American Forts: West


Big Timbers Post | Big Wood Fort | Camp on Birch Creek | Boise Barracks | Camp Boise
Fort Boise (1) | Fort Boise (2) | Camp Boise River | Fort Bonneville | Camp Buford
Canoe Camp | Camp Chopunnish | Clearwater Post | Camp Coeur d'Alene | Fort Coeur d'Alene
Colt Killed Camp | Camp Conner | Post at Eagle Rock Bridge Gap | Evan's Post | Fort Franklin
Fort Galloway | Fort Hall (1) | Fort Hall (2) | Fort Hall (3) | Fort Hall (4) | Fort Henry
Henry's Post | Camp Hope | Camp Howard (a) | Camp Howard (b) | Camp Howard (c)
Howe's Camp (2) | Howse Fort (1) | Hull Hill Fort | Kalispell House | Kinville's Post
Fort Koolante | Kullyspell House | Camp Lander | Camp Lapwai | Fort Lapwai
Lapwai Mission Station | Fort Lemhi | Long Camp | Cantonment Loring | Camp Lyon
MacKenzie's Post | Old Fort | Camp Osburn | Camp Phoenix | Camp Reed
Reed's (Reid's) House/Post | Camp Reynolds Creek | Fort Russell | Fort Saling
Camp Salmon Falls | Salmon River Mission | Fort Sherman | Fort Simons | Skitswist Post
S. Smith's Camp | T. Smith's Fort | Snake Fort | Cantonment Soldier | Camp Stevenson
Camp Supply | Teton Pass Camp | Thompson's Post | Camp Three Forks of the Owyhee
Camp Wallace | Camp Wardner | Fort Weiser | Fort Wilson | Camp Winthrop



Last Update: 29/NOVEMBER/2015
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2015 American Forts Network

Fort Bonneville
(1832), near Carmen
An independent trading post built by Capt. Benjamin Bonneville, located on the west side of the Salmon River about five miles downstream from the Lemhi River, established in the fall after abandoning his brief post on the Green River in Wyoming. Consisting of a few crude log cabins or huts, it lasted only two months before Bonneville decided to move on again in mid November 1832.

Fort Lemhi
(1855 - 1858), near Tendoy
A Mormon settlement (aka Salmon River Mission) which consisted of a log stockaded fort enclosing 25 cabins, and an adobe-walled corral. Indian attacks forced the abandonment of the settlement. Few scattered adobe remains still exist on private property. Stone monuments at or near the original site.

Lewis and Clark camped near here in 1805 after crossing Lemhi Pass just to the east. Located nearby (just north) is the Sacajawea Monument (Note: at various sites in Idaho, Sacagawea is spelled "Sacajawea"). See also Sacajawea Cultural Center

Fort Henry
(1810 - 1811), near Parker
A St. Louis Missouri Fur Company winter trade post, the first American trading post west of the Continental Divide, located on the south side of the Henry's Fork of the Snake River, near "Egin Bench". It was two crude log huts and a dirt cellar. The site was rediscovered in 1927. Also called Andrew Henry's Post. There are two monuments, one on the original site, about three miles south of town, and another in a nearby field. See also Fort Henry Historic Byway from Idaho

Teton Pass Camp
(1895), Victor
A temporary Federal post.

Post at Eagle Rock Bridge Gap
(1878), Idaho Falls
A temporary Federal post.

Fort Hall (4)
(1870 - 1883), near Blackfoot
The U.S. Army built a new fort on Lincoln Creek 12 miles east of the Snake River and about 25 miles northeast of the old Fort Hall (1). After it was abandoned, the barracks were used as an Indian school. The buildings were eventually later relocated to Ross Fork Creek. Although there are no original buildings left at the site, the parade ground can still be discerned by the growth pattern of the trees. The Army post was located nine miles south of Blackfoot. The town of Fort Hall, which was 15 miles away, was the location of the Fort Hall Indian Agency.

Cantonment Loring
(1849 - 1850), near Fort Hall
A Federal camp located three miles downriver from Fort Hall (1). Intended to protect the Oregon Trail, but abandoned for lack of supplies. Sometimes referred to as Fort Hall (2).

Fort Hall (3)
(1864), near Fort Hall
Remnants of the old fort were used to construct this fortified Overland stage station on Spring Creek just north of Fort Hall (1).

Fort Hall (1)
(Fort Hall Indian Reservation)
(1834 - 1856, 1859 - 1860), near Fort Hall
Originally a log stockaded trade post, with two bastions, built by Nathaniel Wyeth and the Columbia River Fishing and Trading Company. In 1837 it was sold to the Hudson's Bay Co., and was then enlarged and rebuilt with adobe. Also known as Robert Evans' Post. Abandoned, and later occupied briefly by the U.S. Army. Flood waters washed away the fort in 1863. The site was rediscovered in 1916, and a granite monument is at the location on the river between the towns of Fort Hall and Sterling. Public access to the site is restricted by the Shoshone - Bannock Tribes tribal council. The Fort Hall Replica is located at Ross Park in Pocatello, adjacent to the Bannock County Historical Museum. See also The Fort Hall Accounts

Camp Lander
(1865 - 1866), near Fort Hall
An Oregon Volunteer cavalry post located three miles southeast of Fort Hall (1) at the junction of the Salt Lake and Boise Roads to protect the Oregon Trail. Materièl from Fort Hall (1) was used to construct this post. Replaced by Fort Hall (4).

Major Howe's Camp (2)
(1860), near Chubbuck
A temporary Federal encampment located on the Portneuf River.

Camp Conner
(1863 - 1865), Soda Springs
Built by CA Volunteers after the "Battle of Bear River" (January 1863) to protect a Mormon settlement. It was a cluster of log cabins with a tall flagpole. Located along the Oregon Trail east of town on the north bank of the Bear River.

Peg-Leg Smith's Fort
(1849 - 1850), near Montpelier
A trading post located on the Bear River along the Oregon Trail, probably a few miles south of town, operated by mountainman Thomas "Peg-Leg" Smith. Also known as Big Timbers Post. Smith gave up the post in 1850 in hopes of striking it rich in the gold fields of California.

Fort Franklin
(1860 - 1863), Franklin
A Mormon settlers' town stockade. Abandoned after the "Battle of Bear River" (January 1863) which was fought 12 miles north. The town was the state's first permanent white settlement. A 1946 Daughters of Utah Pioneers stone monument is located at North State Street and Parkinson Road. At the time, the settlers thought they were still within Utah. The state boundary was not fixed until 1872, one mile south of town. See also History of Franklin from City of Franklin

Samuel Smith's Camp
(1864), Raft River
A temporary post near the mouth of the Raft River to protect the Overland stage line.

Camp on Birch Creek
(1859), Cassia County
A Federal post located in the Raft River Valley, on the wagon route between Camp Floyd, UT, and Camp Walla Walla, WA.
(thanks to James Martin for providing location)

Camp Reed
(1865 - 1866), near Twin Falls
A temporary OR Volunteer post on the old Kelton Road near its crossing of Rock Creek, to protect the Overland stage line at nearby Rock Creek Station (built 1864). The station has been preserved and is operated by the Idaho State Historical Society.

Camp Salmon Falls
(1862), near Buhl
A Federal post located on the Snake River north of town on the Oregon Trail.

Camp Wallace
(1865), Soldier
A temporary Federal post located on the Big Camas Prairie near Fairfield. Also called Cantonment Soldier.

Camp Buford
(1866), near Bruneau
A temporary Federal post to protect the Overland stage line.

Camp Three Forks of the Owyhee
(1866 - 1871), Owyhee County
A Federal camp located on Soldier Creek at the southwest base of South Mountain (Mt. Winthrop) near the South Fork Owyhee River, about 35-40 miles south of Triangle. Originally named Camp Winthrop until 1867. The log barracks were used as a prison camp for Indians after the Snake War. Buildings were sold at auction in 1871, later becoming a cattle ranch after 1884. One original building still remained at least into the 1980's (on private property).

Camp Lyon
(1865 - 1869), near Jordan Valley, Oregon
An Oregon state militia camp located on Jordan Creek within one mile of the state line. A local farm building on private property overlooking the site is said to have been built from timbers/logs from one of the original eight log-built military structures.

John Reed's House/Post
(1813 - 1814, 1819 - 1820 ?), near Parma
A Pacific Fur Co. winter trading post located on the south side of the mouth of the Boise River that was attacked by Indians in January 1814, killing everyone there. Also spelled Reid. Rebuilt by Donald MacKenzie and the North West Company in 1819, but soon abandoned again.

Snake Fort (1836), built by Thomas McKay as his private trade post, was later erected on the site. Possibly also known as Big Wood Fort.

Fort Boise (1)
(1834 - 1854, 1855), near Parma
A Hudson's Bay Co. trading post built on the east side of the Snake River, about five miles north of town, to counter competition from American Fort Hall (1). Built and operated originally by Thomas McKay in 1834 as a private venture (with HBC backing), it was formally taken over by the company in 1835, managed by François Payette (to 1844). In the later 1840's under James Craigie's management the original log stockade was replaced by adobe walls. Due to frequent Indian attacks and a damaging flood in 1853 it was abandoned in 1854. The U.S. Army established Camp Boise River at this site in 1855 and maintained it for only six weeks. Another flood in 1862 washed away all remaining traces of the fort. The site is located within the present Fort Boise State Wildlife Management Area. A monument is located on Old Fort Boise Road. An adobe replica of the fort is located in town.

Fort Boise (2)
(Boise V.A. Medical Center)
(1863 - 1912, 1916 - 1919, 1942 - 1944), Boise
The U.S. Army built the second fort so-named, originally called Camp Boise, renamed Boise Barracks in 1879. Three buildings from the 1860's still remain. Several more from the 1880's and 1890's also still remain. Camp Edward A. Stevenson was created on the reservation in 1898 as a mustering point for state troops. It was located on the field east of the Idaho City road.
The main post became a Veterans Hospital in 1920. The Post Cemetery was deeded to the city in 1947. The remaining portion of the former military reservation was given to the city in 1956 (Military Reserve Park). The city also owns (since 1950) Fort Boise Park, located at 600 West Garrison Street. See also Fort Boise (Boise Veterans Hospital) from Preservation Idaho

Also of interest here in town is the Idaho Military History Museum at 4692 West Harvard Street.

Fort Wilson
(1877), near Payette
A settlers' fort built in response to the Nez Perce War. Marker on ID 52 east of town.
(info provided by Merv Leavitt)

Fort (Jacob) Weiser
(1865), Weiser
A settlers' defense against Indians, located at the mouth of the Weiser River.

Fort (Tom) Galloway
(1863), Weiser
A settlers' fort on the Weiser River four miles east of town.

Hull Hill Fort
(1863), Weiser
A settlers' fort on Hull Hill.

Fort (John) Saling
(1863), near Weiser
A settlers' fort on Mann Creek.

Camp Howard (a)
(1877 - 1881), Mount Idaho
A Federal camp located two miles east of town on the Clearwater River. It consisted of over two dozen log buildings. No remains, site is private property. Another Camp Howard (b) existed 16 miles south on Doumecq Plains near White Bird, and another Camp Howard (c) was somewhere on the Lolo (Lewis & Clark) Trail near Weippe.

Camp Reynolds Creek
(1878), near Kooskia
A temporary Federal post on Maggie Creek.

Camp Chopunnish
(Nez Perce National Historical Park)
(1806), East Kamiah
Also known as Long Camp, this is where the Lewis and Clark Expedition stayed until they could cross the snow-capped mountains on their return trip east.

Colt Killed Camp
(Nez Perce National Historical Park)
(1805), near Powell
Located on US 12 eleven miles west of Lolo Pass. This is where Lewis and Clark had to kill one of their own colts for food.

Canoe Camp
(Nez Perce National Historical Park)
(1805), Ahsahka
A campsite for the Lewis and Clark Expedition where they built canoes for their trip west to the Pacific.

Fort Lapwai
(Nez Perce National Historic Park)
(1862 - 1884), Lapwai
A Federal post originally called Camp Lapwai until 1863. It was briefly unoccupied in 1866. The Northern Idaho (Nez Perce) Indian Agency moved to the site in 1904. A few original structures still stand as private residences, including the preserved 1883 Officers' Quarters. The old post cemetery is one-half mile south.

Located on Lapwai Creek about five miles from the creek's mouth was the state's first white settlement, Lapwai Mission (1836-38), built by Henry Spalding. It was relocated to the creek mouth in 1838 due to heat and insects.

Donald MacKenzie's Post
(Nez Perce National Historical Park)
(1812 - 1813), Lewiston
Originally a Pacific Fur Co. trading post on the north side of the Clearwater River, just above its confluence with the Snake River, also known as Clearwater Post. The North West Company bought out the Americans in October 1813 after war broke out between the two nations. Exact location undetermined, but likely just east of town.

Lewis and Clark camped near here at the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake Rivers in 1805.

Fort (John) Russell
(1877 - 1879), Moscow
One of several settlers' stockades created when the Nez Perce War broke out. This fort remained in use until 1879. The stockade was still in evidence during the early 20th century. A marker is located in the 800 block of "B" Street.

Camp Osburn
(1899 - 1901), Osburn
An Idaho National Guard post created during a period of martial law. Replaced Camp Wardner.

Camp Wardner
(1899), Kellogg
An Idaho National Guard post established during a miners' strike. Replaced by Camp Osburn.

Skitswist Post
(1812), Kootenai County
A temporary Pacific Fur Co. trading post somewhere on Lake Coeur d'Alene.

Fort Sherman
(Museum of North Idaho)
(1878 - 1900), Coeur d'Alene
A Federal post previously called Camp Coeur d'Alene until 1879, then Fort Coeur d'Alene until 1887. The post became part of the North Idaho College campus (1933) in 1949, and historical exhibits are located in the original powder magazine. One Officers' quarters still exists on campus. The 1880 Post Chapel, located off campus at 332 Hubbard Street, is operated by the Museum of North Idaho.

(Joseph) Howse Fort (1)
(1810 - 1811), near Clark Fork
A North West Co. wintering post located on the Clark Fork River near Lake Pend Oreille, which may have been known as Flathead Lake at one time. A possible alternate location is the Flathead River valley of western Montana (see also), either north or south of Flathead Lake.

David Thompson's Trading Post
(1809 - 1810), near East Hope
This was the first trading post in the state, built by the North West Company. Also known as Kullyspell House (also spelled Kalispell). It consisted of three log houses. Located on Memaloose (Hodgkin's) Point on the northeast side of Lake Pend Oreille. Replaced by Spokane House in Washington. The site was discovered in 1923, and a monument built in 1929, although the exact site of the fort is now under the waters of the lake.

Camp Hope
(1894), Hope
A National Guard post established during a railroad workers' strike.

Michael Kinville's Post
(1810 - 1812), Bonner's Ferry
A North West Company trading post.

NEED MORE INFO: Old Fort on the Payette River south of McCall; Fort Simons near Waha.
Undetermined locations: Camp Supply (date ?), Camp Phoenix (date ?) (possibly in Oregon), Fort Koolante (date ?).
Towns: Headquarters in Clearwater County

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