American Forts: West


Post at Abiquiu | Abo Plazuela | Camp Alamo Vejo | Albuquerque Post | Albuquerque Presidio
Algodones Depot | Camp at Anton Chico | Camp at Baird's Ranch | Fort Barclay (1)
Fort Barclay (2) | Barclay's Fort (1) | Barclay's Fort (2) | Fort Bascom | Camp Bassett
Post at Beck's Ranch | Blanco Trading Post | Cantonment Burgwin | Fort Burgwin | Fort Butler
Camp in Cañon Largo | Camp near Casa Colorado | Post at Ceboletta | Chimayó
Camp in Chusco Valley | Cimarron Post | Cuarteles | Post at Cubero | Camp Easton
Fort El Gallo | Fort Fauntleroy | Camp at Fernando de Taos | Fort Fernando de Taos
Post at Galisteo | Camp at Hatch's Ranch | Station at Hubbel's Ranch | Post at Jemez
Camp at Johnson's Ranch | Post at Laguna | Las Golondrinas Rancho | Las Trampas
Las Vegas Post | Post at Lazuma | Camp Lewis | Camp Lincoln | Camp Loring
Camp at Los Lunas | Post of Los Lunas | Los Pinos Depot | Camp Los Poros
Camp at Los Valles | Fort Lowell | Camp Luna | Fort Lyon | Manzano Torreón | Fort Marcy
Cantonment Mason (1) | Camp Miles | Camp Mule Spring | Camp Navajo Springs
Presidio of New Mexico | Camp Niggerhead Spring | Station at Ocate | Camp Otero
Post at Paraje | Camp Peralta | Camp at Pigeon's Ranch | Camp Pleasant Springs
Camp Plummer | Quarai Torreón | Camp Rabbit Ear Creek | Post at Rayado
Post at Santa Fe | Presidio of Santa Fe | San Miguel Mission | Camp Shoeneman | Star Fort
Fort Sumner | Post of Taos | Camp Tecolate | Camp Tome | Truchas | Camp Tuni-Cha
Fort Union | Camp Vigilance | Fort Wingate (1) | Fort Wingate (2) | Wingate Ordnance Depot

Southern New Mexico - page 2


Last Update: 12/OCTOBER/2014
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2014 American Forts Network

Fort Lowell
(1866 - 1869), near Tierra Amarilla
Located on the Rio Chama southwest of town. Originally named Camp Plummer until 1868. Became the Ute and Apache Indian Agency in 1872, and then consolidated with the Pueblo Indian Agency in 1878. The Agency was closed in 1881.

Camp Navajo Springs
(1864), near Canjilon
Located about five miles northeast of town.

Post at Abiquiu
(1849, 1850 - 1851), Abiquiu
Initially a post of the volunteer Santa Fe Guards, then later a temporary Dragoon garrison post using rented adobe buildings in the town.

(1696 ?), Cuarteles
A small community located between Santa Cruz and Chimayó, originally established sometime between 1695 and 1705 as a Spanish military headquarters for the local region.

(1696/1740), Chimayó
This settlement is the last remaining colonial town in New Mexico with the original defensive plaza plan (Plaza del Cerro) still intact, although many of its core structures are partially abandoned and neglected. The plaza chapel, Oratorio de San Buenaventura, is open by appointment. The Chimayó Museum is also located in the plaza, as well as the Rancho Manzana B&B inn.

(1754), Truchas
The Spanish settlement San Fernando y Santiago del Rio de las Truchas was originally enclosed by a defensive adobe wall (plaza).

Las Trampas
(1751), Las Trampas
The Spanish settlement Santo Tomás del Río de las Trampas was originally enclosed by a defensive adobe wall (plaza), remnants of the original plaza still remain. The imposing Church of San José de Gracia was built in 1763.

Camp Loring
(1858), near Questa ?
A Federal encampment located on the Red River.

Post of Taos
(1847 - 1852, 1860 - 1861, 1865), Taos
A Federal garrison was established here in 1848 after the Mexican-American War. Originally called Camp at Fernando de Taos in 1847 when Missouri Volunteers occupied rented adobe buildings. Also known as Fort Fernando de Taos.

Fort Burgwin
(1852 - 1860), Ranchos de Taos
A reconstructed Dragoon log fort originally called Cantonment Burgwin. Located 10 miles south of Taos, it was built to protect the wagon road between Santa Fe and Taos. Site now occupied by the SMU-in-Taos Fort Burgwin Research Center (1964), a summer satellite campus of Southern Methodist University.

Cimarron Post
(1851), Cimarron
A Dragoon post on the Santa Fe Trail.

Post at Rayado
(1850 - 1851, 1854), Rayado
A Dragoon post located about 12 miles south of Cimarron on the Santa Fe Trail. The post initially consisted of rented quarters at the mansion of Lucien Maxwell. The town was regarrisoned in 1854. Of interest here is the Kit Carson Museum operated by the Philmont Boy Scout Ranch.

Station at Ocate
(1851 - 1854), Ocate

Fort Union (National Monument)
(1851 - 1894), near Watrous
Three forts were located here. The first post consisted of several log buildings (1851 - 1861), but was deemed inadequately sited for military purposes. The second was an eight-pointed star-shaped earthwork called Star Fort (1861 - 1862), located across Coyote Creek about one mile away, built to defend against a possible Confederate attack. The attack never came and it was later abandoned. The third was an extensive adobe fort begun in 1863 just north of the earthwork fort and took six years to complete. It was the largest post in the Southwest. The third post's ordnance depot (1863 - 1882) occupied the site of the earlier log fort. Abandoned in 1891 and left under caretakers for three more years. The site of the third post and the ordnance depot lies in ruin, covering about 80 acres. Visible traces of the earthwork fort also still remain. Located near the junction of the Mountain and Cimarron branches of the Santa Fe Trail.

Camp Lincoln
(1865 - 1866), near Fort Union ?

Alexander Barclay's Fort (2)
(1849 - 1854), near Watrous
A civilian two-story adobe trading post with two circular bastions, enclosed by a 64-foot square palisade, located on the Santa Fe Trail along the right side of the Mora River, about one mile upstream from the Sapello River. Also known as Fort Barclay (2). Joseph Doyle was Barclay's trading partner here. Barclay sold the post to Samuel Watrous in February 1853. The remains of the post were destroyed by a spring flood circa 1900.

Camp in Cañon Largo
(1863), Ancon
A temporary NM Volunteers post located about 20 miles southeast of Fort Union, where the Mora and Canadian Rivers meet in San Miguel County. Used against the Comanche Indians.

Camp Rabbit Ear Creek
(1864), near Clayton
Located north of town near Rabbit Ear Mountain.

Fort Butler
(1860 - 1861), near Conchas
A Federal post authorized and named in official orders as the replacement for Fort Union. It was to be located on the Canadian River near Mesa Rica, about 60 miles east of Hatch's Ranch, and about 12 miles from the future site of Fort Bascom. It was never actually built, although troops for the garrison were selected, a post sutler was authorized, and a 120 square mile reservation was platted. See also Fort Union Historic Resource Study

Fort Bascom
(1863 - 1870), near Tucumcari
Located on the south bank of the Canadian River, eight miles north of town. It was originally called Camp Easton until 1864. The Officers' quarters were built of stone, the rest of the post was adobe. The garrison was transferred to Fort Union.

Just to the south was a winter campsite used by the troops for one season (year ?), known as Camp Bassett.

Fort Sumner (State Historic Site)
(Bosque Redondo Memorial at Fort Sumner)
(Friends of the Bosque Redondo Memorial)
(1862 - 1869), near Village of Fort Sumner
A trading post was first located here in 1851. The Apache and Navajo were confined here by Col. Kit Carson beginning in 1863. However, control of the Bosque Redondo Indian Reservation was deemed a failure, as the Apaches unilaterally left in 1865, and the Navajos were allowed back to their homeland in 1868. The fort was discontinued soon after that, and was then sold to Lucien Maxwell, who converted the Officers' Quarters into his new house. Billy the Kid was killed here in July 1881 and his gravesite is nearby at the Old Fort Sumner Military Cemetery. Maxwell's heirs sold the property, and it was later abandoned in 1894. Most of the site has since been damaged by floodwaters of the Pecos River.
Of interest in town at 1435 East Sumner Ave. is the Billy the Kid Museum (admission fee). Also of interest is the Old Fort Sumner Museum (admission fee) at 3501 Billy the Kid Road. Both museums deal mostly with the legends of Billy the Kid, and less on the actual military fort.

Post at Beck's Ranch
(1859 - 1860), near Santa Rosa
A temporary military outpost located two miles northeast of town.

Camp at Anton Chico
(1863 - 1864), Anton Chico
A temporary post garrisoned by the CA Volunteer Cavalry.

Camp at (Alexander) Hatch's Ranch
(1859 - 1864, intermittent), near Dilia
Leased by the Army as a convenient supply stop from Fort Union. Located 12 miles northeast of town on the west bank of the Gallinas River, about 25 miles southeast of Las Vegas. The main house (115 x 288 feet) was adobe, surrounded by a 10-foot high adobe wall. Remnants of stone walls and foundations are located on Park Springs Ranch (private property).

Camp Tecolate
(1850 - 1860, 1870 ?), Tecolote
A foraging camp for Fort Union, located just south of Romeroville.

Las Vegas Post
(1846 - 1851), Las Vegas
Initially garrisoned by MO and IL Volunteers until 1848, then became U.S. Military Headquarters in the territory until Fort Union was established. The post consisted of rented quarters.

Alexander Barclay's Fort (1)
(1848 - 1854), Las Vegas
A civilian trading post, also known as Fort Barclay (1). Barclay sold the post in 1854.

Camp Luna
(1904 - 1945 ?), near Las Vegas
A NM National Guard summer training area, known under several different names until 1929. Federalized in 1942 for WWII training. Post-war status undetermined.

Camp Lewis
(Pecos National Historical Park)
(1862), near Pecos
A Union (Colorado Volunteers) encampment at Martin Kozlowski's Ranch, located at the eastern end of the Glorieta Pass on the Santa Fe Trail. The Battle of Glorieta Pass (March 1862) was just west of here. The ranch site, on NM 50, is part of the Pecos National Historical Park (NPS).

Camp at Pigeon's Ranch
(Pecos National Historical Park - Glorieta Pass Unit)
(1862), near Glorieta
Colorado Volunteers encamped here prior to the Battle of Apache Canyon (March 26, 1862). The Battle of Glorieta Pass occurred here on March 28, 1862. The ranch was used as a Confederate hospital after the battle, one sod building still exists adjacent to the highway (I-25/US 85/US 84). The battle site and interpretive trail were reopened to the general public in 2009, as a unit of the Pecos National Historical Park (NPS). "Pigeon" was the nickname of ranch owner Alexander Valle.

Camp at Johnson's Ranch
(1862), Cañoncito
A Confederate encampment at Johnson's Ranch, located at the western end of the Glorieta Pass on the Santa Fe Trail, near Apache Canyon. Attacked by Colorado Volunteers under Major John Chivington as a sideline to the Battle of Glorieta Pass (March 1862), where the Confederate supply train was destroyed, forcing the Confederates to retreat back to Texas, via the Rio Grande.

Presidio of Santa Fe
(New Mexico History Museum)
(1610 - 1680, 1692 - 1846), Santa Fe
Originally named La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco. Built to protect the Mission de San Miguel (built from 1610-25). The chapel of the mission was fortified in 1710. The fortified complex was abandoned by the Spanish and occupied by Pueblo Indians during the Pueblo Revolt in 1680. Recaptured by Spain in 1692. The presidio was then rebuilt and named Presidio de Exaltación de la Cruz del Nuevo México (aka Presidio of New Mexico). It was then garrisoned by 100 soldiers, making it the largest military post in all of northern New Spain at that time. Also known as El Real Presidio de Nuestra Señora de los Remedios y la Exaltación de la Santa Cruz. The Palace of Governors is located at the heart of the old presidio complex, now the Santa Fe Plaza. Fortified barracks were north of the Palace. The Plaza de Armas outside the Palace later became part of Fort Marcy (see below). The San Miguel Mission still stands. See also El Camino Real National Historic Trail from NPS

Santa Fe was the capital of the Spanish province of Nuevo México beginning in 1610. Since it continues to be the state capital, this makes the city the oldest continuous seat of civil government in the United States (older than Boston, MA, 1630).

Of interest just south of the city at 334 Los Pinos Road is El Rancho de las Golondrinas, a restored Spanish colonial ranch and living history museum. Admission fee. One feature is a restored defensive adobe tower (el torreón). A second tower has also recently been discovered here. See also The Torreón from The Radula

Fort Marcy
(El Camino Real National Historic Trail)
(1846 - 1867, 1875 - 1894), Santa Fe
This was the first American fort built in this state, also referred to as Post at Santa Fe. Located on a hill about 650 yards northeast of the site of the Presidio, it was an earthwork with an adobe blockhouse, a dry moat, and mounted 13 guns. The troops and officers were originally quartered in the old presidio compound. The post was briefly abandoned when the Confederates invaded New Mexico in 1862. It was reoccupied by NM Volunteers soon after. The post was ordered abandoned in 1867 but somehow the military forgot this and when a relief garrison was sent in 1875, the commander reported that there was no post at Fort Marcy. The government then re-established the fort. The new post was established in the old presidio compound, the area bounded by present-day Federal Street and Palace Avenue, and Washington and Grant Aves.. The post was finally abandoned in 1894. Two Officers' Quarters still remain, one located at 116 Lincoln Ave., although it has undergone external modification, and the other located at 135 Grant Ave.. The modern Fort Marcy Hotel now covers most of the original hilltop site, located at 321 Kearney Road. Old Fort Marcy Park is a municipal natural area adjacent to the hotel complex, at 617 Paseo de Peralta, with traces of earthen mounds.

Camp Otero
(1898), Santa Fe
A Spanish-American War muster camp of the Rough Riders, located on the grounds of the former Fort Marcy.

Post at Galisteo
(1851 - 1858, intermittent), Galisteo
Initially a Dragoon horse and mule grazing camp until 1852, then used as an intermittent garrison post.

Post at Cubero
(1862), near Domingo
A small temporary garrison of NM Volunteers guarding ordnance stores, captured by the CSA in March 1862. Located five miles southwest of town, on the Rio Grande between the Santo Domingo and San Felipe Pueblos.

Algodones Quartermaster Depot
(1851), Algodones
A temporary Army supply depot in rented buildings. Abandoned because of the expense.

Post at Jemez
(1849), Jemez Pueblo
A temporary Army post.

Post of Albuquerque
(1846 - 1851, 1852 - 1867), Albuquerque
Initially a Dragoon garrison post. Temporarily abandoned in 1851, it was regarrisoned and became department headquarters in 1852, supporting a quartermaster depot in rented adobe buildings. Captured by the Confederates in 1862, with a gun battery set up in the town square (plaza).

A Spanish Presidio was established here in 1706, and the Mexicans also had a military presence here after 1821.

Camp Miles
(1898), Albuquerque
A Spanish-American War assembly camp for state troops was proposed here, but never actually established.

Camp Vigilance
(1852, 1853), near Albuquerque
A temporary Dragoon and infantry encampment. Exact location undetermined.

Camp at Baird's Ranch
(1866), near Albuquerque ?

Los Pinos Depot
(1860/1862 - 1866), Bosque Farms
A Union quartermaster depot and remount station occupying rented quarters. Originally established in 1860 as Camp at Peralta, or Camp Peralta.

Camp at Los Lunas
(1852, 1859 - 1860, 1862), Los Lunas
A Dragoon post prior to the Civil War. Also known as Post of Los Lunas. Abandoned and reoccupied several times.

Camp Tome
(1848), Tome
A temporary Army tent camp, a 20-man detachment from the Post of Albuquerque. Located on the east bank of the Rio Grande.

Camp near Casa Colorado
(1855), near Belen
A Federal encampment. Located about five miles southeast of town, on the east bank of the Rio Grande.

Manzano Torreón
(1840's), Manzano
A Mexican settlers' stone defensive tower once protected the settlement from Apache raids. No remains.

Quarai Torreón
(Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument - Quarai Unit)
(1840's), Punta
The stabilized ruins of a Mexican settlers' stone/adobe defensive tower are located at the Quarai Pueblo Mission site. See also

Abo Plazuela
(Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument - Abo Unit)
(c. 1815 - 1830), Abo
The stabilized ruins of a Mexican settlers' fortified adobe compound (plazuela) and torreón are located at the Abo Pueblo Mission site. See also

Post at Laguna
(1851 - 1852), Laguna
A temporary Dragoon post that replaced the Post at Ceboletta. Transferred to Fort Defiance, Arizona.

Post at Ceboletta
(1850 - 1851), Cebolleta
A Dragoon post established to curb the illegal gun and whiskey trade to the Indians. Spelling variations include Cebolleta, Cibolleta, Sebolleta, Seboyeta, Seyboyeta.

Post at Paraje
(1862), Paraje
A Union 45-man garrison post. Attacked by the CSA (Texas Cavalry) in May 1862.

Fort Wingate (1)
(1862 - 1868), San Rafael
A Federal infantry post at Ojo del Gallo used in Col. Kit Carson's 1863 Navajo Campaign. Also known as Fort El Gallo. The garrison was moved from Fort Lyon (see below), but in 1868 was moved back to its original location.

Fort Wingate (2) (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1860 - 1862, 1868 - 1918/1993/2010), Fort Wingate
Originally named Fort Fauntleroy until 1861, then renamed Fort Lyon because the person it was originally named for had become a Confederate officer. In 1862 the garrison was moved 50 miles east and the new post was renamed Fort Wingate (see above). In 1868 the post was moved back to its original location at Ojo del Oso (Bear Spring), while still retaining the same name. After 1882 the post was headquarters for many archaeological and ethnological expeditions in the region. In 1914 about 4000 Mexican troops and civilians that fled Mexico during the Pancho Villa War were temporarily housed here. In 1925 a portion of the post was used as a school for Navajo Indians. The Wingate Ordnance Depot was established here in 1918. Renamed Fort Wingate Ordnance Depot in 1960, and Fort Wingate Army Depot in 1962. The Ordnance Depot was closed in 1993. About half of the original reservation has been transferred to the Navajo and Zuni Nations for commercial and recreational use. In 1995 over 6400 acres of the former post was classified as a subpost of the White Sands Missile Range for ballistic missile testing until 2010.

Camp in Chusco Valley
(1858), near Mexican Springs
A temporary Army field camp during the Navajo Campaign. Also spelled Chuska. Located northwest of Tohatchi.

Camp Tuni-Cha
(1858), near Sheep Springs
A temporary Army infantry outpost in the Tuni-Cha Valley.

NEED MORE INFO: Blanco Trading Post (date ?) near Nageezi.
Towns: Torreon in western Sandoval County; Torreon in western Torrance County.

Undetermined locations: Camp Alamo Vejo (1885); Station at Hubbel's Ranch (1861) in "Navajo Country"; Post at Lazuma (1851); Camp Los Poros (1860); Camp at Los Valles (1863) 49 miles from Santa Fe; Cantonment Mason (1) (1855); Camp Mule Spring (1856); Camp Niggerhead Spring (1855); Camp Pleasant Springs (1855); Camp Shoeneman (1867). Some of these may be located in Arizona.

Southern New Mexico - page 2

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