Southern Arizona

Camp Ajo | Fort Aravaipa | Fort Aravaypa | Camp Arivaca | Camp Arivaca Junction
Fort Babocomari | New Post at Babocomari Ranch | Fort Barrett | Camp Benson
Camp Bisbee | Camp Blue Water Station | Camp Bowie | Fort Bowie | Bowie Station
Fort Breckenridge | Fort Buchanan | Camp Calabasas (1) | Camp near Calabasas (2)
Post at Calabasas (3) | Presidio de Calabasas | Camp Cameron | Fort Cañada del Oro
Camp Casa Blanco | Camp Christianson Ranch | Camp Cienega de Sáuz | Camp Cochise
Cochise Stronghold | Camp Cook's Ranch | Camp Crawford | Camp Crittenden
Fort Defiance (1) | Camp Douglas | Camp El Reventon | Fourr's Fort | Camp Galen
Fort Gaybanoptea | Gila Depot | Camp on the Gila River (2) | New Post on the Gila River (1)
Camp Goodwin (1) (2) | Fort Goodwin | Camp Grant (1) | Fort Grant (1) | Camp Grant (2)
Fort Grant (2) | New Fort Grant | Camp Grassy Camp | Grinnell's Station
Camp in Guadalupe Canyon | Guevavi Mission | Camp Halleck | Camp Huachuca
Fort Huachuca | Camp Jones | Camp Lewis (2) | Camp Little
Camp Lochiel | Camp Lowell (1) | Camp Lowell (3) | Fort Lowell | Camp Don Luis
Camp McKee | Post at Maricopa Wells | Camp Mason | Fort Mason | Mission Camp
Camp Moore | Camp at Mowry's Silver Mines | Camp Naco | Cantonment Naco
Camp Newell | Cantonment Newell | Camp near Nogales | Camp Overton | Camp at Patagonia
Camp Powers | Camp Price | Quíburi Presidio | Camp Ray | Camp Reventon | Camp Rigg
Camp on Rio Gila (1) | Camp Rio San Pedro (1) | Camp at Robinson's Ranch
Rocky Cañon Camp | Camp Rucker | Presidio de San Agustín del Tucson
Presidio de San Agustín del Tuquisón | Camp San Bernardino Ranch
Camp San Bernardino Springs | Presidio de San Felipe de Gracia Real de Guevavi
Presidio de San Ignacio de Tubac | Camp at San Pedro Presidio | Camp on San Pedro River (2)
Picket Post on the San Pedro River | Presidio de Santa Cruz de Terrenate | Camp San Simon
Camp Smith | Camp at Solomonsville | Camp Somerton | Camp Stanford | Stanwix Station
Camp Supply (2) | Terrenate Presidio | Camp Thomas (2) | Fort Thomas | Camp Tubac
Tubac Presidio | Camp Tucson (1) | Camp Tucson (3) | Camp near Tucson (2) | Tucson Depot
Post of Tucson | Tucson Presidio | New Post on the Upper San Pedro River | Camp Wallen
Fort Wallen | Camp Wright | Yuma Depot | Post at Yuma

Northern Arizona - page 1

FORTS AND FIGHTS OF THE MOUNTAIN WEST
ARIZONA HISTORY REFERENCE GUIDES
SPANISH MISSIONS OF PIMERIA ALTA

FORT WIKI - ARIZONA

Last Update: 30/MARCH/2020
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2020 American Forts Network

NOTE: This area of the state south of the Gila River is what constituted the majority of the 1853 Gadsden Purchase from Mexico, and also constituted the major part of the short-lived Confederate Territory of Arizona in 1861 - 1862. The Federal Territory of Arizona was not established until 1863. The Spanish knew this area as the northern portion of Pimería Alta.

Camp Rigg
(1864 - unknown), near San Jose
Located on the north side of the Gila River at Aztec Canyon (or Valley), established by the CA Volunteers. It was still depicted on a 1870 Army map.

Camp at Solomonsville
(1867), Solomon
A Federal encampment.

Fort Thomas
(1876 - 1892), Fort Thomas
Originally located at Geronimo, about two miles east of old Fort Goodwin (which it replaced), and named New Post on the Gila River (1). Renamed Camp Thomas (2) in 1876. Moved five miles upriver (southeast) in 1878 to the present-day location, and redesignated as a fort in 1882. Became a subpost of Fort Grant (2) in 1890. No remains at the actual fort site just north of town, but some of the quarters still exist as private residences in town.

Fort Goodwin
(1864 - 1871), Geronimo
CA Volunteers who built the fort first bivouaced at Camp Goodwin (1) (1864) located about 32 miles southeast (near Safford) while the permanent post was being constructed. The fort was redesignated as Camp Goodwin (2) in 1866. The post was later used as a subagency of the San Carlos Apache Reservation until about 1883 or 1884. Site located less than two miles west of town on private ranch property. No remains.

Camp Smith (August 1864) was a temporary camp located two and one-half miles north of Fort Goodwin.

Camp Overton
(1903), Graham County
A Federal post. Undetermined location.

Camp on the Gila River (2)
(1882), unknown location
A Federal infantry encampment.

Fort Grant (2)
(Arizona State Prison - Safford)
(1872 - 1905), Fort Grant
Originally named Camp Grant (2) until 1879. Replaced Camp Grant (1). Abandoned in 1898, it was not regarrisoned and was eventually discontinued in 1905. Transferred to the state in 1912 as a state school for boys. Became a state prison in 1968. No remains of the original military post.

Camp Cochise
(1910's), Cochise ?
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Camp Don Luis
(1910's), Cochise County
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Rocky Cañon Camp
(1857, 1879), near Willcox
A Federal encampment site, northeast of town.

Fort Bowie (National Historic Site)
(1862 - 1894), near Bowie
Protected the Butterfield - Overland mail route, and a nearby spring. It was garrisoned by the California Volunteers until 1866. It served thirty-two years as the center of operations against the Chiricahua Apaches. From 1867 to 1879 it was officially called Camp Bowie. The post moved to a nearby hill in 1868. Visitors must hike three miles to the site of the original fort, passing the remains of Bowie Station, a stage station that was garrisoned by troops briefly in 1886. The post is now ruins, with a modern visitor center. Another website from GhostTowns.com || Discover Southeast Arizona

Camp San Simon
(1856, 1862), San Simon
A temporary Federal camp on the San Simon River.

Camp Cienega de Sáuz
(1862), Sauz
Located about 11 miles southeast of San Simon, along the state border.

Camp Crawford
(1886), Cochise County
A temporary Federal encampment somewhere in the Chiricahua Mountains.

Fourr's Fort
(1860's), Dragoon
A fortified Butterfield - Overland stage station at what was then known as Dragoon Spring. Some remains.

Cochise Stronghold
(Coronado National Forest Recreation Area)
(1860 - 1872), near Sunsites
Chiricahua Apache leader Cochise and his followers took refuge here at a natural granite fortress and kept the Army at bay. Cochise was later finally persuaded to surrender peacefully.

Camp Price
(1881 - 1883), near Paradise
A temporary camp located east of Camp Rucker, probably about five miles west of town in Texas Canyon.

Camp John A. Rucker
(Coronado National Forest - Camp Rucker Group Site)
(1878 - 1896), Rucker
Originally located on a creek on the old San Bernardino Ranch, named Camp Supply (2) and later Camp Powers, but renamed again in 1879 when it moved to a new site about six miles away on the White River. Used intermittently from 1880 to 1890. Became a private ranch after 1896. Site now part of Coronado National Forest. Several buildings still remain. The Powers post office was established in 1891, renamed Rucker in 1891.
See also Camp Rucker from Experience Arizona

Camp in Guadalupe Canyon
(1885), east of Bernardino
A temporary U.S. Army Cavalry field depot during the Geronimo campaign. It was attacked by Apaches when most of the garrison was on patrol. The exact site, several miles east of the Slaughter Ranch along Guadalupe Canyon Road, may possibly be located just across the New Mexico state border.

Camp San Bernardino Ranch
(San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge)
(1911 - 1917 ?), south of Bernardino
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols, a 10-man detachment subpost of Camp Douglas/Jones in Douglas. Located at the cross-border John Slaughter Ranch (est. 1884). The remaining U.S. portion (2,300 acres) of the ranch was bought by the Nature Conservancy in 1978, and became the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge in 1982. The oldest of the present adobe ranch buildings were built in 1893, restored in the 1980's. The Slaughter Ranch Museum (admission fee) is located here, operated separately from the Refuge.

Camp San Bernardino Springs
(1846, 1883), south of Bernardino
The Mormon Battalion camped here in 1846. In 1883 the U.S. Army established a temporary camp here, located 18 miles east of Douglas along the international border. Located on what later became the Slaughter Ranch (est. 1884), but was then known as Rancho San Bernardino (est. 1822), part of an extensive (100,000 acres) Mexican land grant.

Camp Harry J. Jones
(1910 - 1933), Douglas
Originally a border post called Camp Douglas. Renamed in 1915. Became a Regular Army mobilization center during WWI. As many as 15,000 troops were once stationed here.

Camp Bisbee
(1910's), Bisbee
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Camp Newell
(1911 - 1915, 1917 - 1920, 1942 - 1945), Naco
A temporary post used in the Mexican Border Crisis of 1911. Rebuilt as a permanent camp in 1917. Used by the C.C.C. during the 1930's. Twenty-three abandoned buildings still remain on a 12-acre parcel. The old laundry building is now a private residence. Also called Newell Cantonment, and Camp (Cantonment) Naco.
Another website from Ghosttowns.com || Archaeology Southwest - Saving Camp Naco

Fort Huachuca (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1877 - 1947, 1950 - 1953, 1954 - present), Sierra Vista
First known as Camp Huachuca until 1882. Considered to be the home of the Buffalo Soldiers, and was a base for border patrols during the Mexican Crisis of 1911. This post was briefly inactive between World War II and the Korean War, when it was used as a AZ National Guard camp and regional headquarters of the state Fish and Game Commission. Some of the original buildings are still used by the Army. Became headquarters of the Army Communications Command in 1967, and home to the Army Intelligence Center and School in 1971, which was transferred from Fort Holabird, Maryland. There are two museums here: the Fort Huachuca Historical Museum and Annex, and the U.S. Army Intelligence Museum.

Camp Wallen
(1866 - 1869), near Elgin
Located on Babocomari Creek about 15 miles west of Tombstone. Originally named New Post on the Upper San Pedro River, or New Post at Babocomari Ranch, established by the CA Volunteers at an established Mexican era ranch with several ruined adobe buildings. Renamed in 1868 and manned by Army Regulars. Also known as Fort Wallen. Unofficially known by the troops as Fort Babocomari. Some adobe ruins may still remain (private property).

Quíburi Presidio
(San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area)
(1775 - 1780, 1878), Fairbank
The Spanish had a presence at the nearby Indian village in 1772 before the adobe fort, Presidio de Santa Cruz de Terrenate, was built. Also called Fort Gaybanoptea. Having transferred from the Presidio de Terrenate in Sonora, Mexico, the post lasted five years, then transferred to Las Nutrias, Mexico. The Spanish did not finally give up the area until 1789, due to constant troubles with the Apaches. Some ruins remain, with informational signs, located on a 1.2 mile hike from the parking area. Site administered by the Federal Bureau of Land Management. See also The Presidio of Santa Cruz de Terrenate from Discover Southeast Arizona || Archaeology at Santa Cruz de Terrenate Presidio by Deni Seymour
Discovering the Past at Santa Cruz from BLM.gov

In 1878 a temporary American post was here, called Camp at San Pedro Presidio, or Picket Post on the San Pedro River.

Camp Benson
(1910's), Benson
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols in the Chiricahua Mountains.

Camp Cook's Ranch
(1910's), near Lowell
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols in Cochise County. Also called Camp Lowell (3).

Camp Lochiel
(1910's), Lochiel
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Mission de los Santos Ángeles de Guevavi
(Tumacácori National Historical Park)
(1701 - 1775), near Nogales
A Spanish mission guard was posted here. Attacked by Apache Indians in 1769, killing all but two of the soldiers. The mission was originally founded as Mission de San Gabriel de Guevavi, also later known as San Rafael and San Miguel, resulting in the common historical name of "Los Santos Ángeles". Adobe ruins extant. Access to site only by NPS ranger-led guided tour.

The Presidio de San Felipe de Gracia Real de Guevavi was proposed in 1741, but was most likely never established. It was soon relocated to Terrenate, Sonora, Mexico.

Camp near Nogales
(1887 - 1888), Nogales
A temporary Army camp established after Mexican troops had crossed the border and attacked local civil authorities in April 1887.

Camp Christianson Ranch
(1911 - unknown), near Nogales
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols. Located east of town.

Camp Stephen D. Little
(1910 - 1933), Nogales
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols. Located within the town limits.

Camp Calabasas (1)
(Tumacácori National Historical Park)
(1837 - 1858, 1862), Calabasas
Originally Mexican Presidio de Calabasas, which protected the Mission de San Cayetano de Calabasas (1756 - 1786, 1808 - 1844). The stone buildings were garrisoned by U.S. Army Dragoons in 1856 - 1858, who then renamed it. Abandoned after Fort Buchanan was built. Briefly occupied by Confederates in 1862. Located near the Rio Rico, about two miles east of the highway. Access to site only by NPS ranger-led guided tour.

Camp Mason
(1865 - 1866), Calabasas
Located on the high ground south of the confluence of the Potrero and Santa Cruz Rivers, opposite and just west of Camp Calabasas (1) (Calabasas Presidio). Replaced Camp Tubac. Originally called Post at Calabasas (3), renamed Camp McKee briefly in 1866. Also known as Fort Mason in some sources, although there was never an offical order naming it as such. The post was manned by the California Volunteers from August 1865 until May 1866, when they were replaced by U.S. Army Regulars. The garrison was transferred back to Camp Tubac in September 1866 due to a high rate of illness, and the post itself was then replaced by Camp Cameron. No structures remain. Site has been developed into a residential community.
(thanks to Stephen Siemsen for providing corrected info)

Fort Buchanan
(1856 - 1862), near Sonoita
Originally called Camp near Calabasas (2), and then Camp Moore before given its final name in 1857. This fort, the first American military post built in the Gadsden Purchase, was abandoned and burned in July 1861 prior to the Confederates' arrival from Texas. The CSA left in May 1862 when a Union unit from California approached. The Californians decided not to keep the post, as it was considered unhealthful and poorly sited. Some adobe ruins remain on private property (Crown C Ranch) about one mile or so west of town on the west side of AZ 82.

Camp Crittenden
(1868 - 1873), near Sonoita
Located on the Crown C Ranch (private property) on a hill adjacent to the Fort Buchanan site about one-half mile northeast. It was initially manned by the California Volunteers, then replaced with Federal cavalry. It was abandoned due to unhealthful conditions. Some ruins remain.

Camp Casa Blanco
(1863), near Patagonia ?
Located near Camp Crittenden.

Camp at Patagonia
(1862), Patagonia
A short-lived post. Also known as Camp at Mowry's Silver Mines.

Tubac Presidio (State Historic Park)
(Tumacácori National Historical Park)
(1752 - 1776, 1787 - 1821, 1848), Tubac
This 50-man Spanish presidio was established to protect Mission de San Cayetano de Tumacácori (1691 - 1751, the state's first white settlement) following the 1751 Pima Indian rebellion. The mission was relocated in 1752 and renamed San José de Tumacácori. The military garrison was transferred to Tucson in 1776. Beginning in 1787, an 80-man Pima Indian company reoccupied the presidio due to Apache raids in the area. Briefly taken over by Mexican troops after 1821. A series of Apache raids and the hard winter of 1848 forced the abandonment of the fort and mission. Remnants of the Presidio de San Ignacio de Tubac can be seen in an underground display. The 1885 Tubac schoolhouse is also part of the museum. Admission fee.

The CA Volunteers established Camp Tubac nearby in 1862, renting quarters from individual townspeople. Abandoned in 1865 for Camp (Fort) Mason but reoccupied in 1866 by Army Regulars. Abandoned again in 1868 for Camp Crittenden.

Camp El Reventon
(1862, 1864), near Tubac
The El Reventon Ranch, built by Fort Buchanan's post sutler Elias Brevoort in 1859, was occupied by the CA Volunteers in July-August 1862 and again in April 1864. Located seven miles northeast of town. Also known as Camp Reventon.

Camp Arivaca
(1916 - 1920), Arivaca
A U.S. Army post for border patrols, located in the block between 4th and 5th Streets, and 4th and 5th Avenues. Initially a tent encampment in 1916, frame buildings were erected in 1917. All buildings were dismantled after the Army left.

Camp Arivaca Junction
(1910's), Arivaca Junction
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Camp Cameron
(1866 - 1867), near Madera Canyon
A temporary camp at the northwestern base of Santa Rita Mountain, about 16 miles northeast of Tubac, established after an epidemic hit Camp Mason. Abandoned for Camp Tubac.

Tucson Presidio
(Tucson Origins Heritage Park)
(Tucson Presidio Trust)
(1776 - 1856), Tucson
The Spanish erected Presidio de San Agustín del Tucson in 1776. Also spelled Tuquisón. It was to protect the nearby Mission de San Xavier del Bac (1756) and Mission de San Agustín del Tucson (1775) (aka San Cosme y Damian). The settlement, originally palisaded, was later walled with adobe (a 750-foot square) for protection from Apache Indians. It was taken over by the Mexicans in 1821, but briefly occupied by the American Mormon Battalion in 1846 (Camp Tucson (1)). Mexican troops continued to occupy the post until 1856, three years after the Gadsden Purchase, and it was then occupied briefly by U.S. Army Dragoons before transferring to the Calabasas Presidio (see above). The post was demolished in the 1860's. Site excavations were done in the 1990's near the county courthouse and city hall along North Church Ave.. The walls of the presidio were reported to have run along Washington Street on the north, Church Street on the east, Pennington Street on the south, and Main Avenue on the west. Inside were homes, barracks, and stables built against the interior walls, a cemetery and church on the east side, a commander's house in the center, and several plazas. A pair of gates pierced the west and east walls, roughly where Alameda Street meets Main Avenue and Church Avenue. A portion of the original adobe wall is on display inside the courthouse, and another original segment of the wall is incorporated into the 1868 Romero House at 102 West Washington Street. The Fish House at 120 North Main Ave. is located on the foundation of the old Mexican barracks. The original Plaza de las Armas is now El Presidio Park on Alameda Street. The adobe post was partially reconstructed in 2007 at 133 West Washington Street. See also In Search of El Presidio de Tucson from Center of Desert Archaeology, courtesy of City of Tucson

Nearby was the U.S. Army post Camp near Tucson (2) (1859).

Fort Lowell
(Old Fort Lowell Neighborhood Association)
(1860 - 1864, 1866 - 1873, 1873 - 1891), Tucson
Camp Tucson (3) replaced the Tucson Presidio in 1860. Captured by Confederate Texans in 1862, but recaptured by the California Volunteers after a few months and renamed Post of Tucson, consisting of 13 various buildings around what is today known as Armory Park (Plaza Militair) at South Fifth Ave. and East 12th Street. Abandoned in 1864, but re-established by Army Regulars and renamed Camp Lowell (1) in 1866.

In 1873 the Army decided to move the post seven miles outside of town, south of Rillito Creek (Camp Lowell (2)), and was renamed Fort Lowell in 1879. The Tucson Quartermaster Depot (1885 - 1891) was established nearby after the Yuma Depot was closed. After the fort closed, Mexican immigrants lived in the abandoned buildings, which they called "El Fuerte". The 1873 fort is now the Fort Lowell Museum on 2900 North Craycroft Road. The Officers' Quarters has been reconstructed. Admission fee.
History of Fort Lowell from University of Arizona online exhibit.

Camp at Robinson's Ranch
(1864), near Rillito
A temporary camp for the CA Volunteers.

Fort Cañada del Oro
(1862), Oro Valley
Located about 13 miles north of Tucson.

Camp Rio San Pedro (1)
(1859), near Redington
A temporary camp.

Camp Grant (1)
(1860 - 1861, 1862, 1865 - 1873), near Feldman
Located on the north bank of Aravaipa Creek at the San Pedro River. Originally called Camp on San Pedro River (2) (May 1860). Soon renamed Fort Aravaipa (or Aravaypa), then Fort Breckenridge in August 1860. Evacuated and burned in July 1861 to keep the post from Confederate hands. Reoccupied in May-June 1862 by the CA Volunteers and renamed Fort Stanford.

In October 1865 Camp Wright was established nearby to the south, and soon (November 1865) renamed Camp Grant (1), but because of frequent flooding it was rebuilt at the former site of Fort Breckenridge/Stanford the following year. Although Camp Grant (1) was never officially designated a fort, it was frequently referred to as such by later historians. Abandoned due to a high rate of malaria. The military reservation was transferred to the Interior Department in 1884 for disposition. Very litle remains at the actual site (private property), located off of AZ 77 about nine miles south of Dudleyville.

Camp Ray
(1910's), Pinal County
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols. Undetermined location.

Camp Blue Water Station
(1864), near La Palma ?
A stage station located about 13 miles east of Casa Grande.

Camp on Rio Gila (1)
(1866), Sacaton
A temporary encampment. Also known as the Gila Depot.
(NOTE: not to be confused with Gila Depot (1857) in NEW MEXICO)

Fort Barrett
(1862), near Bapchule
A temporary earthwork fort built by the CA Volunteers, protecting Ammi White's flour mill at the Pima Indian villages on the Gila River, just north of town.

Post at Maricopa Wells
(1865 - 1867), Maricopa
A fortified stage station, initially a temporary post in 1865, then intermittently used by troops until 1867. Adobe ruins located just outside of the present town, which was relocated after several floods.

Camp Lewis (2)
(unknown dates), Childs
An Army encampment.

A Butterfield - Overland stage station called Burke's Station was located just north of here in 1858.

Camp Ajo
(1910's), Ajo
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.

Stanwix Station
(1862), Maricopa County
A Butterfield - Overland stage station located 96 miles east of Fort Yuma. It was garrisoned by the CA Volunteers in 1862.

Camp Grassy Camp
(1862), near Agua Caliente
Located six miles west of town on the Gila River, three miles east of Grinnell's Station.

Detachment at Grinnell's Station
(1862), near Aztec
CA Volunteers protected the stage station.

Camp Galen
(1862), near Mohawk ?
A Confederate encampment located about 60 miles east of Fort Yuma.

Camp Halleck
(1862), Yuma County
A CA Volunteers camp protecting the nearby Antelope Peak stage station, located south of the Gila River.
(info courtesy of Ted Cook)

Detachment at Mission Camp
(1862), near Welton
A Butterfield - Overland stage station garrisoned by the CA Volunteers, located about 35 miles east of Yuma.

Yuma Quartermaster Depot
(Yuma Quartermaster Depot State Historic Park)
(1864 - 1891), Yuma
The Yuma Quartermaster Supply Depot served Fort Yuma, which was just across the river in California. (see CALIFORNIA page 5) Destroyed by fire in 1867, but rebuilt. The U.S. Signal Corps established a station here in 1875. The depot was closed in 1895, but the Signal Corps remained until 1891. The U.S. Customs Service used the post beginning in 1908. Five original buildings remain. Admission fee.

Post at Yuma
(1885, 1911 - 1913, 1915 - 1922), Yuma
An intermittently occupied post used for border patrols.

Fort Defiance (1)
(1849), near Yuma
A civilian stockaded fort to protect the ferry crossing. Located near the mouth of the Gila River.

Camp Somerton
(1910's), Somerton
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols.


Northern Arizona - page 1

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