863. It was preserved as a city park in 1978. See also WV Explorer.com
The Civil War Comes to Charleston from WV Archives and History
(1898), Kanawha City
A Spanish-American War muster and assembly camp for state troops. Located about one mile above the river bridge.
Capt. John Morris' Fort
(1774 - unknown), near South Malden
A settlers' stockaded fort located opposite the mouth of Campbell's Creek. John was the brother to William (see below).
(1863), West Belle
A Union encampment at Malones Landing.
Kelly's Fort (1)
(1774 - 1790 ?), Cedar Grove
A local militia fort located at the mouth of Kelly's Creek. Built by Capt. William Morris (brother to John), and named after Walter Kelly, who was killed here in 1772. Also known as Kelly's Station. and also as Capt. William Morris' Fort. Travelers were still stopping here during the 1780's.
(1862 - 1864), Kanawha Falls
A Union fortified camp and blockhouse located downriver from Gauley Bridge. Renamed Camp Reynolds. Gun pits and trenches still remain. Marker located across the New River in Glen Ferris.
Camp Tompkins (2)
(1861 - 1862), near Gauley Bridge
A Union fortified camp located on the grounds of present-day Hawks Nest Country Club located southeast of town. Gun pits still remain. A small redoubt was built at the mouth of Sand Creek just to the north.
(1862), Hawks Nest
A Union camp at Miller's Ferry on the New River, opposite McDougal.
Civil War Defenses of Fayetteville
(1862 - 1863), Fayetteville
Fort Scammon (1) was located at 123 East Maple Ave., on the hill behind the Fayette County Courthouse at North Court Street and Wiseman Ave. (marker site).
Battery McMullan was located adjacent to and behind Fort Scammon (1), connected by a covered way.
Fort Beauford was located one-half mile south of the Courthouse, on the present-day grounds of the Dodd-Payne-Hess Funeral Home at 350 West Maple Ave. (extant earthworks, marker at West Maple Ave. and Grace Street). Renamed Fort Toland in 1863.
Still extant earthworks are reportedly located at Laurel Creek Road and US 19.
Wolf Creek Fort
(1772 - unknown), South Fayette
A settlers' fort on the west bank of the New River at the mouth of Wolf Creek.
(NOTE: an alternate location for this fort is at Narrows, VA, also on the New River at the mouth of another Wolf Creek.)
A Union camp at Bowyer's Ferry on the New River.
Camp at Spy Rock
A Union camp to oppose the Confederates' camp at Big Sewell Mountain.
(1861 - 1864), Summersville
A Union garrison post protecting the old Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike bridge over the Gauley River.
(Carnifex Ferry Battlefield State Park)
(1861), Carnifex Ferry
A CSA fortified camp and bridgehead. No significant earthworks remain.
Camp on Big Sewell Mountain
(1861), near Rainelle
A CSA fortified camp and General Robert E. Lee's headquarters at the time. Lee was introduced to his famous horse Traveller at this camp. A marker locates a still existing trench line.
Meadow Bluff Camp
(1861), near Crawley
About three miles of CSA infantry trenches were located on the bluff above the Meadow River. Remnants still extant.
(1862), near Flat Top
A Union camp located on Flat Top Mountain. Also known as Camp Flat Top.
(1777 - unknown), Bluefield
A settlers' blockhouse built by John Davidson and Richard Bailey, located at Beaver Pond Springs.
(1770's), Mercer County
A settlers' station located on the Bluestone River. Possibly used by the VA state militia in 1776.
John McGuire's Station
(1774 - unknown), near Spanishburg
A settlers' station located on the Bluestone River. Used by the VA state militia in 1776.
(thanks to Joe McGuire for providing possible location and date of land grant)
(Bluestone Lake Wildlife Management Area)
(Bluestone Lake Project - USACE)
(1774 - 1778 ?), Crumps Bottom
A VA colonial militia stockade built during Dunmore's War. Also known as Fort Byrd, Fort Field, and Culbertson's Bottom Fort. The area was first settled in 1753 and originally known as Culbertson's Bottom. The Bluestone Dam and Lake were created in 1949, flooding the site.
Thomas (or Francis) Farley's Fort
(1775 - unknown), Farley ?
A settlers' fort located at "Warford" along the lower portion of Crump's Bottom, on the south bank of the river.
Capt. Michael Woods' Fort
(1773 - unknown), near Peterstown
A settlers' stockade located on Rich Creek four miles east of town. Still in use in 1781.
Capt. John Cook's Fort
(1770 - 1780's), Red Sulphur Springs
One of the largest frontier forts of the area, the palisade covered over an acre and had four blockhouses. More than 300 settlers took refuge here in 1778. Used by the VA state militia 1776 - 1780. Located on Indian Creek three miles from its mouth.
Mann's Fort (2)
(1770 - unknown), near Greenville
A settlers' fort built by Adam and Jacob Mann, located on Indian Creek about ten miles west of Union.
(1770's), Monroe County
A settlers' fort also used by the VA militia in 1776 and later. Exact location undetermined. Also spelled Byrnsides.
Capt. Wallace Estill's Fort
(1773 - unknown), Raines Corner
A settlers' three-story stone house on Indian Creek.
Capt. Peter Van Bebber's Fort
(1771 - unknown), Lowell
A settlers' blockhouse. Attacked by Indians in 1777. Also spelled Van Bibber.
Fort Greenbrier (2)
(1771 - unknown), near Wolf Creek Station
A settlers' fort located on Wolf Creek. Attacked by Indians in 1777. Possibly also known as Jarrett's Fort.
Henry Baughman's Fort
A settlers' blockhouse (not palisaded) attacked and destroyed by Shawnee Indians shortly after it was built. All were killed.
John Keeney's Fort
(1770's), Summers County
A settlers' fort located below Keeney Knob, north of Glenray. Possibly the same as Arbuckle's Fort.
Capt. Mathew Arbuckle's Fort
(1774, 1776 - 1778), Blaker Mills
A VA colonial militia stockaded blockhouse located at the mouth of Mill Creek on Muddy Creek, on the land of John Keeney. Regarrisoned in 1776 by state militia under Capt. Andrew Hamilton. Also known as Muddy Creek Fort. Monument at site on Blaker Mills Road (private property). Site excavated in 1992 - 1996. A county historical park is planned for the future.
William Hamilton's Fort
(1770's - 1780's), near Blue Sulphur Springs
A settlers' fort first garrisoned by local militia in 1776 and possibly each year up to 1782. Located east of town on Kitchen Creek. It is unclear if Hamilton's house (built 1773) was a part of the fort, or outside near the fort.
William Feamster's Fort
(1770's), near Asbury
A settlers' small log fort located somewhere on Mill Creek. Garrisoned by local militia in 1780.
Capt. John Stuart's Fort
(1769 - 1780's), Fort Spring
A settlers' fort located on Muddy Creek. Attacked by Indians in 1774. It became the first courthouse of Greenbrier County in 1780. The fort was demolished in 1789 and replaced by Stuart's manor house. The town was later named for the former fort's main source of fresh water.
(1755 - 1763, 1774 - 1782), Lewisburg
A VA colonial militia stockaded fort at the "Big Levels" was originally here in 1755.
Camp Union was later located here in 1774, a rendezvous for the VA colonial militia during Dunmore's War, before the Battle of Point Pleasant (October 1774). A new state militia two-story blockhouse was built here at Lewis Spring in 1776 and probably named Fort Charles. Some sources erroneously name it Fort Union (see below). The town was founded in 1782. The Lewis Spring at Andrew Lewis Park at 201 North Jefferson Street was protected by a stone house in the 1790's.
(1786 - 1814 ?), Lewisburg
A VA state militia blockhouse located near the site of Fort Savannah. It was demolished in the 1830's. The Old Barracks (1787) is located at 200 North Jefferson Street, owned and operated by the Greenbrier Historical Society. It was reportedly still used by the state militia during the War of 1812.
Col. Andrew Donnally's Fort
(1771 - 1782), near Alta ¤ WVA Archives Photo ¤
A settlers' large palisaded two-story blockhouse located on Rader's Run (aka Little Sinking Creek) northeast of town on Rader's Valley Road, about six miles south of McCoy's Fort. Garrisoned by local militia beginning in 1776. Attacked by Shawnee Indians in the summer of 1778 after they had attacked Neal's Fort in Parkersburg. A reconstruction was once built from the original logs, but it was demolished in 1925. Monument at site. Site excavated in 2003 - 2006.
William McCoy's Fort
(1774 - 1782), near Williamsburg
A settlers' fortified two-story log cabin, originally built in 1769, located one mile north of town. There was no stockade. Attacked by Indians in May 1778. The cabin was later enclosed in a barn and survived until 2012 when destroyed by a storm. The logs were dismantled and saved for eventual restoration, and the site was fully excavated in 2013.
(1778), near Williamsburg
A local militia fort. Exact location undetermined, said to have been located one mile from John Patton's homestead, which was within sight of McCoy's Fort.
(1770's), near Renick
A settlers' fort garrisoned by local militia in 1778. Located six miles east of McCoy's Fort, at the "forks" of Spring Creek.
(1777 - unknown), Greenbrier County
A local militia fort. Location undetermined.
Fort at Fort Lick
(1770's), Webster Springs
A possible settlers' fort located at the salt spring. Fort Lick was the original name of the town.
Droop Mountain Battlefield (State Park)
Earthworks remain from the November 1863 Battle of Droop Mountain. Walking trails and a visitor center/museum are here.
Little Levels Camp
A Union camp, before the Battle of Droop Mountain (November 1863). Marker on Main Street (US 219) at the Pearl S. Buck Birthplace.
(1772 - unknown), Mill Point
A settlers' fort located at the "Little Levels" on the Greenbrier River, also known as Day's Fort (1774) and Price's Old Fort. Also spelled in some sources as Keckley or Keekley.
Fort Green Bryer (1)
A small stockade built by the VA colonial militia. The Pocahontas County Courthouse is now on the site.
Thomas Drennan's Fort
(1774 - unknown), near Edray
A settlers' fort. Attacked by Indians in 1774 and 1778. Also spelled Drinnon.
(1861 - 1863), Huntersville
A CSA encampment and supply depot on Knapp Creek. Destroyed by the Union in August 1863. Marker located on WV 92 in Minnehaha Springs.
Jacob Warwick's Fort
(1770's), Clover Lick
A settlers' fort also known as Clover Lick Fort.
A settlers' blockhouse.
John Warwick's Fort
(1770's), near Green Bank
A settlers' fort located west of town at the Forks of Deer Creek.
(Monongahela National Forest)
(1861 - 1862), Top of Allegheny
Also known as Camp Baldwin and Camp Johnson. It was the Confederate winter camp after the Battle of Greenbrier River (October 1861), defended by eight guns. Located about eight miles southeast of Camp Bartow on Buffalo Ridge. The site of 35 cabins still remains, as well as extensive trenches and gun pits. At 4,400 feet elevation, this was the highest fortification in the eastern United States. Part of the site is under private ownership. The U.S. Forest Service visitor center at Elkins has the history of these forts in the Monongahela National Forest Civil War Tour.
(Monongahela National Forest)
(Camp Bartow Historic District)
This Confederate post was abandoned and the Union seized it during the Battle of Greenbrier River (October 1861). It was to protect the Greenbrier River crossing of the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike (now US 250) from attack from the west. Several trenches, rifle pits, campsites, and three gun batteries still exist. Located one-half mile southeast of town on the western slope of Frank Mountain, primarily centered around the "Traveller's Repose" inn (1869) on US 250 at WV 92. Most of the designated historic area is owned/managed by the U.S. Forest Service, the rest (including the inn and a Confederate cemetery) is under private ownership.
Cheat Summit Fort
(Monongahela National Forest)
(1861 - 1862), Cheat Bridge
A large Union fort and winter encampment protecting the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike through the mountains. Also known as Fort Milroy and Camp McClellan. Two blockhouses were located on either side of the road at the summit. Cabins or huts were located within the fort. The earthworks are well preserved. Located on White Top Mountain at 4,025 feet elevation. The U.S. Forest Service visitor center at Elkins has the history of these forts in the Monongahela National Forest Civil War Tour.
NEED MORE INFO: A French fort or trading post (1670's) on the Kanawha River, located either at Charleston or Gauley Bridge.
Towns: Fort Branch near Logan (Pt. Branch on AAA map)
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"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com