Camp Adams |
American Station |
Fort Bent |
Bent's New Fort |
Bent's Old Fort
Fort Big Spring | Boyd's Fort | Buffalo Springs Post | Buzzards' Roost | Fort Cass
Fort Cedar Point | Fort Chambers | Camp near the City of Denver | Camp Collins
New Camp Collins | Fort Collins | Colorado City Fort | Fort Convenience | Camp Curtis
Denver Depot and Arsenal | Post at Denver | Dora Fort | Camp Elbert | Fort El Puebla
Camp Evans | Fort Fauntleroy | Camp Fillmore | Fowler's Stockade | Fraeb's Post
Fort Francisco | Francisco Plaza | Franktown Stockade | Frémont's Fort
Camp at Frémont's Orchard | Gantt's Fort | Fort George | Fort Gerry | Camp Gilpin (a)
Camp Gilpin (b) | Godfrey's Ranch Station | Gray's Ranch Station | Fort Huerfano
Fort Independence | Fort Jackson | Julesburg Post | Julesburg Station | Fort Junction
Post of Junction | Post of Junction City | Junction Station | Fort Lancaster | Fort Latham
Latham Station | Fort Le Duc | Fort Lincoln | Camp Livingston | Fort Logan | Fort Lookout
Fort Lupton | Fort Lyon | New Fort Lyon | McShane's Fort | Marcy's Camp | Fort Maurice
Milk Fort | Camp Monument Dell | Fort Moore | Fort Morgan | Mormon Camp | Fort Namaqua
Namaqua Station | Fort Nepesta | Oakes' Folly | Old Stone Fort | Parker Stockade
Pike's Blockhouse | Station on Pike's Peak | Camp Point of Rocks | Camp at Pueblo
Fort Pueblo | Post of Pueblo | Quick Ranch Fort | Camp Rankin | Fort Rankin
Post at Reed's Springs | Fort Reynolds | Camp Robbins | Fort St. Vrain | Camp Sanborn
Fort at Sangre de Cristo Pass | Fort Sedgwick | Fort Sheridan | Spanish Fort | Sterling Fort
Fort Stevens | Fort Talpa | Post at Trinidad | Camp Tyler | Camp Union | Post at Valley Station
Vasquez' Fort (1) | Fort Vasquez (2) | Vasquez' Post (1) | Camp Wardwell | Fort Washington
Camp Weld | Camp George West | Camp Wheeler | Fort Wicked | Fort William | Fort Wise
Western Colorado - page 2
FORTS AND FIGHTS OF THE MOUNTAIN WEST
FORT WIKI - COLORADO
A short-lived encampment during Col. Henry Dodge's exploratory expedition.
(1864 - 1871), near Ovid
Located about a mile from the original stage station, first known as Post at Julesburg Station (or Julesburg Post) when established in September 1864, then renamed Camp Rankin by November 1864, and Fort Rankin by January 1865. When established the camp was nothing but a large sod corral enclosing the troops' tents. Log hutments were built later. The stage station was burned by Indians in February 1865 in retaliation for the Sand Creek Massacre in November 1864, and the fort was put under a brief seige. The post was renamed again in September 1865. A stone monument (1940) is located on US 183 just east of 2nd Street in town, which says the fort was located due south 1.25 mile.
A stone monument (1931) at the site of the Old Julesburg stage station (1859) is located about one mile east of the mouth of Lodgepole Creek, on County Road 28 about three miles southeast of town. The Julesburg stage station was relocated in March 1866, the again in June 1867 to the north side of the river along the new railroad. The town was finally relocated again in 1880 to its present site about six miles east of the original location, known as Denver Junction until 1886.
Post at Valley Station
(1864 - 1865), near Sterling
An Overland stage station fortified by the Army during Cheyenne raids. The soldiers used corn bales for protection. Also called Fort Moore, after the Moore brothers (Charley and Jim), operators of the stage station. A stone monument (1933) is located on US 6 at the Overland Trail Museum just east of town, which says the post was located 3.8 miles north. The museum itself was built to resemble an adobe-style trading post or fort.
(1864 ?, 1875 ?), near Sterling
A settlers' sod fort for defense against Indians. A D.A.R. stone monument is located on US 138 about 2.5 miles northeast of town, which says the sod fort was located 4200 feet southeast.
Godfrey's Ranch Station
(1864 - 1865), near Merino
An Overland stage station also referred to as American Station. Nicknamed Fort Wicked by the Cheyennes because of the fighting spirit of the station's agent, Holon Godfrey, who refused to give up. This was the only stage station in the region not captured or destroyed during the January 1865 Indian raids. A stone monument (1929) is located on US 6 south of town.
(1864 - 1865), north of Fort Morgan
A fortified stage station on the Overland Trail.
(1865 - 1868), Fort Morgan
Originally known as Post of Junction, Post of Junction City, Camp Tyler, and then Camp Wardwell until 1866. It was a sod and log fort built to protect the Overland Mail Route. Abandoned for Fort Laramie, WY, after the Union Pacific Railroad was completed to Denver. No remains. A D.A.R. marker is located in a small park on Riverside Avenue at Prospect Street. Exhibits and a model of the fort are at the (City of) Fort Morgan Museum located in City Park.
A Colorado Mounted Militia encampment on the Overland Trail, originally called Camp at Frémont's Orchard.
Fort (Elmer) Gerry
(late 1830's ? - 1840's), near Kersey
A trading post originally on the north side of the South Platte River at Crow Creek. Abandoned in 1840 and then later rebuilt on the south side of the river.
(1860, 1863), Latham
Used for 10 days in 1860, and another 10 days in 1863. The settlement, near Kersey, was founded in 1862 as Cherokee City.
Possibly a fortified Overland stage depot (Latham Station), located six miles south of Kersey.
(Old Fort Site Cultural Survey Project)
(1863 - 1867), Fort Collins
It was originally known as Camp Collins, located at an Overland stage station in Laporte on the Cache la Poudre River. It was established to protect the stage and mail routes. Abandoned in June 1864 due to flooding and was moved southeast to higher ground (New Camp Collins), then redesignated as a fort in August 1864. The town of Fort Collins was settled after 1872. The 1864 Officers' Mess (aka "Aunty Stone" Cabin) still exists, now located at the Heritage Center of the (City of) Fort Collins Museum and Discovery Center on Mathews Street, which also has a model of the fort as well as several displays. A stone marker denoting the actual fort site is located near the Union Pacific Railroad powerhouse on College Ave., north of downtown.
Camp Point of Rocks
An Army encampment west of town.
Robert Boyd's Fort
(1865), near Laporte
Two sod forts built by a settler to protect his property along the Cache la Poudre River. The sod house and sod corral still exist.
(1862 - 1865), near Loveland
Located four miles west of town at Buckhorn and Dry Creeks, this was a settler's stone fort built by Mariano Modina. In 1862 it became a fortified stage station (Namaqua Station) on the Overland Mail Route. Most of the remaining buildings burned down in 1936. A monument (1931) is located west of town on Namaqua Street at entrance to Namaqua Park.
Fort St. Vrain
(1837 - 1845/1854), near Gilcrest
A Bent and St. Vrain Co. fur trading post on the east bank of the South Platte River opposite St. Vrain Creek, it was 127 by 106 feet, with adobe walls two feet thick and 14 feet high. First known as Fort Lookout and then as Fort George before it was renamed again. It was partially shut down in the spring of 1845 only after rival fur companies were forced to give up their local operations in the area due to the Bents' relentless trading tactics. Reported "in ruins and deserted" in the summer of 1846 by journalist Francis Parkman, but it was actually only intermittently used during each winter season after 1845, with no resident manager after 1850. It was part of the three-post Upper Platte and Arkansas Indian Agency from 1846 - 1854 (with Fort Laramie, WY, and Bent's New Fort, CO), serving the Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes. A temporary settlement supposedly occupied the site in 1859-60. A D.A.R. granite monument was erected on the site in 1911. What remained of the fort's adobe walls were finally leveled in 1951. The one-acre site became Weld County property in 1952. In 2001 the site was transferred from the county to the Platteville Historical Society, which fenced-in the monument and the fort's corner markers and created a publicly accessible pocket-park on Monument Road, off of County Road 40. "Wildcat Mound" is located directly opposite the fort site, on the west bank of the river due south of Milliken.
Fort Vásquez (2)
(1835 - 1842, 1864 ?), Platteville
A 1936 W.P.A. reconstruction (on the original site) of an adobe trading post of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. It is 100 by 125 feet with 12-foot high walls. It had replaced Vasquez' Post (1) on Clear Creek at present-day Denver. The fort was sold in 1840 to Lock, Randolph and Company, but was eventually abandoned in 1842. Reported in ruins by John C. Frémont by 1843, the site was possibly later used by Union troop detachments in 1864. Museum operated by the Colorado Historical Society. Admisson fee. 1932 monument on site, located about 1.5 miles south of town on US 85. Another website from GhostTowns.com || Malachite's Big Hole
(1836 - 1838), near Ione
A Pratte and Chouteau Co. log stockade trading post that was bought out by the Bent and St. Vrain Co. in 1838 and then closed and burned to the ground. Originally called Henry Fraeb's Post. Site was originally located on the west side of the South Platte River (as it flowed at the time), about three miles west of town. The South Platte River channel now flows about five miles further west than it once did through here.
(1836 - 1844, 1864), Fort Lupton
An independent trading post built by Lancaster Lupton, originally a crude wooden stockade called Fort Lancaster before it was rebuilt with adobe in 1837, and soon renamed Fort Lupton by popular usage. This was the first permanent white settlement of northern Colorado. Left abandoned until 1859, it later had various uses including as an Overland stage station, and also as a temporary settler refuge and Army detachment post during the 1864 Indian troubles. The sheltered adobe ruins still exist on private property. A monument (1929) is located on US 85 just north of 14th Street. The South Platte Valley Historical Society reconstructed a replica fort on adjacent property beginning in 2003, opened to the public in September 2011. See also Malachite's Big Hole || New Fort Lupton from WesternExplorers.us
(1864), near Longmont
A Colorado Militia (Home Guards) 100-by-130-foot sod fort with two watch towers, located at the junction of Boulder Creek and St. Vrain Creek, about five miles east of town. Built for local settler protection. Served as a way station for several years afterwards. A monument (1939) is located on the frontage road at the junction of I-25 and CO 119.
(NOTE: not to be confused with Junction Station or Junction City near Fort Morgan.)
(1864), near Boulder
A settlers' sod and timber fort with four bastions or blockhouses, located at the Chambers Ranch on Boulder Creek, about four miles east of town.
Louis Vásquez' Post (1)
(1832 - 1835), near Denver
A stockaded log cabin trading post also known as Vasquez' Fort (1) and Fort Convenience. Located on Clear Creek near its confluence with the South Platte River, about five miles north of downtown. Replaced by Fort Vasquez (2) at Platteville.
¤ DENVER POSTS
¤ Camp Weld
(1861 - 1865), Denver
A training area on the South Platte River for the Colorado Volunteers. Almost destroyed by fire in 1864, but rebuilt. The site is marked by a monument (1934) at West 8th Avenue and Vallejo Street. Originally called Camp Elbert.
¤ Camp Evans
A temporary state militia cavalry camp located on the South Platte River about two and one-half miles northeast of the city center.
¤ Camp Wheeler
A temporary state militia tent encampment while Camp Weld was being rebuilt after a devastating fire. The site is located at Lincoln Park at Osage Street and 13th Avenue.
¤ Denver Depot and Arsenal
(1859 - 1865), Denver
A large warehouse located along Cherry Creek at present-day Larimer and 11th Streets, now the site of the Auraria Campus, University of Colorado-Denver. Used as a town refuge in 1864 during the Indian troubles.
¤ Fort Logan
(Friends of Historic Fort Logan)
(1887 - 1946), Sheridan
Originally Camp near the City of Denver or Post at Denver (1887 - 1889) until the permanent fort was built. Also called Fort Sheridan until the War Department switched names in 1889 with the fort in Chicago, Illinois. It was established to consolidate all other Federal posts in the state. Became a subpost of Lowry Army Air Base in 1939. Most of the 136 buildings still exist on the 1000-acre post, which became the Colorado Mental Health Institute in 1961.
¤ Camp Alva Adams
A Colorado Volunteer Infantry tent city that lasted less than a month before shipping out to the Philippines. Located near City Park, east of Colorado Boulevard between 25th and 27th Avenues. A marker is (was ?) located at the City Park golf course.
Camp Gilpin (a)
(1861), near Central City
A temporary Colorado Militia encampment in Quartz Valley, about one mile from town.
Camp Gilpin (b)
A temporary Colorado Militia encampment.
Camp George West
State Correctional Facility - Camp George West
(1903 - 1998 ?), Golden
A CO National Guard training area located three miles east of the city. Originally established as the State Rifle Range, renamed in 1934. Enlarged to 700 acres by 1938, the site now encompases about 375 acres still under state control. Since the late 1950's the complex has been shared by various state agencies, including the CO Dept. of Transportation, Colorado Emergency Management, the State Correctional Center at Golden, and the Colorado State Patrol Academy. The CO NG vacated the post in the late 1990's or early 2000's.
Buffalo Springs Post
(1865), Buffalo Creek ?
A temporary Army post.
A settlers' defense at the "Twenty Mile House". A monument (1945, relocated in 1988) is located on Main Street east of Parker Street.
A settlers' defense against Indians. A monument (1946) is located just south of the US 83/US 86 junction.
(1864), near Larkspur
A civilian 100-foot square log defense against Indians, located on the later William Crull (Krull) Ranch (1870), at what was then known as Huntsville (1859-1880's), about two miles north of town and six miles south of Castle Rock. Provided refuge for about 25 families and/or 150 men during six months of Indian raids. Also known as (Daniel) Oakes' Folly. Site located on the grounds of Yogi Bear's Jellystone Camp-Resort. A reconstruction or replica of the fort is planned for the future.
Fort Cedar Point
(1867 - 1868), Cedar Point
A Federal post located near the present intersection of I-70 and CO 86 south of Agate. Soldiers occupied the grounds surrounding the train station.
Post at Reed's Springs
(1867), near Ramah
A Federal post located about eight miles north-northwest of town.
(1843), near Peyton
A natural butte located northeast of town that served as a temporary defensive location during John Frémont's 1843 exploratory expedition.
Quick Ranch Fort
(1868), Palmer Lake
Ben Quick's stockaded ranch and house (1861). Also known as Fort Washington. The entire population of West Plum Creek Valley forted up here for nearly two months.
David McShane's Fort
(Palmer Lake Historical Society)
(1865 - 1868), near Monument
A settler's small circular stone fortification. Rock ruins remain next to a 1870 stone house. A monument (1950) is located on Davidson Street, off of CO 105 near the railroad overpass between Monument and Palmer Lake. Also known as Old Stone Fort.
Camp Monument Dell
A temporary Federal encampment. The town was originally called Henry Station.
Colorado City Fort
(1864 - 1868), Colorado Springs
A settlers' stockaded log fort. A monument (1936) is located at 2818 West Pikes Peak Avenue. The plaque was reported stolen in January 2012.
Station on Pike's Peak
(1873 ?), near Cripple Creek
A small Army detachment was posted on Pike's Peak for a time.
(1806), Cañon City
Built on the west bank of Sand Creek at the start of winter, before Pike's Stockade was built (near Sanford). Two men were left here with supplies until the Spanish captured them, along with the others at Pike's Stockade, in January 1807 (see also CO page 2). D.A.R. monument (1922) located on US 50 west of town near the old state prison guard tower.
(1830's), near Florence
A short-lived octagonal pine-log trading post originally known as Fort Le Duc was located on Adobe Creek (a tributary of Hardscrabble Creek) along the Hardscrabble Trail, built by French-Canadian trader Maurice LeDuc. Mexicano settlers located at the mouth of Hardscrabble Creek took refuge in LeDuc's fort in 1838 during Indian troubles. Traces of the fort's well are located on private property west of a marker on CO 67 about seven miles south of town.
(1842 - 1847), near Florence
An adobe trade post on Adobe Creek, a small tributary of what was later named Hardscrabble Creek. Located on the east side of the Wet Mountains, about four or five miles south of town. Built by Maurice LeDuc, William LeBlanc, and a few other French-Canadian trappers. By 1843 the post pretty much became LeDuc's personal dwelling and no longer a trade post per se. A free trapper and scratch farmer settlement called Hardscrabble was founded in 1844 nearby on Hardscrabble Creek, by many of the same men who built Fort Pueblo in 1842. Both the post and nearby settlement were abandoned in 1847. LeDuc and his sons returned to live here for a short time in 1860 before moving on again.
(1848 - 1849), Dora
A small supply fort built by American traders at the head of Grape Creek Canyon. Site now underwater at the DeWeese Reservoir near Westcliffe.
¤¤ PUEBLO FORTS
¤¤ Fort Nepesta
(1840's - 1854), Pueblo
A trading post and adobe fort built by former American Fur Company employees. Destroyed by Indians. Site located on Union Avenue near the railroad depot.
¤¤ Fort Pueblo
(Pueblo County Historical Society)
(1842 - 1854), Pueblo
An adobe 60-yard square trading post established by American "free" trappers, located near the mouth of Fountain Creek. Utes attacked and killed nearly everyone on December 25, 1854. A near full-size reconstruction is located at the El Pueblo Museum at 301 North Union Avenue, and a commemorative marker is located just south of City Hall. See also Malachite's Big Hole
Jacob Fowler's Stockade (1822) and horse corral was erected very close to this same location, with partner Hugh Glenn on their upper Arkansas River trapping expedition.
¤¤ Fort Independence
(1846 - 1847), Pueblo
A Mormon Battalion log fort that served as a winter camp for the sick and infirmed and family dependents. Also provided refuge for the first group of Mormons that travelled west in advance of the "Pioneer Band", known also as the Mormon Colony Winter Camp. Located south of Fort Pueblo, about "a half-hour's ride". No remains. A monument (1946) is located at Locust Street and Stanton Ave., behind the Runyon baseball field.
¤¤ Camp at Pueblo
(1846 - 1847), Pueblo
An Army camp (?), or possibly a reference for the Mormon colony camp (?).
¤¤ Post of Pueblo
A Federal garrison post located north of the town center. Abandoned when Fort Reynolds was built nearby.
¤¤ John Gantt's Fort
(1832 - 1834), near Baxter
A fur trade post originally located on the north bank of the Arkansas River near Fountain Creek, in present-day Pueblo. It was also known as Gantt's Post. Jefferson Blackwell was Gantt's trading partner here at the time. Originally a cottonwood log stockade with several log cabins, it was relocated in May 1834 from its original location to five or six miles east (about three miles west of Bent's Fort William), rebuilt with adobe and renamed Fort Cass before it was abandoned later that year. Many trappers continued to call it Gantt's Fort, however.
¤¤ Fort William
(1831 - 1833), near Devine
The Bent and St. Vrain Co. built their original log stockade fur trade post on the north bank of the Arkansas River about nine miles east of Fountain Creek, and abandoned it when they built their new post near La Junta. (see Bent's Old Fort below)
(1830's ?), near Avondale
A Mexicano adobe fort with two heavily timbered circular towers, located on the Huerfano River about six miles south of town.
A Mexicano encampment was located at the mouth of the Huerfano River in 1845, established by Charles Autobees.
(1867 - 1872), Avondale
A Federal adobe fort located on the Arkansas River, about three miles above the mouth of the Huerfano River. First called (Col. Randolph) Marcy's Camp while the fort was being built. Replaced Post of Pueblo. A monument (1932) is on US 50 about one mile east of town. Faint traces of rock wall lines are located on private property behind the marker.
(1864 - 1867), near Boone
A Colorado Volunteers militia encampment on the Arkansas River about two miles west of town, established just prior to the Sand Creek Massacre. No remains.
Bent's Old Fort
(National Historic Park)
(Cultural Landscape Interpretation)
(1833 - 1849), near La Junta
This was an adobe-walled trading post built by the Bent and St. Vrain Company. Originally called (William) Bent's Fort or Fort Bent. This fort replaced Fort William near Pueblo. The U.S. Army used the fort as a supply base during the Mexican War. Became part of the three-post Upper Platte and Arkansas Indian Agency in 1846 (with Fort Laramie, WY, and Fort St. Vrain, CO), serving the Southern Cheyenne tribe. It was abandoned and blown up by Bent (August 1849) after a failed attempt to sell it to the U.S. Army, and a cholera epidemic that nearly wiped out the local Indians who traded with Bent. The abandoned adobe ruins became a stage stop in 1861. It became known as Bent's "Old Fort" only after Bent built his new post at Big Timbers (near Wiley) in 1852. The adobe fort was first reconstructed in the 1930's, and rebuilt again in 1975. This site was considered the first permanent white settlement in the state. See also Malachite's Big Hole
Fort El Puebla
(1830's), Bent County
Also called Milk Fort. A series of single-story adobe dwellings arranged around an enclosed courtyard, which also served as a night corral for livestock. A short-lived settlement of American fur trappers, Mexican mestizos and Indians, originally called Pueblo de Leche (Milk Town) due to the large herd of milk goats, in addition to sheep, cattle, horses, and mules. Exact location undetermined. It was already a flourishing community when described by American journalist Thomas J. Farnham in 1839.
(1852 - 1867/1889), Fort Lyon
This was originally the trading post known as (William) Bent's New Fort, at a site on the north bank of the Arkansas River in an area known as "Big Timbers", eight miles west of Lamar, near Wiley. It was built of sandstone, but was slightly smaller than Bent's Old Fort. It was leased to the Federal government beginning in 1857. The Army named it Fort Fauntleroy (by 1859), but changed it to Fort Wise in August 1860 around the same time that several permanent barracks and other buildings were built outside of Bent's fort. The Army renamed the military post again in June 1862. The Upper Arkansas Indian Agency was located here from 1855 - 1864. The Sand Creek Massacre occurred near here in Chivington in November 1864. The original site of the fort still has discernible soil depressions, but no above ground structures or markers.
The Army garrison moved upstream about 20 miles west to its present site (New Fort Lyon) in June 1867 because of river flooding and extensive bank erosion. After it was abandoned by the Army, the new post later became the U.S. Naval Hospital, Fort Lyon from 1906 to 1922. Became a V.A. Hospital in 1934, which used most of the original post buildings then still standing. Became the Fort Lyon State Correctional Facility in 2001 for special-needs inmates. The adjacent Fort Lyon National Cemetery and the Kit Carson Chapel are open to the public. The state closed down the prison facility in late 2011, future status uncertain.
(1820 ?), near Farisita
A short-lived adobe Spanish outpost. It is unclear if this is the same as Fort at Sangre de Cristo Pass listed below.
Fort at Sangre de Cristo Pass
(1819 - 1821), near Farisita
A Spanish military post on Oak Creek about 1.8 miles north of the Sangre de Cristo (La Veta) Pass, built to defend the pass and the Taos Trail against a possible American invasion of New Mexico. The official Spanish name is unknown. Americans knew this fort simply as Spanish Fort. Possibly the same as Fort Talpa (?). One local legend states that about a half-dozen men of the garrison were massacred in 1820 by white men disguised as Indians.
Fort (John) Francisco
(1862 - 1866), La Veta
A settler's adobe fort at the Coucheras Ranch, also known as Francisco Plaza. It was a one-story structure enclosing three sides of a 100-foot square. It later became the local Denver and Rio Grande Railroad terminal after the branch line was built (circa 1876).
(1866), near Aguilar
A Federal post located on the Apishapa River that lasted only about a month (September - October). It was never completed before it was attacked by Utes at the end of September 1866 and then ordered to be abandoned.
Gray's Ranch Station
(1864), near Trinidad
A fortified stage station about four miles north of town.
Post at Trinidad
A Federal garrison post.
NEED MORE INFO: Fort Big Spring north of Kit Carson, Cheyenne County; possibly a settlers' fort or stage station.
Federal Army Camp Union (date and location ?); Camp Robbins (1860's) (location ?).
Also of interest is The Fort, a restaurant and gift shop located in Morrison on CO 8, built in 1963 as a full-size replica of a hacienda-style adobe-walled compound, such as Bent's Old Fort or other such trading posts of the period.
Western Colorado - page 2
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