American Forts: West

KANSAS

Fort Bain | Bain's Fort | Camp Bateman | Fort Baxter | Camp Baxter Springs | Fort Belmont
Fort Blair (1) | Fort Blair (2) | Camp Bull Creek | Camp Butler | Fort de Cavagnial
Fort Cavagnolle | Camp Center | C. Chouteau's Post | P. Chouteau Jr.'s Post | Fort Clinton
Camp Columbus | Camp Crawford | Camp Croghan | Camp Cuyler | Fort Defiance
Camp Drywood | Camp Ewing | Fort Folly | Fort Franklin | Camp Funston | Giraud's Post
Camp Halpine | Fort Henning | Camp Hooker | Fort Humboldt | Fort Insley | Fort Kansas (2)
Fort Kanses (1) | Kaw Point Fort | Camp at Kickapoo | Fort Lane (1) | J. Lane's Fort (2)
Leavenworth Arsenal | Cantonment Leavenworth | Fort Leavenworth | Fort Lecompton
Camp Leedy | Lexington Fort | Camp Limestone | Camp Lincoln | Fort Lincoln
Camp Lindsay | Camp Little Five Mile | Little Osage River Post | Camp Lookout
Camp McKean | Camp Magruder | Marais des Cygnes Post | Camp Martin
Cantonment Martin | Camp Marysville | Miami Valley Post | Post of the Missouri
Fort Montgomery (1) | Fort Montgomery (2) | Camp Moon | Plymouth Fort | Fort Riley
Fort Roach | Fort Row | Camp Sackett | Camp Sanger | Fort Saunders | Camp Scott | Fort Scott
Camp at Shawnee Mission | Fort Simple | Post of Southeastern Kansas | Camp Stanton
Camp Sully | Fort Sully | Camp Thompson | Fort Titus | Post at Topeka | Fort de la Trinité
Fort Ulysses | Fort Village | Fort Wakarusa | Camp Whitside

Western Kansas - page 2

KANSAS FORTS NETWORK
OLD WEST KANSAS FORTS

FORT WIKI - KANSAS

Last Update: 18/APRIL/2018
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2018 American Forts Network

Plymouth Fort
(1856), Brown County
A Free-Staters' stronghold on the Lane Trail. The community, once located three miles south of the state line, no longer exists. See also The Lane Trail from The Civil War Muse.com

Lexington Fort
(1856), Brown County
A Free-Staters' stronghold on the Lane Trail. The community, once located a few miles south of Plymouth, no longer exists. See also The Lane Trail from The Civil War Muse.com

Camp Martin
(1818 - 1820, 1826 - 1861 intermittent), near Atchison
The first American post in present-day Kansas. Established on Cow Island (aka Isle au Vache or Isle de Vache) in the Missouri River south of town. Also known as Cantonment Martin, and Fort Kansas (2). Re-established in 1826 as Camp Croghan, and abandoned in 1832. The site was again briefly garrisoned in 1847, 1856, and 1861.

Fort Kanses (1)
(unknown - 1759 ?), near Fort Leavenworth
A French fort located at the mouth of Salt Creek, about 12 miles north of present-day Fort Leavenworth, and about one mile from the Kansa village known to archaeologists as "Fort Village". It was in existance in 1757, but abandoned shortly thereafter. The ruins of this post were noted by Lewis and Clark in 1804. It is possible that this may be an alternate location for Fort de Cavagnial (see below), or its outpost.

Fort Leavenworth (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1827 - present), Leavenworth
Previously called Cantonment Leavenworth, the palisaded fort was built to protect eastern segments of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails, and became the main supply depot for all other western posts. Remnants of a loopholed stone wall (1827) still exist. The post was briefly occupied by Kickapoo Indians in the summer of 1829, and was given its current name in 1832. This is the oldest continually active military post west of the Mississippi River. This was the first permanent white settlement in the state, and once served as the territorial capital in 1854. Camp Lincoln was established here during the Civil War to train volunteers. The Leavenworth Arsenal was established in 1859. The Frontier Army Museum is currently located on post. The Army Prison Stockade was established here in 1875, now the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks. It is now the only major military prison serving all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces. Established in 1881 was the School of Application for Infantry and Cavalry, now known as the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Became a major training facility in WWI. A camp for the CCC was built here in 1933. NIKE missiles were emplaced here 1959 - 1969 (KC-80), on a site at Bell Point.
See also A Brief History of Fort Leavenworth (1983) by US Army Combined Arms Center

Located here, or near here, were other temporary posts which included Camp Bateman (1857 - 1858), Camp Magruder (1860), Camp Thompson (1858), and Fort Sully - also known as Camp Sully, a redoubt on Hanckock Hill, located west of the National Cemetery, that protected the main post in 1864. Camp Lindsay was a Spanish-American War muster-out camp in 1898.

Kaw Point Fort
(Lewis and Clark Historic Park)
(1804), Kansas City
A small temporary six-foot high log and brush stockade built in June 1804 by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, used to store supplies for several days after fearing an Indian attack. Lewis and Clark Trail interpretive markers located at Lewis and Clark Historic Park. The actual point of land at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers has shifted over time.

Fort de Cavagnial
(1744 - 1760 ?, 1764), Kansas City
Initially a small circular palisade, known as Post of the Missouri, or Fort de la Trinité. Later renamed and reconfigured as an 80-foot square palisade with bastions in each angle (two one-story and two two-story), a 30-foot by 20-foot two-story commander's house, two barracks, a guard house, and a 10-foot square powder magazine. All buildings were constructed of wooden stakes/posts covered with mud and bark. Known as Fort Cavagnolle to the British. Located on the Missouri River below the mouth of the Kansas River (across the river from present-day Kansas City Downtown Airport), it was the western-most post of New France. It was established by French traders and soldiers under Joseph Dervisseau, hoping to trade with the Spanish at Santa Fe, NM (a failure), and also with the Kansa, Wichita, and Pawnee Indians of the region. In 1758 the garrison was only one officer and seven or eight soldiers. The Spanish briefly took over the post in 1764, but it probably was already abandoned by the French before 1760. (NOTE: see also Fort Kanses (1) listed above)

Camp at Shawnee Mission
(Shawnee Mission State Historic Site)
(1857), Fairway
A temporary Federal encampment near the Methodist mission. The restored mission is located at 3403 West 53rd Street.

Cyprian Chouteau's Post
(1820's - 1855), near Kansas City ?
An American Fur Co. post on the south bank of the Kansas River north of Turner (location ?). It was destroyed by a flood in 1826. It was rebuilt later on a new site nearby. Peter Sarpy wintered over at this post in 1836 - 1837, gathering supplies to establish Fort Jackson in Colorado.

Fort Lane (1)
(1856 - 1857), Lawrence
A Free-Staters' stone-walled stronghold located at the present-day Kansas University campus on the eastern side of Mount Oread. Wooden buildings built here afterwards were burned by Confederate raiders in August 1863.

Camp Ewing
(1862), Lawrence
A Union training and recruiting post.

Camp Stanton (1862) was also nearby.

Camp Lookout
(1864), Lawrence
A Union observation camp and gun battery located at the present-day Kansas University campus on the summit of Mount Oread. Fort Ulysses was the proposed name of an uncompleted fort here after the gun battery was already emplaced (August 1864). No remains.

Fort Wakarusa
(1855), near Lawrence
A Free-Staters' blockhouse during the Wakarusa War of December 1855. Located about five miles southwest of town on the Wakarusa River.

Fort Clinton
(1840 - 1850), Clinton
A Federal cavalry post.

Fort Defiance
(1855 - 1857 ?), Douglas County
Probably located somewhere along the Wakarusa River. It was kept in use for several years, but was abandoned before the Civil War broke out.

Fort Saunders
(1856), near Clinton
A Pro-Slavers' log fort captured and burned by Free-Staters in August 1856. Located about four miles southeast of town on a bluff on the east bank of Washington Creek.

Fort Titus
(1856), Lecompton
Pro-Slaver leader Col. Henry T. Titus' fortified log cabin located about two miles south of town on the east bank of Coon Creek. After the burning of Lawrence it was the site of a battle between the Free-Staters and Pro-Slavers (August 1856). The cabin was burned down and the fort destroyed. The cabin has been reconstructed in a park near Lane University and the Territorial Capital Museum.

Fort Lecompton
(1855 - 1856), Lecompton
A reference to the fortified town as a whole, not a specific structure. The town was declared the territorial capital by the Pro-Slavers in 1855.

Camp Sackett
(1856), near Lecompton
A U.S. Army Cavalry tent camp located about 3.5 miles southwest of town. They were sent here from Fort Leavenworth and Fort Riley to try to keep the peace between the Free-Staters and Pro-Slavers.

Fort Simple
(Old Stockade Site)
(1863 - 1866), Topeka
Also called Fort Folly. It was a roofless log stockade built by civilians for protection from Confederate raiders. It was never attacked. It was left standing for several years before it was dismantled. A plaque embedded in the sidewalk at 6th Street and Kansas Avenue marks the location.

Camp Crawford
(1868), Topeka
Created by and named after the governor after declaring a state of emergency during Indian troubles. The two legislative halls in the old state house were initially used as barracks for the volunteer force until a large tent camp extended from 2nd to 5th Streets.

Post at Topeka
(1857, 1883), Topeka
Temporary Army garrisons were maintained within the city.

Camp Leedy
(1898), Topeka
A Spanish-American War state muster camp located at the old Fairgrounds at 17th Street and Topeka Ave., now the Kansas Expocenter.

Jim Lane's Fort (2)
(1856), Holton
A Free-Staters' fortified log cabin located at the present-day Central Elementary School at 401 New Jersey Ave..

Fort Riley (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1853 - present), Junction City
Previously called Camp Center due to being located near the geographical center, at the time, of the United States. It was also called Camp Moon, and given its current name in 1853. It was built to protect eastern segments of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails. Permanent stone buildings were constructed beginning in 1855. In 1891 the fort became a cavalry and field artillery school. Located here is the U.S. Army Cavalry Museum.

The first territorial capital (1855) was located at Pawnee Flats, which is now within the modern military reservation. The original two-story stone building still stands. Camp Sanger (1902 - 1903) was later established at Pawnee Flats for field maneuvers. Camp Funston (1917 - 1920), a National Army cantonment training site and demobilization center for the 89th Division, was created on the eastern side of the Fort Riley reservation. All buildings were removed by 1925. Two monuments to Camp Funston are located on Huebner Ave. Camp Whitside, a National Guard camp established at Fort Riley in 1924, was converted into the hospital cantonment during World War II. Camp Forsyth was established on the western side of Fort Riley (Republican Flats) in 1940 and was used for the Cavalry Replacement Training Center after 1941.
1957 Kansas Historical Quarterly article - part 1 || 1958 Kansas Historical Quarterly article - part 2

Camp Marysville
(1857), Marysville
A temporary Army encampment near the Oto Indian Agency (1854 - 1881) near Barneston, NE.

Camp Bull Creek
(1856), near Paola
Established by pro-slavery forces from Missouri. Quickly abandoned when they learned they were to be attacked by the Free-Staters.

Camp Halpine
(1862), Osawatomie
A temporary Civil War encampment.

Miami Valley Post
(1861 ?), Miami County
A temporary Army post on or near Miami Creek. Possibly a reference to Camp Halpine (?).

Pierre Chouteau Jr.'s Trading Post
(Marais des Cynges State Historic Site)
(1834 - 1861 ?), Trading Post
A Northwestern Co. fur post (not to be confused with the Canadian North West Company). Also called Michel Giraud's Trading Post. Pierre Jr. was the son of Auguste Pierre. Became an Army post during a time in 1842. Chouteau sold the post to Phillip Avery in 1848.

This may also be the location of Auguste Pierre Chouteau's Marais des Cygnes Post (1825) that was operated by Cyprian Chouteau and Francis Guesseau. This was also probably the site of the Federal government's fur-trade warehouse (Indian Factory) (Little) Osage River Post (1819 - 1822).

In May 1858 five Free-State men were murdered near here by a pro-slavery gang from Missouri in the so-called "Marais des Cynges Massacre". A few weeks after the incident, John Brown built a fortified two-story log house here, which was used through the summer. The extant stone Hadsall House was then built here soon after.

Fort Montgomery (1)
(Mound City Historical Park)
(1856 - 1858), near Mound City
The fortified two-story log cabin of Free-Stater Col. James Montgomery, located about five miles west of town. Replica cabin built in 2000 at the Mound City Historical Park, located at 700 Main Street.

Fort Bain
(1857 - 1858), near Fulton
A fortified log cabin built by Free-Staters on the north side of the Little Osage River, about one mile west of town. Also known as Capt. Oliver Bain's Fort.

Fort Lincoln
(1861 - 1864/1879), Fulton
A log stockade and blockhouse, used primarily as a Confederate POW camp. The blockhouse was relocated in 1864 to a new site three miles northwest of Fort Scott.

Fort Scott (National Historic Site)
(1842 - 1853, 1862 - 1865, 1869 - 1873), Fort Scott
Originally called Camp Scott until 1843. Initially garrisoned by the troops from Fort Wayne, OK. Abandoned for Fort Riley and other posts when the frontier moved west, but reactivated in 1862 as a stockaded fort with three detached two-story log blockhouses with earthwork batteries, each with its own name; Fort Henning, Fort Insley, and Fort Blair (1). The Fort Blair Blockhouse, rebuilt in 1958, is now located in Blair Park. The Fort Henning blockhouse once stood at present-day First Street and Scott Ave.. It was sold and relocated after the Civil War. The post was re-occupied again in 1869, known as Post of Southeastern Kansas, to stop settlers from settling on Cherokee lands in Indian Territory, and to guard railroad construction crews. Many of the original buildings have been restored or reconstructed. The Headquarters House was restored in 1939. The former parade ground is now Carroll Plaza. The National Cemetery was established in 1862.

Located nearby in 1858 was Camp Cuyler, which lasted only one month. Also located nearby in late 1864 was Camp McKean, a temporary encampment occupied by Wisconsin cavalry.

Fort Humboldt
(1862 or 1863), Humboldt
A Union post consisting of Kansas Volunteers and other state militia troops.

Camp at Kickapoo
(1858), Allen County
A Federal encampment at the Kickapoo Indian villages.

Fort Belmont
(1864 - 1865), Buffalo
A stage station fortified by the Army during the Civil War, with barracks and an earthen redoubt. The Osage and Creek Indian Agencies were also briefly located here (or nearby) in 1864. Site located two miles west of town. No remains. Osage Chief Hapo, who fought for the Union during the Civil War, is buried in an unmarked grave, along with possibly others, in an area near the fort used as a campsite by the Osages.

Fort Row
(1861 - 1862), Coyville
A Union stockaded post with three blockhouses, located about three miles south of town.

Fort Montgomery (2)
(1861 - 1869), Eureka
A local militia fort.

Camp Drywood
(1871), near Englevale
A temporary Army post to protect the railroad south of Fort Scott.

Fort Franklin
(1856), Franklin
A blockhouse occupied by pro-slavery forces. They were attacked and defeated by free-state forces. The blockhouse was built adjacent to the town's post office.

Camp Limestone
(1871), near Pittsburg
A temporary Army post located on Limestone Creek to protect the railroad south of Fort Scott.

Camp Columbus
(1871), Columbus
A temporary Army post to protect the railroad south of Fort Scott.

Fort Blair (2)
(1862 - 1863), Baxter Springs
A Union post made of logs and sod-covered earthworks. Originally a field encampment named Camp Baxter Springs until enlarged and renamed in 1863. Also called Fort Baxter. Other named encampments in the vicinity were Camp Little Five Mile (1862) near the Spring River, Camp Joe Hooker (1863), and Camp Ben Butler (1863). The "Baxter Springs Massacre" took place here in October 1863 by Confederate forces under William Quantrill against a Union troop column. On site is a reconstruction of one of the log cabins.

Fort Roach
(no date), Ladore
The town was originally named after its founder J.N. Roach, who wanted the railroad to come through here. There was no actual "Fort Roach". Located just south of the Neosho County line near Parsons.


Special thanks to Marshall Sitrin for providing information on several U.S. Army posts and fortified stage stations throughout Kansas.

Western Kansas - page 2

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