HISTORIC NAVAL STATIONS,
SHIPYARDS and MARINE BARRACKS
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SOURCES - BIBLIOGRAPHY
A listing of government-owned naval shipyards (Federal and state) and other historic naval support facilities (pre-1920), including various stations of the U.S. and C.S. Marine Corps. Private and commercial shipyards are NOT included here. Please see U.S. Shipbuilding History by Tim Colton for more info.
Portsmouth Naval Shipyard
(1800 - present), Kittery
Originally only located on Dennett's Island, this was the second Federal shipyard established in the U.S.. The adjacent Seavey's Island was acquired in 1866. It has been a major submarine yard since World War I. The Navy's first floating dry dock was built here in 1852. The Naval Hospital was established in 1834, present structure built in 1913. The U.S. Naval Disciplinary Barracks (aka "The Castle") (built 1905/1943) was closed in 1974. The Marine Barracks (est. 1813) was closed in 1987. Building M-1 was built in 1828. Camp Heywood was established in 1898-99 for the recuperation of all the Marine battalions returning from service in Cuba.
Charlestown Navy Yard
Boston National Historical Park
(1800 - 1974/present), Boston
Also known as Boston Navy Yard. Part of the former base is still in use - primarily for the U.S.S. Constitution, the oldest commissioned warship still active. Most of the rest of the property is used by the National Park Service. Also here is the display ship U.S.S. Cassin Young DD-793. One of the two original drydocks (1833) is also still in use. The Marine Barracks (est. and built 1810) also closed in 1974, but is now home to the 1812 U.S. Marine Guard. A separate Marine Barracks was also located at the Hingham Naval Magazine/Ammunition Depot (1903 - 1961). The Naval Hospital (1823/1836 - 1974) was located on the Mystic River in Chelsea, now private residences in Mary O'Malley Park. A Naval Magazine was also located at Chelsea from 1834 - 1912. The South Boston Naval Annex was established in 1920. Now known as Boston Marine Industrial Park, Drydock #3 is still used by private ship repair firms.
A Brief History of the Boston Navy Yard and Marine Barracks from 1932.
Malden Naval Nitre Depot
(1864 - 1917/1926), Malden
Also known as Malden Naval Ordnance Depot, or Edgeworth Depot, a storage facility for imported nitre (saltpeter) used in the production of gunpowder. Located on six acres at Commercial and Medford Streets. Became a subpost of the Charlestown Navy Yard in 1866. The Malden Catholic High School constructed the Brother Gilbert Memorial Football Stadium here in 1948, in use until 1973. Site now Riverview Business Park.
Goat Island Naval Torpedo Station
(History of Naval Undersea Warfare Center Newport)
(1869 - 1951), Goat Island, Newport
The forerunner of today's Naval Undersea Warfare Center, the Torpedo Station's mission was to develop torpedoes, torpedo equipment, explosives, and electrical equipment. Through experiments conducted there, the torpedo evolved from the immobile explosive mine of the Civil War period to the efficient and highly mobile weapon of today. The Station worked on other ordnance projects, including an impractical dynamite-throwing gun, projectile explosives such as dynamite and nitroglycerine, and gun cotton. The Navy's first smokeless gunpowder was also manufactured there. The first experiments in shipboard electricity were conducted at the Torpedo Station in the late 1880's. The machine shop was wired to conform with a plan for illuminating ships with electric lights in July 1887. Wiring the shop in this manner provided light for the factory, and facilitated experiments and demonstrations in the application of electric power to warships. In 1902 a wireless antenna mast 180 feet high was erected at the Station to allow tests and evaluations of wireless radio communications. Rose Island was acquired in 1869 for the storage of explosives and for experimental firings, and in 1919, Gould Island was purchased and placed under the Station's jurisdiction. Prudence Island was later acquired in 1942. During World War I, approximately 3,200 employees, including 300 women, were engaged in Torpedo Station work. Approximately 13,000 people were employed at the Torpedo Station at the height of World War II, and they produced 80% of the submarine torpedoes made by the United States. Most of the buildings were demolished in the 1960's. Now a commercially developed area. Gould Island was transferred back to the state between 1975 and 1989. Rose Island was transferred to the state in 1976.
The Marine Barracks (1894 - 1977) at Newport Naval Station (1881 - present) was established on Coasters Harbor Island as a guard force for the Naval Torpedo Station and Naval War College (1884 - present). The United States Naval Academy was temporarily located at Fort Adams in April 1861 before relocating to the Atlantic House Hotel at Bellevue Ave. and Pelham Street in September 1861. The school returned to Maryland in August 1865. The hotel was demolished in 1877, site now the Elks Lodge at 141 Pelham Street. The Naval Hospital (est. 1909) was located at Third and Cypress Streets.
New London Navy Yard
(Naval Submarine Base New London)
(1868 - 1916/present), Groton
Due to lack of federal funding, the first buildings and pier were not actually built until 1872. It was primarily used as a coaling station by the Atlantic Fleet's various small craft after 1883. A Marine Barracks was established here briefly in 1910-11 as the first home of the Advanced Base School until it was transferred to Philadelphia. Became the New London Naval Submarine Base in 1916. A new Marine Barracks was re-established in 1917. This is the Navy's primary submarine base, with training facilities and the Naval Submarine School.
A temporary yard built in a desperate attempt to thwart British advances up Lake Champlain during the War of 1812. A marker is at the site, in a small park on MacDonough Drive.
Brooklyn Navy Yard
(Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation)
(1801 - 1966), Brooklyn
One of the original six Federal shipyards, located on the East River at Wallabout Bay. Also known as New York Navy Yard. The first steam frigate, the Fulton, was launched here in 1815. Dry Dock #1, the first of six, was completed in 1851, and is the third oldest dry dock on the east coast. This was a major construction/repair yard for cruisers and battleships during WWI and WWII. Became a city-owned industrial park after it was closed, although some buildings were continued to be used by the Navy until 1994. Now leased to private ship repair firms. The Naval Hospital (1838 - 1948/1989) was on Flushing Ave.. The Marine Barracks also on Flushing Ave. (est. 1810) was closed in 1974. The Marine Commandant's House (Building 92) (built 1858) is the only remaining original structure from the barracks, and is now the Brooklyn Navy Yard Center museum (opened 2011). A separate Marine Barracks (est. 1918) was also located at the Iona Island Naval Magazine/Ammunition Depot (1899 - 1947) 45 miles up the Hudson River in Stony Point, and another Marine Barracks (1918 - 1926, 1939 - 1946) was located at the Dover Naval Magazine / Lake Denmark Naval Ammunition Depot (1891 - 1960) in Dover, NJ. The Fort Lafayette Naval Magazine was used from 1898 - 1946, and it also had a Marine Barracks during the WWII years.
(1776 - 1777), Poughkeepsie
A Continental (Patriot) shipyard on the Hudson River. The frigates Congress and Montgomery were built here. State marker located at Livingstone and Prospect Streets.
Sackets Harbor Shipyard
(Sackets Harbor Battlefield State Historic Site)
(1812 - 1874), Sackets Harbor
Built during the War of 1812 to counter the British fleet's presence in Kingston, Ontario. Eleven ships were constructed here for the Lake Ontario Fleet, including the 20-gun brig U.S.S. Jefferson. The 120-gun frigate U.S.S. New Orleans was never finished, and remained on the stocks until finally dismantled in 1884. The Sackets Harbor Naval Station was established here 1848 - 1954, later primarily used by the New York State Naval Militia. Became part of the state park in 1980.
Black Rock Shipyard
Replaced by Presque Isle Shipyard. A Naval Depot remained here until 1815. Site located at end of Niagara Street. No remains.
Presque Isle Shipyard
(1813 - 1825), Presque Isle, Erie
Served the American Lake Erie Fleet during the War of 1812. No remains. Site is now Presque Isle State Park. Six ships of the 11-ship fleet of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry were built at the mouth of Cascade Creek. Little Bay at Presque Isle was the temporary home of the fleet. The shores and waters of Presque Isle protected the fleet during construction. After the Battle of Lake Erie (September 1813), Perry and his men returned to Little Bay at Presque Isle to repair their fleet and seek medical treatment for the wounded. During the winter of 1813-14, many of Perry’s crew suffered from poor living conditions and the harsh winters. Many died. In remembrance of those hardships during those winters, Little Bay was renamed Misery Bay by the surviving sailors. The Perry Monument on Crystal Point was built in 1926 to commemorate this significant battle and honor those brave sailors who fought and died for their country.
See also History of Presque Isle State Park by PA State Parks
Philadelphia Naval Shipyard
(1801 - 1875 / 1871 - 1996/present), Philadelphia
The original 18-acre location in the Southwark area (present-day Pennsport), enclosed by a high brick wall at the foot of Federal Street and bounded by Front, Prime, and Wharton Streets, closed in 1875 after the Navy completed transfer of the yard to League Island, its present site. The original yard location is now landlocked after waterfront reclamation projects pushed the shoreline eastward. Pier 55 South Delaware Wharves is the approximate present-day location. The first Marine Barracks and Headquarters were established in Philadelphia in 1798, along with the first Depot of Supplies. The Marine Headquarters was transferred to Washington, DC in 1801, and the Depot of Supplies moved into the Southwark Yard. The second Marine Barracks was located inside the Yard's perimeter wall along Front Street. In 1857 the Depot of Supplies moved to a four-story building at 226 South 4th Street. The old Naval Hospital (aka Naval Asylum) (1833 - 1976) is located at Gray's Ferry Ave. at 24th Street. It was also the site of the Philadelphia Naval School (1838 - 1845), one of several regional precursors to the U.S. Naval Academy. It is now private condominiums (since 2004).
The League Island Yard, established in 1871, is now part of the Philadelphia Naval Base, which includes the Naval Station and Naval Shipyard. Although inactive, the Navy still maintains a "mothball" fleet here. The docks are now leased to private ship-repair companies. The former base is currently undergoing redevelopment. The Marine Barracks (present structure built 1901), located in Building 100 on South Broad Street, was closed in 1977. Building 101 (built in 1911) adjacent to B.100 was also used as Marine Barracks, as was B.99 (built 1901) located at the corner of Rowan Ave. and Second Street East (demolished). Marine Officers' Quarters M1 - M7 (built 1909-12) were located along South Broad Street facing the Reserve Ship Basin. The Marine Corps Depot of Supplies (built 1904, closed 1976) was located at 1100 South Broad Street, with two satellite facilities (built 1941, closed 1962) at Delaware and Snyder Aves. (demolished), and at 730 Schuylkill Ave. (demolished 2015). A separate Marine Barracks was also located at the Fort Mifflin Naval Magazine/Ammunition Depot (1918 - 1960). The new 13-story Naval Hospital (1935 - 1993) was located on Pattison Ave. near Packer Park. It was demolished in 2001.
See also Workshop of the World || The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia
Curtis Bay Coast Guard Yard
(1899 - present), Baltimore
Originally the Curtis Bay Depot operated by the Revenue Marine Service, predecessor to the U.S. Coast Guard. Located on 113 acres at Arundel Cove off of Curtis Creek, it was primarily a repair facility and home port of the fleet's cutters. In 1906 a classroom was built to train Revenue Marine cadets, the forerunner to the Coast Guard Academy, which was established in 1910 at New London, Connecticut. In 1940 the depot was enlarged and upgraded, and renamed. This is the Coast Guard's only shipbuilding and repair facility. Over a thousand vessels of many different types (cutters, tenders, buoy boats, tugs, utility boats, et al) have been built here, including thirty-seven 95-foot patrol boats for the Navy during the Korean War, and fifty-three 82-foot patrol boats during the Vietnam War. Lightship 612 (Nantucket I) and Lightship 613 (Nantucket II / Ambrose), the last lightships ever built, were also constructed here. At present thirty-one of the industrial buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
United States Naval Academy
(1845 - present), Annapolis
Originally located at Fort Severn (1808) on Windmill Point. The Naval School was renamed Naval Academy in 1850. During the Civil War the school was relocated to Newport, RI (April 1861 - August 1865), and the U.S. Army retook control of the fort for the city's defense and also established a General Hospital on the grounds. After the war, the interior of the fort was converted to a gymnasium in 1865. A Marine Barracks was also established in 1865 (site now Dahlgren Hall). Halligan Hall was built in 1903 as the replacement Marine Barracks, then becoming the Naval Postgraduate School in 1913. New academy buildings were constructed beginning in 1899, and Fort Severn was finally demolished in 1906-09, site now occupied by Bancroft Hall. Declared a National Historic Site in 1966. The Naval Hospital was built in 1908, replacing an earlier structure from 1855.
The Naval Experimental Station and the Greenbury Point Naval Reservation across the river were both acquired in 1873.
Indian Head Naval Proving Ground
(Indian Head Division - Naval Surface Warfare Center)
(1890 - present), Indian Head
The U.S. Navy's first modern proving ground for guns, armor, shells, and mounts, established here to be in close proximity to the Naval Gun Factory in Washington, DC. A powder plant was built here in 1898. Originally on 881 acres, it was expanded by another 1050 acres in 1902. A Marine Barracks was established here in 1911, closing in 1961. In 1918 the post became the Upper Station, Indian Head when a new proving ground was established downriver at Dahlgren, VA. Renamed the Naval Powder Factory in 1921. Became the Naval Propellant Plant in 1958, and then Naval Ordnance Station in 1966. Became the Naval Surface Warfare Center - Indian Head Division in 1992. The Stump Neck Annex was added in 1901. Nearby is the Winthrop Naval Rifle Range.
DISTRICT of COLUMBIA
Washington Navy Yard
(1799 - 1883/present), Washington
The first Federal shipyard officially established, originally located on 16 acres (including in-filled waterfront), it was later expanded to 127 acres between 1902 to 1944. The shipyard was burned along with the city when the British raided in August 1814. The Navy Yard was defended and garrisoned by various Federal Army troops during the Civil War. The Naval Ordnance Laboratory was established in 1845, but later relocated to White Oak, Maryland after WWII. An Experimental Battery was located along the waterfront to test various guns and munitions, the Navy's first "proving ground". The Naval Gun Factory was established in 1883, and operated until 1961 (renamed as Naval Weapons Plant in 1959). The entire Navy Yard was officially designated as the Naval Gun Factory in 1945, but the former name was officially restored in 1964. The historic Yard is still used by the Navy. Headquarters of the Naval District of Washington, and since the 1990's the base is now home to various other naval commands once scattered across the Capital Region of Maryland and Virginia. The U.S. Navy Historical Center (Naval History and Heritage Command) and the National Museum of the U.S. Navy are located here, established in 1971 and 1961 respectively. "Quarters A" was built in 1804, and survived the 1814 fire. It was the Commandant's Quarters from 1812 to 1978, and now houses the Chief of Naval Operations. "Quarters B" was built in 1802, and also survived the 1814 fire. It was once used as a barrack by the Yard's Marine guard force company, and now is home to the Commandant of Naval District Washington. Building 58 adjacent to Leutze Park was used as the Marine Corps' Ceremonial Guard Company's billet from 1957 to 1977. The Bellevue Naval Magazine, located four miles below the Navy Yard, was acquired in 1873.
The nearby Marine Barracks (est. 1801) at 8th and I Streets, SE is the oldest active Marine post. The Commandant's House was built in 1806, the other extant buildings were built in 1907. This was the Headquarters of the U.S. Marine Corps from 1801 to 1901. A Marine guard detachment was also permanently posted at the Navy Yard proper from 1800 until 1977. A company of Marines was sent to temporarily garrison Fort McHenry in Baltimore, MD in January-February 1861. Marines were also sent to garrison Fort Ellsworth in Alexandria, VA in August 1861, and later garrisoned Fort Lincoln (northeast DC) in July 1864.
The Old Naval Hospital (1866 - 1906/1960) is located at Pennsylvania Ave. and 10th Street, SE. Restored in 2008 as the Hill Center.
United States Naval Observatory
(1844 - 1893/present), Washington
Originally established in 1830 as an office in the Navy Department known as the Depot of Charts and Instruments. Renamed and relocated to a knoll just north of the present-day Lincoln Memorial in the Foggy Bottom area at 24th and E Streets, NW (2300 E Street, NW). The Old Observatory Building (which still stands and was still in use by the Navy until recently) was closed in 1893 when the New Observatory Building was established at its present site at 34th Street and Massachusetts Ave., NW (3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW) near Georgetown. The Old Observatory then became the home of the Naval Museum of Hygiene until 1902, then expanded and becoming the Naval Medical School and New Naval Hospital until 1942, and then the home of the Naval Bureau of Medicine and Surgery until 2012. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1966. The buildings and grounds are currently closed and off-limits to the general public as the U.S. State Department has now expanded onto the Navy Hill campus.
Dahlgren Naval Proving Ground
(Dahlgren Division - Naval Surface Warfare Center)
(1918 - present), Dahlgren
Originally named the Lower Station, Dahlgren, a subpost of the Indian Head Proving Ground, Maryland, renamed in 1932 as a separate command. Established to provide a longer (ballistic) and safer gun range away from populated areas, which had plagued the Indian Head site. This became the Navy's principal proving ground for all large guns and ammunition supplied to the fleet. Renamed Naval Weapons Laboratory in 1959, then Naval Surface Weapons Center in 1977, then Naval Surface Warfare Center in the mid 1980's. In 2005 it became Naval Support Facility.
Fredericksburg CSA Shipyard
A short-lived Confederate Naval Shipyard, located near the City Dock on the Rappahannock River. Wooden gunboats were never completed before the Union advanced on the city in April 1862.
(1776 - 1781), James City County
A state shipyard and naval depot in use during the American Revolution, located near the Chickahominy River on Diascund Creek, about 6 miles west of Toano. It was burned by the British as they invaded Virginia in April 1781. Traces of the wharves remain along the marshy waterfront.
Pamunkey River CSA Shipyard
A Confederate Naval Shipyard for wooden gunboats. Undetermined location.
York River CSA Shipyard
A Confederate Naval Shipyard for wooden gunboats. Undetermined location.
Richmond CSA Shipyards
(1862 - 1865), Richmond
A Confederate Naval Shipyard located at Rocketts Landing. Three ironclad ships were completed here, the C.S.S. Richmond, C.S.S. Fredericksburg, and C.S.S. Virginia II. Also headquarters of the CSA Navy's James River Squadron. Monument (1916) located on East Main Street at Ash Street. Confederate Marines were posted here from September 1863 to April 1865.
A supplemental CSA government navy yard was located across the river in Manchester, near the present-day city boat ramp off of Brandon Street. Confederate Marines were posted here from February 1863 to April 1865.
Richmond CSA Naval Ordnance Depot
(1862 - 1865), Richmond
A Confederate Naval Ordnance Depot was located here after Norfolk was recaptured by the Union in May 1862. Undetermined location (possibly at or adjacent to Tredegar Iron Works ?, or on Brown's Island ?).
The Shockoe Foundry was leased by the Confederate Navy in February 1862 as a marine machinery works.
Confederate Marine Corps Camp of Instruction
(Richmond National Battlefield Park - Drewry's Bluff)
(1863 - 1865), near Richmond
Located at Drewry's Bluff on the James River seven miles below the city. Also known as Camp Beall. The Confederate States Naval Academy was also based here, located aboard the C.S.S. Patrick Henry.
Petersburg CSA Naval Works
(1862 - 1865), Petersburg
The only Confederate Naval Ropewalk facility was located here. A Naval Powder Mill was also located here 1861 - 1862, but was moved to Columbia, SC (August 1862).
Norfolk Naval Shipyard
(Naval Sea Systems Command)
(1767 - 1779, 1794/1801 - present), Portsmouth
Originally known as the Gosport Shipyard, it was a private colonial shipyard until 1776, then becoming a state shipyard until destroyed by the British. It was leased by the state to the Federal government beginning in 1794, becoming fully Federalized in 1801. The shipyard was captured and briefly used by the Confederacy during the Civil War (April 1861 - May 1862). Confederate Marines were posted here from December 1861 to May 1862. It was officially renamed Norfolk Navy Yard after the Union regained control in May 1862. The U.S.S. Merrimack was transformed here into the ironclad C.S.S. Virginia in 1861-62. This is the world's largest government shipyard devoted exclusively to ship repair work. The original drydock, built in 1833, is still in use. The Marine Barracks (est. 1817) at 8th Street and Key Ave. was closed in 1978. Building M-22 was built in 1918, and Building M-32 was built in 1906. A separate Marine Barracks (est. 1918) was also located at the St. Juliens Creek Annex/Naval Magazine/Ammunition Depot (1849/1897 - 1969/present) about three miles away in Chesapeake. The Naval Shipyard Museum is located downtown at 2 High Street (admission fee). See also History Matters at Norfolk Navy Yard by Marcus Robbins
The first U.S. Naval Hospital was built in 1830, located at Hospital Point further downriver (site of former Fort Nelson). A Marine Barracks (1918 - 1986 ?) was also located at Yorktown Naval Mine Depot (1918 - present). Renamed Naval Weapons Station in 1958. A Marine Barracks (1920 - 1987) was also located at Norfolk Naval Base (1917 - present) at Sewells Point in Norfolk. A Marine Corps Depot of Supplies (1941 - 1950) was also located at Norfolk Naval Base. The Fort Norfolk Naval Magazine was used from 1863 - 1880. The Craney Island Naval Magazine was in use from 1874 - 1899.
Edward's Ferry CSA Shipyard
(1863 - 1864), near Scotland Neck
A Confederate Naval Shipyard located on the Roanoke River at the property of Peter Smith. The C.S.S. Albemarle was built here. The ship's construction was actually begun at the Tillery Farm about seven miles below Halifax. It was moved to Edward's Ferry in March 1863.
Washington CSA Shipyard
(1861 - 1862), Washington
Either a Confederate Naval Shipyard or a private yard under contract was located here.
Whitehall CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1864), near Seven Springs
A Confederate Naval Shipyard located on the north bank of the Neuse River just below the Cliffs of the Neuse. The C.S.S. Neuse was built here.
Wilmington CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1865), Wilmington
Both a Confederate Naval Shipyard and a private yard under contract were located here.
A stone monument for Beery's Shipyard (CSA) (on Eagle's Island) is located at Market and North Water Streets. A state marker is located at Market and North 4th Streets. The C.S.S. North Carolina was built here in 1862.
A state marker for the Cassidey Shipyard (private) is located at South 3rd Street and Church Street. The C.S.S. Raleigh was built here in 1863.
A Confederate Marine Barracks was located in the vicinity to provide guard details for the shipyard and various warships, including the floating battery C.S.S. Arctic. Confederate Marines were also present at Fort Fisher and Battery Buchanan in December 1864 - January 1865, including most of the Marines recently evacuated from Savannah, GA.
Fayetteville CSA Naval Ordnance Depot
A short-lived Confederate Naval Ordnance Depot was located here, moved from Augusta, GA.
Charlotte CSA Naval Ordnance Depot and Naval Works
(1862 - 1865), Charlotte
A Confederate Marine Engineering Works and Naval Ordnance Depot was located here at the Mecklenburg Iron Works in June 1862, using some of the machinery that was previously located at the Norfolk Navy Yard in Virginia. A detachment of Confederate Marines (possibly from Savannah, GA, via Augusta, GA) was possibly located here late in the war to provide a guard detail.
Mars Bluff CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1864), Mars Bluff
A Confederate Naval Shipyard located on the Great Pee Dee River, near Florence. Wooden gunboats were built here, including the C.S.S. Pee Dee.
Hobcaw Point Shipyard
(1702 ? - 1831), Mount Pleasant
Originally a private colonial shipbuilding yard. Attacked and burned by the French in 1706. Acquired by the state in 1778 to convert merchant ships into men-of-war for the state navy during the American Revolution. Probably captured and shut down during the British occupation of 1780-82. Reverted to private ownership after the war. Located on or near Hobcaw Creek, site now residential housing.
Charleston Marine Post
(1808 - 1813), Sullivan's Island / Charleston
A Marine Barracks was established on Sullivan's Island in May 1808 as the third (current) Fort Moultrie was under construction. The Marines were relocated to Fort Mechanic in Charleston in November 1809, and were finally withdrawn in May 1813.
Charleston CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1865), Charleston
Either a Confederate Naval Shipyard or a private yard under contract was located here. There were several private shipbuilding yards located here.
A company of Confederate Marines from Savannah, GA was sent here in December 1864, and were quartered at the Middleton House on the Battery, most likely located at 1 Meeting Street (aka Ross House), until February 1865.
Charleston Naval Shipyard
(Charleston Naval Complex Redevelopment Authority)
(1901 - 1996), North Charleston
The first new Federal shipyard built in the 20th-century. The docks are now leased to a private shipbuilding firm, and the rest of the former base is now home to several Federal agencies and other private companies. The Naval Hospital was built in 1917, rebuilt in 1941-42, closed in 1972. The Naval Clothing Factory (1914 - 1920) was located here in Building 13. The Marine Barracks (est. 1903) was closed by 1980. Building M-17 on Truxton Ave. was built in 1910. A Marine Corps Depot of Supplies was established in 1917 for use during WWI (closed 1920 ?). The Naval Ammunition Depot (1941 - present), located north in Goose Creek, is still currently active, now as Naval Weapons Station / Naval Support Activity (since 2010 now part of Joint Base Charleston with nearby Charleston Air Force Base). Officers' Quarters Historic District || U.S. Naval Hospital Historic District
See also Naval Base History from City of North Charleston
A private colonial shipyard (date ?) was once located on the south (or west) side of the mouth of Shipyard Creek, leased to the state in 1777 for the state navy during the American Revolution. Captured and destroyed by the British in 1780. Later rebuilt (still as a private yard), the 28-gun frigate U.S.S. John Adams was built here in 1799.
Columbia CSA Naval Works
(1862 - 1865), Columbia
A Confederate Naval Powder Mill was located here.
Port Royal Naval Station
(U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot)
(1891 - 1915/present), Parris Island
Originally established during the Civil War as a Union coaling station and home station of the Union South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. A dry dock was built in 1891 - 1895, at the time the only one south of Norfolk, VA. Its usage was discontinued in 1909 after a new dry dock was built in Charleston in 1907. The first Marine Officers School opened in 1909. The Port Royal Naval Disciplinary Barracks was here 1911 - 1933. Became Port Royal Marine Barracks in 1915. Renamed Parris Island Marine Barracks in 1917, and then Marine Corps Recruit Depot in 1946.
See also History of Parris Island from the Brig and Brew Club in Historic Building 19
Saffold CSA Shipyard
A Confederate Naval Shipyard located on the Chattahoochee River. Wooden gunboats were built here.
Savannah CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1864), Savannah
Either a Confederate Naval Shipyard or a private yard under contract was located here. There were several private shipbuilding yards located here.
A Confederate Marine Barracks was established in May 1863 at "Fair Lawn", a former colonial era plantation manor house, and was evacuated in December 1864 when the city fell. It was likely located in the present vicinity of East Broad Street between East Taylor and East Gaston Streets. The former St. Benedict's School (built 1914, closed 1969) at 556 East Gordon Street was supposedly built on the site. Confederate Marines also manned the floating battery C.S.S. Georgia.
Cumberland Island Marine Post
(1811 - 1812), Cumberland Island
A Marine encampment (with winter hutments) was established on Cumberland Island in May 1811, defended by two 6-pounder guns. The garrison later took possession of and occupied Amelia Island and Fernandina, FL in March 1812 during the so-called East Florida Patriot's War. They were finally withdrawn from Florida in May 1813.
Columbus CSA Naval Works
(1862 - 1865), Columbus
A Confederate Naval Marine Machinery Shop was located here at the Columbus Iron Works, originally built in 1853. It was the second-largest iron producer in the Confederacy. The C.S.S. Jackson (Muscogee) was completed here. The still extant main building at 801 Front Ave. is now the Columbus Iron Works Convention and Trade Center, with many Civil War exhibits. Of major interest nearby at 202 Fourth Street is the Port Columbus National Civil War Naval Museum (formerly the Confederate Naval Museum), the national clearinghouse for information on the Confederate States Navy.
Atlanta CSA Naval Laboratories and Ordnance Depot
(1862 - 1864), Atlanta
A Confederate Naval Ordnance Depot was located here, relocated from New Orleans, LA in April 1862. Before Atlanta fell to the Union, the Depot was moved again to Augusta, GA (June 1864). Site located at the present-day Georgia World Congress Center.
Augusta CSA Naval Ordnance Depot
A short-lived Confederate Naval Ordnance Depot was located here, moved from Atlanta. It was moved again to Fayetteville, NC.
Confederate Marines from Savannah (the C.S.S. Macon Marine guard detail) were garrisoned at the Shell Bluff Battery on the Savannah River about 45 miles below Augusta (15 miles northeast of Waynesboro) during January (and possibly until March) 1865.
Jacksonville CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1865), Jacksonville
Either a Confederate Naval Shipyard or a private yard under contract was located here.
Pensacola Navy Yard
(Naval Air Station Pensacola)
(1825 - 1911/present), Pensacola
Also known as Warrington Navy Yard. This was the Navy's primary station for the Gulf Coast Squadron, although ship construction did not begin until the 1850's. The yard was captured and used by the Confederates from January 1861 until May 1862. Rebuilt after the war, but later devastated by a 1906 hurricane. Became the Pensacola Naval Air Station in 1914. The docks are still used. The Marine Barracks was established in 1826, (probably) located inside the west gate. Confederate Marines were posted here from April 1861 to February 1862. The original barracks were destroyed when the Confederates abandoned the yard. Building 18 (built 1882), located at 232 East Ave., was used as Marine Barracks from 1900 (or possibly as early as 1883) to 1915, when the garrison was transferred to New Orleans, LA.
Pensacola Naval Air Station Historic District info by NPS
Key West Naval Station
(Naval Air Station Key West)
(1823 - 1974/present), Key West
The original naval base was located around what is now known as Mallory Square. It remained under Union control during the Civil War. A Marine Barracks was originally established in 1823-31, located on the waterfront between Duval and Whitehead Streets, reestablished in 1898-1920, then reestablished again in 1939, finally closing in 1974. Building 67 was destroyed by fire in 1977. Became Key West Naval Base in 1941. The Truman Annex was first acquired in 1917 as a submarine base, and Key West Barracks was transferred from the Army in 1947 after Fort Zachary Taylor was decommissioned. Part of the Annex is still in use by the Navy, the rest has been privately developed. Fleming Key was first acquired in 1845. The Naval Magazine was established there in 1941. The Naval Air Station was originally established for seaplanes at Trumbo Point in 1917. Naval air operations were moved to Boca Chica island in 1942, where they continue today. A separate Marine Barracks was also established at Boca Chica in 1942-48.
Additional islands once under Navy control included East and West Crawfish Key, Snipe, Barracouta, Woman, Man, and Boca Grande Keys, now part of the Key West National Wildlife Refuge.
Selma CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1865), Selma
A Confederate Naval Shipyard was located here. Three ships were completed (C.S.S. Tuscaloosa, C.S.S. Huntsville, C.S.S. Tennessee), a fourth was never completed.
Selma CSA Naval Ordnance Depot
(1862 - 1865), Selma
A major Confederate Naval Ordnance Depot was located here. The Old Depot Museum is now on the site, a former railroad station that was built in 1890. Admission fee. Monuments at Water Ave. and Church Street, and at Water Ave. and Sylvan Street.
Montgomery CSA Shipyard
A Confederate Naval Shipyard was located here.
Oven Bluff CSA Shipyard
A short-lived Confederate Naval Shipyard on the Tombigbee River 60 miles north of Mobile. Malaria epidemics forced the removal of the three uncompleted ships to Mobile.
Mobile CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1865), Mobile
A Confederate Naval Shipyard was located here. The three uncompleted ships from Oven Bluff were still uncompleted when the city fell in April 1865. A Naval Store House and Ordnance Department was also located here.
A Confederate Marine Barracks was located along the waterfront on South Commerce Street, below Church Street, in a leased former cotton mill (Mathews Cotton Press), beginning in October 1862. A company of Marines was sent to Fort Gaines in August 1864, and another company was sent to Fort Blakeley in April 1865.
Yazoo City CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1863), Yazoo City
A Confederate Naval Shipyard. The C.S.S. Arkansas was relocated here from Memphis, TN in April 1862 to be completed. Two other ships were never completed before the yard was destroyed in May 1863. A marker locates the site on Yazoo Lake.
Shreveport CSA Shipyard
(1862 - 1865), Shreveport
A Confederate Naval Shipyard was located on the south side of Cross Bayou at the Red River.
Marine Camp opposite New Orleans
(1804 - 1815 ?), New Orleans
A Marine encampment was located directly across the Mississippi River from New Orleans, used to supply men for the gunboats of the Mississippi River flotilla and, after 1807, guards for the Navy Yard at Madisonville. A detachment was also sent to garrison Fort St. John in April 1807.
New Orleans Navy Yard
(1849, 1901 - 1962/2011), New Orleans
A proposed ante-bellum Federal navy yard that was never built. It was to be located on 25 acres on the west bank of the Mississippi River in the Algiers area. With the addition of 47 acres in 1894 and 140 acres in 1901, the waterfront land finally became the New Orleans (Algiers) Naval Station, with the arrival of a floating drydock in 1901 and the building of several quarters by 1903. Became a small ship repair yard in 1915. A Marine Barracks was established here in 1915, closing in 1933. Renamed New Orleans Naval Section Base in 1942, then Naval Repair Base in 1944, but reverted back to Naval Station in 1947. Renamed New Orleans Naval Support Activity in 1962. The base was closed in 2011, now the home of several Federal agencies and commercial enterprises (aka Federal City New Orleans). The U.S. Marine Corps, 4th Division (Reserves) has been headquartered here since 1966. See also Waterways Journal Weekly
The New Orleans Army Quartermaster Depot (1919 - 1931), on about 30 acres located on the east bank of the river, became the New Orleans Port of Embarkation in 1941, renamed New Orleans Army Terminal in 1955, and was closed and transferred to the Navy in 1966 to be part of the larger Naval Support Activity New Orleans.
New Orleans CSA Naval Ordnance Depot
(1862), New Orleans
A short-lived Confederate Naval Ordnance Depot was located here, moved to Atlanta, GA before the city fell to the Union in April 1862.
(1807 - 1823), Madisonville
Used during the War of 1812 to supply and outfit gunboats. The only ship constructed here was the 32-gun flat-bottomed frigate U.S.S. Tchifoncta, begun in 1813 but was only 80 percent completed by December 1814 and was later broken up on the stocks when the yard was closed. Located on the Tchefuncte River at "Beau Chene", about two miles from town. A Marine Barracks was also established here in 1807.
Memphis Navy Yard
(1844 - 1857), Memphis
A Federal shipyard and repair facility, located on the Wolf River waterfront between Auction and Market Streets. The U.S.S. Allegheny was the only ship built here. A private firm operated here in WWII building small naval craft under contract to the Navy. The site is now part of the Pyramid Arena complex.
A private yard was established in 1861 to the south at the Fort Pickering Landing for constructing, under contract, two Confederate ironclads, one of which was the C.S.S. Arkansas. The other was burned on the stocks when the city fell in June 1862.
Nashville CSA Shipyard
(1861 - 1862), Nashville
Either a Confederate Naval Shipyard or a private yard under contract was located here. Four river steamers were to be converted to gunboats, but were never completed before the city fell in February 1862.
Mound City Shipyard
(1862 - 1874), Mound City
A repair yard leased by the Navy for the Union's Mississippi River Squadron during the Civil War. The Mound City Naval Station was established here 1868 - 1873.
Galveston Navy Yard
(1836 - 1846), Galveston
The headquarters of the Texas Republic Navy. All facilities, stores, and remaining ships were transferred to the U.S. Navy in 1846.
See also The Texas Navy from Handbook of Texas Online
Mare Island Naval Shipyard
(Mare Island Historic Park Foundation)
(1853 - 1996), Mare Island, Vallejo
The first United States naval station established on the West Coast. The first drydock on the west coast was begun in 1872 and completed in 1891. Became part of the present-day Mare Island Naval Station. This was the main repair yard for the Pacific Fleet until it was replaced by Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard in Hawaii after WWI, but regained its stature in 1942 by repairing various battle-damaged ships from allied navies as well as those of the U.S. Navy. Briefly merged with the Hunters Point Naval Shipyard (est. 1941) in San Francisco in 1965, then known as San Francisco Bay Naval Shipyard with headquarters at Mare Island, but the two yards were again separated in 1970. Now owned by the city, slated for future redevelopment. The Marine Barracks (est. 1865) was closed in 1986. Building M-1 was built in 1871, and Buildings M-2, M-3, M-4, and M-5 were built in 1888. Building M-37 (New Barracks) was built in 1917. The original 1871 barracks were torn down in 1955 and replaced with Building 866 and its parking lot. The Marine Corps Recruit Training Depot, West Coast was established in 1911. It transferred to San Diego, CA in 1923. The first Naval Hospital on the west coast was built in 1870, rebuilt in 1901, and closed in 1957. The Naval Ammunition Depot (est. 1857) was located on the southeastern end of the island. It was consolidated with the Port Chicago Naval Magazine (est. 1942) in Concord in 1957.
See also Historic Info from CA State Military Museum
Mare Island Naval Shipyard State Landmark
The Marine Corps Depot of Supplies, West Coast (1923 - 1961) was located at 100 Harrison Street in San Francisco. In 1916 it was listed at 36 Annie Street, in a six-story concrete building.
Puget Sound Naval Shipyard
(1891 - present), Bremerton
Originally Puget Sound Naval Station, located on Sinclair Inlet, it was redesignated as a Navy Yard in 1901. Drydock #1 was completed in 1896. This was the main repair yard for the Pacific Fleet during WWII after Pearl Harbor was damaged. In 2004 became part of Naval Base Kitsap - Bremerton. The Marine Barracks (est. 1896) was closed in 1977. Buildings M-1, M-2, M-3, and M-4 were built in 1911. The 1899 and 1911 Marine barracks both no longer stand. A Marine Corps Recruit Training Depot was established in 1911, but was closed in 1912. The Naval Hospital was first built in 1909, closed in 1980 (now demolished). A separate Marine Barracks (1919 - 1950) was also located at the Puget Sound Naval Magazine/Ammunition Depot (1904 - 1959) about five miles away on the west side of Ostrich Bay (later became the Jackson Park housing complex in the 1970's).
See also History of Puget Sound Naval Shipyard from HistoryLink.org
A Marine Barracks (1919 - 1978) was also located at the Keyport Naval Torpedo Station (1914 - present), located on Dogfish Bay off of Port Orchard Inlet, about 11 miles north of the Shipyard. Originally known as Pacific Coast Torpedo Station until 1930. Became Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station in 1978.
Sitka Marine Barracks
(1879 - 1912), Sitka
Marines were originally quartered in old Russian era log barracks until new barracks were built in 1892. The U.S. Army garrison had withdrawn from Fort Sitka in 1877. Became the Sitka Pioneer Home in 1913. Located at 120 Katlian Street. Sitka was the territorial capital until 1900.
Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard
(1908 - present), Pearl Harbor, O'ahu
Located in the Southeast Loch of Pearl Harbor, across the South Channel from Ford Island. The first permanent buildings were constructed in 1913. The first drydock was completed in 1919. This has been a major naval repair facility for the U.S. Navy's Pacific Fleet since WWI. The Marine Barracks (est. 1913) in Pearl City was closed in 1994, although the barracks reservation is still occupied today by units of Marine Corps Forces, Pacific. Buildings 201, 202, 203, and 207 on Russell Ave. were built in 1913. Building 204, also on Russell Ave., was built in 1914. Building 221 on Neville Way was built in 1913. Several additional barracks buildings date to the WWII era. Pearl Harbor National Historic Landmark
See also Pearl Harbor: Attacks in the Navy Yard Area from US Naval History and Heritage Command
Honolulu Naval Station was first established by the U.S. Navy in 1899 as a coaling station. Marines were first sent to Honolulu in 1904. Land around Pearl Harbor was acquired in 1901, and Pearl Harbor Naval Station was established in 1908. Operations at the former station were transferred to the new facility in 1913, finally closing in 1921. Ford Island was purchased in 1917 as a joint Army Air Field (Luke Field, 1918) and Naval Air Station (1920 - 1962), until the Army left in 1939 for Hickam Field. The Pearl Harbor Naval Hospital was established at Hospital Point on Ford Island in 1915, closing in 1942. The Kuahua Naval Ammunition Depot was built on Kuahua Island (Southeast Loch) in 1913-15, closing in 1934 when the larger and better protected Lualualei Naval Ammunition Depot was built in the Lualualei Valley (West Loch). A Marine guard detail was established at the Kuahua depot in 1918. The naval station was renamed Pearl Harbor Naval Operating Base in 1928. Became headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet in 1941. Re-aligned as Joint Base Pearl Harbor - Hickam in 2010.
Kawaihae Naval Yard
(1794 - unknown), Kawaihae, Hawai'i
A Royal Hawaiian shipyard established by King Kamehameha I, under the direction of John Young, the king's British advisor.
See also Canadian Ships and Shipyards page
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com
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