Southern Arizona

Camp Ajo | Fort Aravaipa | Fort Aravaypa | Camp Arivaca | Camp Arivaca Junction
Fort Babocomari | New Post at Babocomari Ranch | Fort Barrett | Camp Benson
Camp Bisbee | Camp Blue Water Station | Camp Bonita | Camp Bowie | Fort Bowie
Bowie Station | Fort Breckenridge | Fort Buchanan | Camp Calabasas (1)
Camp near Calabasas (2) | Post at Calabasas (3) | Presidio de Calabasas | Camp Cameron
Fort Cañada del Oro | Camp Casa Blanco | Camp Christianson Ranch | Camp Cienega de Sáuz
Camp Cochise | Cochise Stronghold | Camp Cook's Ranch | Camp Crawford
Camp Crittenden | Fort Defiance (1) | Camp Douglas | Camp El Reventon | Camp Estray
Fourr's Fort | Camp Galen | Fort Gaybanoptea | Gila Depot | Camp on the Gila River (2)
New Post on the Gila River (1) | Camp Goodwin (1) (2) | Fort Goodwin | Camp Grant (1)
Camp Grant (2) | Fort Grant (1) | Fort Grant (2) | New Fort Grant | Camp Grassy Camp
Grinnell's Station | Camp in Guadalupe Canyon | Guevavi Mission | Camp Halleck
Camp Huachuca | Fort Huachuca | Camp Jones | Kearny Campsite | Camp Lewis (2)
Camp Little | Camp Lochiel | Camp Lowell (1) | Camp Lowell (3) | Fort Lowell
Camp Don Luis | Camp McKee | Post at Maricopa Wells | Camp Mason | Fort Mason
Camp Mescal Springs | Mission Camp | Camp Moore | Camp at Mowry's Silver Mines
Camp Naco | Cantonment Naco | Camp Newell | Cantonment Newell | Camp near Nogales
Camp Overton | Camp at Patagonia | Camp Powers | Camp Price | Quíburi Presidio
Camp Ray | Camp Reventon | Camp Rigg | Camp on Rio Gila (1) | Camp Rio San Pedro (1)
Camp at Robinson's Ranch | Rocky Cañon Camp | Camp Rucker
Presidio de San Agustín del Tucson | Presidio de San Agustín del Tuquisón
Camp San Bernardino Ranch | Camp San Bernardino Springs
Presidio de San Felipe de Gracia Real de Guevavi | Presidio de San Ignacio de Tubac
Camp at San Pedro Presidio | Camp on San Pedro River (2)
Picket Post on the San Pedro River | Presidio de Santa Cruz de Terrenate
Camp at Santa Rita Mines | Camp San Simon | Camp Smith | Camp at Solomonsville
Camp Somerton | Fort Stanford | Stanwix Station | Camp Supply (2) | Terrenate Presidio
Camp Thomas (2) | Fort Thomas | Camp Tubac | Post at Tubac | Tubac Presidio
Camp Tucson (1) | Camp Tucson (3) | Camp near Tucson (2) | Camp near Tucson (4)
Tucson Q.M. Depot (2) | Tucson Supply Depot (1) | Post of Tucson | Tucson Presidio
New Post on the Upper San Pedro River | Camp Wallen | Fort Wallen | Camp Wright
Yuma Depot | Post at Yuma

1886 Heliograph Stations (NOT INDEXED)

Northern Arizona - page 1

FORTS AND FIGHTS OF THE MOUNTAIN WEST
ARIZONA HISTORY REFERENCE GUIDES
SPANISH MISSIONS OF PIMERIA ALTA

FORT WIKI - ARIZONA

Last Update: 01/OCTOBER/2020
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2020 American Forts Network

NOTE: This area of the state south of the Gila River is what constituted the majority of the 1853 Gadsden Purchase from Mexico, and also constituted the major part of the short-lived Confederate Territory of Arizona in 1861 - 1862. The Federal Territory of Arizona was not established until 1863. The Spanish knew this area as the northern portion of Pimería Alta.

Kearny Campsite
(Gila Box Riparian National Conservation Area)
(1846), near San Jose
A Federal campsite during Col. Stephen Watts Kearny and the First Dragoon Regiment of the Army of the West's expedition into Mexico during October 1846. Located on the Gila River at Bonita Creek. Site now a public day-use picnic area within the Gila Box Riparian National Conservation Area. A monument was erected in 1973, the only recognized historic site related to the Mexican War in the state of Arizona to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places (1974).

Camp Rigg
(1864), near San Jose
Located on the north side of the Gila River at Aztec Canyon (or Valley), established by the CA Volunteers during the summer campaign against the Apaches. It was still depicted on a 1870 Army map.

Camp at Solomonsville
(1867), Solomon
A Federal encampment.

Fort Thomas
(1876 - 1892), Fort Thomas
Originally located at Geronimo, about two miles east of old Fort Goodwin (which it replaced), and named New Post on the Gila River (1) in August 1876. Renamed Camp Thomas (2) in September 1876. Moved five miles upriver (southeast) in 1878 to the present-day location, and officially redesignated as a fort in February 1882. Became a subpost of Fort Grant (2) in December 1890. Ordered closed in April 1891, the last troops actually left in May 1892, and the reservation transferred to the Interior Department in December 1892. No structural remains at the actual fort site just north of town, but some of the quarters were relocated and still exist as private residences in town.

Fort Goodwin
(1864 - 1871), Geronimo
CA Volunteers who built the fort first bivouaced at Camp Goodwin (1) (June 1864) located about 32 miles southeast (near Safford) before the site of the permanent post was selected, and relocated there later the same month. The fort was redesignated as Camp Goodwin (2) in 1866. Abandoned in March 1871. The post was later used as a subagency of the San Carlos Apache Reservation until about 1883 or 1884. The reservation was transferred to the Interior Department in July 1884. Site located less than two miles west of town on private ranch property. No remains.

Camp Smith (August 1864) was a temporary camp located two and one-half miles north of Fort Goodwin.

Camp Estray
(1864), near Bylas ?
A temporary CA Volunteers encampment reportedly located on the Gila River about 30 miles northeast of Fort Breckenridge/Stanford (Camp Grant (1)).

Camp Overton
(1903), Graham County
A Federal post. Undetermined location.

Camp on the Gila River (2)
(1882), unknown location
A Federal infantry (1st Infantry, Companies D, E, and G) encampment (June-November 1882). Unknown location.

Fort Grant (2)
(Arizona State Prison - Safford)
(1872 - 1905/1912), Fort Grant
Originally named Camp Grant (2) (December 1872) until April 1879. Replaced Camp Grant (1). Abandoned in 1898, it was not regarrisoned and was eventually discontinued in October 1905. Transferred to the state in 1912 as a state school for boys. Became a state prison in 1968. No remains of the original military post.

Camp Cochise
(1910's), Cochise ?
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Camp Don Luis
(1910's), Cochise County
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Rocky Cañon Camp
(1857, 1879), near Willcox
A Federal encampment site, northeast of town. The 12th Infantry, Company D was here in July 1857, and the 6th Cavalry, Compoany F was here in September 1879.

Camp Mescal Springs
(1885 - 1886), near Whetstone
A Federal encampment in the southern Whetstone Mountains, about six miles northwest of town, just south of the present-day Coronado National Forest boundary. Some sources claim this was also known as Iron Springs, while some sources say that Mescal and Iron Springs are two distinct sites. Iron Springs was supposedly the site where Wyatt Earp shot William Brocius in March 1882, but some sources claim that was actually at the old Cottonwood Spring (now dried up, and not the same as the present Cottonwood Spring just to the west in Pima County). The May 1887 "Great Sonoran Earthquake" dried up many of the known springs, and created others anew.

Cochise Stronghold
(Coronado National Forest Recreation Area)
(1860 - 1872), near Sunsites
Chiricahua Apache leader Cochise and his followers took refuge here at a natural granite fortress and kept the Army at bay. Cochise was later finally persuaded to surrender peacefully.

Fort Bowie (National Historic Site)
(1862 - 1894), near Bowie
Protected the Butterfield - Overland mail route, and a nearby spring. It was garrisoned by the California Volunteers (5th Infantry) from July 1862 until 1866. It served thirty-two years as the center of operations against the Chiricahua Apaches, hosting numerous infantry and cavalry regiments. In July 1862, 11 companies of Union troops were attacked here by Apaches. From 1867 to April 1879 it was officially called Camp Bowie. The post was relocated to a new site on a nearby hill in 1868. Abandoned in October 1894, the land was sold off in 1896, and the remaining structures auctioned off in 1911. Acquired by the National Park Service in 1964, stabilization of the ruins was undertaken in 1967. Visitors must hike three miles from the Visitor Center to the site of the original fort, passing the remains of Bowie Station, a stage station that was garrisoned by troops briefly in January-June 1886 (8th Infantry, Companies A, B, D, E, H, and K, and the 4th Cavalry, Troop M). Another website from GhostTowns.com || Discover Southeast Arizona

U.S. Army Heliograph Stations
(1886, 1889 - 1890), various locations
The U.S. Army employed heliograph signalling devices to flash coded messages (Morse or Myer) with mirrors across southern Arizona and New Mexico during the 1886 campaign (May-September) by General Nelson Miles to capture Apache chief Geronimo and his band of followers. Heliograph stations were located in those areas where the telegraph had not yet been wired, and were usually situated on treed summits to enhance the contrast of the flashing mirror against the dark forest backdrop and the natural light of the sky. The camps consisted of a ramada-type brush structure which sheltered usually five to eight men, and held a 30-day supply of food in case of an attack. The 13 heliograph stations within Arizona (from a September 1886 summary) were located at the following sites:
Fort Bowie (elevation 5150 feet)
Bowie Station
Bowie Peak (elevation 6225 feet)
Cochise Stronghold (also Fourr's Ranch), on west side of Dragoon Mountains.
White's Ranch (Sulphur Springs Valley) (elevation 4450 feet), northeast of Swisshelm Mountain, northwest of Camp Rucker.
Rucker Canyon (Camp Rucker) (elevation 6125 feet)
Swisshelm Mountain (also Emma Monk) (elevation 4950 feet), at extreme northern point.
Henry Forrest's Ranch (also Bisbee Canyon) (elevation 4950 feet), near Bisbee.
Antelope Springs (elevation 4750 feet), south end of Dragoon Mountains, between Gleeson and Tombstone.
Fort Huachuca (elevation 4912 feet)
Little Baldy Peak (elevation 7000 feet), about 1.5 miles south of Old Baldy, Santa Rita Mountains. The wooden base for the instrument supposedly still existed in situ in the 1980's, but not the actual device.
Crittenden (Fort Crittenden)
Tubac (elevation 3110 feet)
(Elevations listed were the reported station elevations, not the summit elevations.)

The system's only qualified success in locating Indian warriors came in June 1886 when the station at Antelope Springs observed a renegade group and flashed a message to Forts Huachuca and Bowie, enabling troops to surprise and capture the Indians. It is believed that Geronimo himself quickly learned where most of the heliograph stations were located and avoided those areas. Geronimo finally surrendered in September 1886.

The following 18 additional stations were added later in 1889-90 (December-May) (after the Geronimo Campaign) when the Army undertook testing of a much larger heliograph network to evaluate the effectiveness of a heliograph communications system.
Whipple Barracks
Bald Mountain (Glassford Hill), near Prescott Valley. A heliograph device (or parts thereof) (Army or Forest Service model ?) still remains on the summit.
Little Squaw Peak, near Camp Verde.
Fort Verde
Baker's Butte, near Payson.
Mazatzal Peak
Mount Reno
Fort McDowell
Lookout Peak, near Young.
Pinal Mountain, near Globe.
(Old) San Carlos
Saddle Mountain
Table Mountain
Mount Graham, actually at Heliograph Peak, south of the main summit, six miles east of Fort Grant.
Fort Grant
Rincon Mountain
Fort Lowell
Colorado Peak

Camp San Simon
(1856, 1862), San Simon
A temporary Federal camp on the San Simon River.

Camp Cienega de Sáuz
(1862), Sauz
Located about 11 miles southeast of San Simon, along the state border.

Camp (Emmett) Crawford
(1886), Cochise County
A temporary Federal encampment somewhere in the Chiricahua Mountains.

Fourr's Fort
(1860's), Dragoon
A fortified Butterfield - Overland stage station at what was then known as Dragoon Spring. Some remains.

Camp Bonita
(Chiricahua National Monument)
(1886), Cochise County
A Federal encampment of 10th Cavalry "Buffalo Soldiers" located in Bonita Canyon during the Geronimo Campaign. Located near the Faraway Ranch.

Camp Price
(1881 - 1883), near Paradise
A temporary infantry and cavalry camp located east of Camp Rucker, probably about five miles west of town in Texas Canyon.

Camp John A. Rucker
(Coronado National Forest - Camp Rucker Group Site)
(1878 - 1880/1890 - 1896), Rucker
Originally located on a creek on the old San Bernardino Ranch, named Camp Supply (2) (April 1878) and later Camp Powers, but renamed again in April 1879 when it moved to a new site about six miles away on the White River. Site used only intermittently from November 1880 to 1890. A heliograph station was located here in the summer of 1886. Became a private ranch after 1896. Site now part of Coronado National Forest. Several buildings still remain. The Powers post office was established in March 1891, renamed Rucker in June 1891.
See also Camp Rucker from Experience Arizona

Camp in Guadalupe Canyon
(1846, 1885), east of Bernardino
A temporary U.S. Army Cavalry field depot during the Geronimo Campaign. It was attacked by Apaches when most of the garrison was on patrol. The exact site, several miles east of the Slaughter Ranch along Guadalupe Canyon Road, may possibly be actually located just across the New Mexico state border.

The Mormon Battalion camped in the vicinity of Guadalupe Pass in November 1846.

Camp San Bernardino Ranch
(San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge)
(1911 - 1917 ?), south of Bernardino
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols, a 10-man detachment subpost of Camp Douglas/Jones in Douglas. Located at the cross-border John Slaughter Ranch (est. 1884). The remaining U.S. portion (2,300 acres) of the ranch was bought by the Nature Conservancy in 1978, and became the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge in 1982. The oldest of the present adobe ranch buildings were built in 1893, restored in the 1980's. The Slaughter Ranch Museum (admission fee) is located here, operated separately from the Refuge.

Camp San Bernardino Springs
(1846, 1883), south of Bernardino
The Mormon Battalion camped here in December 1846. In 1883 the U.S. Army established a temporary camp here, located 18 miles east of Douglas along the international border. Located on what later became the Slaughter Ranch (est. 1884), but was then known as Rancho San Bernardino (est. 1822), part of an extensive (100,000 acres) Mexican land grant.

Camp Harry J. Jones
(1910 - 1933), Douglas
Originally a border post called Camp Douglas. Renamed in (November ?) 1915. Became a Regular Army mobilization center during WWI. As many as 15,000 troops were once stationed here. Some commercial maps of the period label the post as Camp Arthur Jones.

Camp Bisbee
(1910's), Bisbee
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Camp Newell
(1911 - 1915, 1917 - 1920, 1942 - 1945), Naco
A temporary post used in the Mexican Border Crisis of 1911. Rebuilt as a permanent camp in 1917. Used by the C.C.C. during the 1930's. Twenty-three abandoned buildings still remain on a 12-acre parcel. The old laundry building is now a private residence. Also called Newell Cantonment, and Camp (Cantonment) Naco.
Another website from Ghosttowns.com || Archaeology Southwest - Saving Camp Naco

Fort Huachuca (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1877 - 1947, 1950 - 1953, 1954 - present), Sierra Vista
First known as Camp Huachuca (March 1877) until 1882. Considered to be the home of the Buffalo Soldiers, and was a base for border patrols during the Mexican Crisis of 1911. This post was briefly inactive between World War II and the Korean War, when it was used as a AZ National Guard camp and regional headquarters of the state Fish and Game Commission. Some of the original buildings are still used by the Army. Became headquarters of the Army Communications Command in 1967, and home to the Army Intelligence Center and School in 1971, which was transferred from Fort Holabird, Maryland. There are two museums here: the Fort Huachuca Historical Museum and Annex, and the U.S. Army Intelligence Museum.

Camp Wallen
(1866 - 1869), near Elgin
Located on Babocomari Creek about 15 miles west of Tombstone. Originally named New Post on the Upper San Pedro River, or New Post at Babocomari Ranch, established by the CA Volunteers in May 1866 at an established Mexican era ranch with several ruined adobe buildings. Renamed in 1868 and manned by Army Regulars. Also known as Fort Wallen. Unofficially known by the troops as Fort Babocomari. Abandoned in October 1869, transferred to the Interior Department in April 1874. Some adobe ruins may still remain (private property).

Quíburi Presidio
(San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area)
(1775 - 1780, 1878), Fairbank
The Spanish had a presence at the nearby Indian village in 1772 before the adobe fort, Presidio de Santa Cruz de Terrenate, was built. Also called Fort Gaybanoptea. Having transferred from the Presidio de Terrenate in Sonora, Mexico, the post lasted five years, then transferred to Las Nutrias, Mexico. The Spanish did not finally give up the area until 1789, due to constant troubles with the Apaches. Some ruins remain, with informational signs, located on a 1.2 mile hike from the parking area. Site administered by the Federal Bureau of Land Management. See also The Presidio of Santa Cruz de Terrenate from Discover Southeast Arizona || Archaeology at Santa Cruz de Terrenate Presidio by Deni Seymour
Discovering the Past at Santa Cruz from BLM.gov

In 1878 a temporary American post was here, called Camp at San Pedro Presidio, or Picket Post on the San Pedro River.

Camp Benson
(1910's), Benson
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols in the Chiricahua Mountains.

Camp Cook's Ranch
(1910's), near Lowell
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols in Cochise County. Also called Camp Lowell (3).

Camp Lochiel
(1910's), Lochiel
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Mission de los Santos Ángeles de Guevavi
(Tumacácori National Historical Park)
(1701 - 1775), near Nogales
A Spanish mission guard was posted here. Attacked by Apache Indians in 1769, killing all but two of the soldiers. The mission was originally founded as Mission de San Gabriel de Guevavi, also later known as San Rafael and San Miguel, resulting in the common historical name of "Los Santos Ángeles". Adobe ruins extant. Access to site only by NPS ranger-led guided tour.

The Presidio de San Felipe de Gracia Real de Guevavi was proposed in 1741, but was most likely never established. It was soon relocated to Terrenate, Sonora, Mexico.

Camp near Nogales
(1887 - 1888), Nogales
A temporary Army camp established after Mexican troops had crossed the border and attacked local civil authorities in April 1887.

Camp Christianson Ranch
(1911 - unknown), near Nogales
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols. Located east of town.

Camp Stephen D. Little
(1910 - 1933), Nogales
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols. Located within the town limits.

Camp Calabasas (1)
(Tumacácori National Historical Park)
(1837 - 1858, 1862), Calabasas
Originally Mexican Presidio de Calabasas, which protected the Mission de San Cayetano de Calabasas (1756 - 1786, 1808 - 1844). The stone buildings were garrisoned by U.S. Army Dragoons in 1856 - 1858, who then renamed it. Abandoned after Fort Buchanan was built. Briefly occupied by Confederates in 1862. Located near the Rio Rico, about two miles east of the highway. Access to site only by NPS ranger-led guided tour.

Camp Mason
(1865 - 1866), Calabasas
Located on the high ground south of the confluence of the Potrero and Santa Cruz Rivers, opposite and just west of Camp Calabasas (1) (Calabasas Presidio). Replaced Camp Tubac. Originally called Post at Calabasas (3), renamed Camp McKee briefly in 1866. Also known as Fort Mason in some sources, although there was never an offical order naming it as such. The post was manned by the California Volunteers from August 1865 until May 1866, when they were replaced by U.S. Army Regulars. The garrison was transferred back to Camp Tubac in September 1866 due to a high rate of illness, and the post itself was then replaced by Camp Cameron. No structures remain. Site has been developed into a residential community.
(thanks to Stephen Siemsen for providing corrected info)

Fort Buchanan
(1856 - 1862), near Sonoita
Originally a tent camp called Camp near (Rancho) Calabasas (2) (November 1856), and then Camp Moore before given its final name in May 1857. This fort, the first American military post established in the Gadsden Purchase, was actually composed of several scattered adobe houses at Rancho Calabasas, without any defensive stockade, and was abandoned and burned in July 1861 prior to the Confederates' arrival from Texas. The CSA left in May 1862 when a Union unit from California approached. The Californians decided not to keep the post, as it was considered unhealthful and poorly sited. Some adobe ruins remain on private property (Crown C Ranch) about one mile or so west of town on the west side of AZ 82.

Camp Crittenden
(1868 - 1873), near Sonoita
Located on the Crown C Ranch (private property) on a hill adjacent to the Fort Buchanan site about one-half mile northeast. It was initially manned by the California Volunteers (March 1868), then replaced with Federal cavalry. It was abandoned in June 1873 due to unhealthful conditions, then transferred to the Interior Department in July 1884. The Army later used the site for a heliograph station in 1886. Some ruins remain.

Camp Casa Blanco
(1863), near Patagonia ?
Located near Camp Crittenden.

Camp at Patagonia
(1862), Patagonia
A short-lived post. Also known as Camp at Mowry's Silver Mines.

Tubac Presidio (State Historic Park)
(Tumacácori National Historical Park)
(1752 - 1776, 1787 - 1821, 1848), Tubac
This 50-man Spanish presidio was established to protect Mission de San Cayetano de Tumacácori (1691 - 1751, the state's first white settlement) following the 1751 Pima Indian rebellion. The mission was relocated in 1752 and renamed San José de Tumacácori. The military garrison was transferred to Tucson in 1776. Beginning in 1787, an 80-man Pima Indian company reoccupied the presidio due to Apache raids in the area. Briefly taken over by Mexican troops after 1821. A series of Apache raids and the hard winter of 1848 forced the abandonment of the fort and mission. Remnants of the Presidio de San Ignacio de Tubac can be seen in an underground display. The 1885 Tubac schoolhouse is also part of the museum. Admission fee.

The CA Volunteers established Camp Tubac nearby in July 1862, renting quarters from individual townspeople. It was intended primarily as a supply depot. Abandoned in August 1865 for Camp (Fort) Mason but reoccupied in October 1866 by Army Regulars as Post at Tubac. Abandoned again in 1868 for Camp Crittenden.

Camp El Reventon
(1862, 1864), near Tubac
The El Reventon Ranch, built by Fort Buchanan's post sutler Elias Brevoort in 1859, was occupied by the CA Volunteers in July-August 1862 and again in April-June 1864. Located seven miles northeast of town. Also known as Camp Reventon.

Camp Arivaca
(1916 - 1920), Arivaca
A U.S. Army post for border patrols, located in the block between 4th and 5th Streets, and 4th and 5th Avenues. Initially a tent encampment in 1916, frame buildings were erected in 1917. All buildings were dismantled after the Army left.

Camp Arivaca Junction
(1910's), Arivaca Junction
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Camp at Santa Rita Mines
(1867), near Greaterville ?
A temporary Federal camp.

Camp Cameron
(1866 - 1867), near Madera Canyon
A temporary camp at the northwestern base of Santa Rita Mountain, about 16 miles northeast of Tubac, established in October 1866 after an epidemic hit Camp Mason. Abandoned in March 1867 for Camp Tubac.

Tucson Presidio
(Tucson Origins Heritage Park)
(Tucson Presidio Trust)
(1776 - 1856), Tucson
The Spanish erected Presidio de San Agustín del Tucson in 1776. Also spelled Tuquisón. It was to protect the nearby Mission de San Xavier del Bac (1756) and Mission de San Agustín del Tucson (1775) (aka San Cosme y Damian). The settlement, originally palisaded, was later walled with adobe (a 750-foot square) for protection from Apache Indians. It was taken over by the Mexicans in 1821, but briefly occupied by the American Mormon Battalion in 1846 (Camp Tucson (1)). Mexican troops continued to occupy the post until March 1856, three years after the Gadsden Purchase, and it was then occupied briefly by U.S. Army Dragoons before transferring to the Calabasas Presidio (see above). The post was demolished in the 1860's. Site excavations were done in the 1990's near the county courthouse and city hall along North Church Ave.. The walls of the presidio were reported to have run along Washington Street on the north, Church Street on the east, Pennington Street on the south, and Main Avenue on the west. Inside were homes, barracks, and stables built against the interior walls, a cemetery and church on the east side, a commander's house in the center, and several plazas. A pair of gates pierced the west and east walls, roughly where Alameda Street meets Main Avenue and Church Avenue. A portion of the original adobe wall is on display inside the courthouse, and another original segment of the wall is incorporated into the 1868 Romero House at 102 West Washington Street. The Fish House at 120 North Main Ave. is located on the foundation of the old Mexican barracks. The original Plaza de las Armas is now El Presidio Park on Alameda Street. The adobe post was partially reconstructed in 2007 at 133 West Washington Street. See also In Search of El Presidio de Tucson from Center of Desert Archaeology, courtesy of City of Tucson

Nearby was the U.S. Army post Camp near Tucson (2) (1859) (undetermined location).

Fort Lowell
(Old Fort Lowell Neighborhood Association)
(1860 - 1864, 1866 - 1873, 1873 - 1891), Tucson
Camp Tucson (3) replaced the Tucson Presidio in 1860. Captured by Confederate Texans in February 1862, but recaptured by the California Volunteers in May 1862 and renamed Post of Tucson, consisting of 13 various buildings around what is today known as Armory Park (Plaza Militair) at South Fifth Ave. and East 12th Street. Abandoned in 1864, but re-established by Army Regulars and renamed Camp Lowell (1) in August 1866.

The first Tucson Supply Depot (1) (1865 - 1874) was located nearby.

In March 1873 the Army decided to move the post seven miles outside of the old town, south of Rillito Creek (Camp Lowell (2)), and was renamed Fort Lowell in April 1879. The second Tucson Quartermaster Depot (2) (1885 - 1891) was established nearby after the Yuma Depot was closed. After the fort closed (April 1891), Mexican immigrants lived in the abandoned buildings, which they called "El Fuerte". The 1873 fort is now the Fort Lowell Museum on 2900 North Craycroft Road. The Officers' Quarters has been reconstructed. Admission fee.
History of Fort Lowell from University of Arizona online exhibit.

Camp near Tucson (4)
(1872), Tucson
A temporary U.S. Army post. Unknown location.

Camp at Robinson's Ranch
(1864), near Rillito
A temporary camp (March-September 1864) for the CA Volunteers (1st Cavalry, Company M), located on the Rillito River.

Fort Cañada del Oro
(1862), Oro Valley
Located about 13 miles north of Tucson.

Camp Rio San Pedro (1)
(1859), near Redington
A temporary Federal camp.

Camp Grant (1)
(1860 - 1861, 1862, 1865 - 1873), near Feldman
Located on the north bank of Aravaipa Creek at the San Pedro River. Originally called Camp on San Pedro River (2) (May 1860). Soon renamed Fort Aravaipa (or Aravaypa), then Fort Breckenridge in August 1860. Evacuated and burned in July 1861 to keep the post from Confederate hands. Reoccupied in May-June 1862 by the CA Volunteers and renamed Fort Stanford.

In October 1865 Camp Wright was established nearby to the south, and soon (November 1865) renamed Camp Grant (1), but because of frequent flooding it was rebuilt at the former site of Fort Breckenridge/Stanford the following year. Although Camp Grant (1) was never officially designated a fort, it was frequently referred to as such by later historians. The so-called "Camp Grant Massacre" occurred nearby in April 1871, when at least 85 (to possibly 130) Apache Indians were killed by a mixed group of Tucson Anglo and Mexican civilians and Papago Indians over previous grievances. Finally abandoned due to a high rate of malaria (March 1873). The military reservation was transferred to the Interior Department in July 1884 for disposition. Very litle remains at the actual site (private property), located off (east) of AZ 77 about nine miles south of Dudleyville, or ten miles north of Mammoth.

Camp Ray
(1910's), Pinal County
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols. Undetermined location.

Camp Blue Water Station
(1864), near La Palma ?
A stage station located about 13 miles east of Casa Grande.

Camp on Rio Gila (1)
(1866), Sacaton
A temporary encampment. Also known as the Gila Depot.
(NOTE: not to be confused with Gila Depot (1857) in NEW MEXICO)

Fort Barrett
(1862), near Bapchule
A temporary earthwork fort built by the CA Volunteers (June-July 1862), protecting Ammi White's flour mill and trade post at the Pima Indian villages on the Gila River, just north of town. White's Mill had been raided by Confederate troops in March.

Post at Maricopa Wells
(1865 - 1867), Maricopa
A fortified stage station, initially a temporary post in July 1865, then intermittently used by troops until 1867. Adobe ruins located just outside of the present town, which was relocated after several floods.

Camp Lewis (2)
(unknown dates), Childs
An Army encampment.

A Butterfield - Overland stage station called Burke's Station was located just north of here in 1858.

Camp Ajo
(1910's), Ajo
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Stanwix Station
(1862), Maricopa County
A Butterfield - Overland stage station located 96 miles east of Fort Yuma. It was garrisoned by the CA Volunteers in 1862. The western-most skirmish of the Civil War occurred here in April 1862 when Confederate troops under Capt. Sherrod Hunter clashed with the advance force of the California Column under Col. James Carleton.

Camp Grassy Camp
(1862), near Agua Caliente
Located six miles west of town on the Gila River, three miles east of Grinnell's Station.

Detachment at Grinnell's Station
(1862), near Aztec
CA Volunteers protected the stage station.

Camp Galen
(1862), near Mohawk ?
A Confederate encampment located about 60 miles east of Fort Yuma.

Camp Halleck
(1862), Yuma County
A CA Volunteers camp protecting the nearby Antelope Peak stage station, located south of the Gila River.
(info courtesy of Ted Cook)

Detachment at Mission Camp
(1862), near Welton
A Butterfield - Overland stage station garrisoned by the CA Volunteers, located about 35 miles east of Yuma.

Yuma Quartermaster Depot
(Yuma Quartermaster Depot State Historic Park)
(1864 - 1891), Yuma
The Yuma Quartermaster Supply Depot served Fort Yuma, which was just across the river in California. (see CALIFORNIA page 5) Destroyed by fire in 1867, but rebuilt. The U.S. Signal Corps established a station here in 1875. The depot was closed in December 1895, but the Signal Corps remained until 1891. Transferred to the Yuma Indian Reservation in March 1892. The U.S. Customs Service used the former post beginning in 1908. Five original buildings remain. Admission fee.

Post at Yuma
(1885, 1911 - 1913, 1915 - 1922), Yuma
An intermittently occupied post (June-December 1885, 4th Cavalry, Company M; February 1911 - January 1913; March 1915 - January 1922) used for border patrols.

Fort Defiance (1)
(1849), near Yuma
A civilian stockaded fort to protect the ferry crossing. Located near the mouth of the Gila River.

Camp Somerton
(1910's), Somerton
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.


Northern Arizona - page 1

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