American Forts: West


Camp Arbuckle (1) | Camp Arbuckle (2) | Fort Arbuckle (1) | Fort Arbuckle (2)
Camp Armstrong | Barbour and Brand's Post | Fort Blunt | Boggy Depot Camp | Bogy's Post
Bougie's Post | Camp Brassie | Camp Brookin | Camp Canadian | Camp Cass | Cedar Camp
Chickasaw Agency Post | Camp Choctaw | Fort Coffee | Coffee's Post (3)
Cross Timbers Camp | Fort near Crossing of Washita River | Cantonment Davis | Fort Davis
Fort Edwards | Edwards' Trading Post | Camp Fillmore | Camp Frank | Fort Gaines
Camp at Fort Gibson | Cantonment Gibson | Fort Gibson | Glenn's Post | Grand River Post
Grand Saline Post | Camp Holmes (1) | Fort Holmes | Camp Illinois | Camp Imochiah
Camp Jackson | Camp Jumper | Camp Kagi | La Saline Post | Camp Leavenworth
Love's Post | Fort McCulloch | Camp McDaniel | Camp Neosho | Neosho Post (1)
Neosho Post (2) | Camp Osage | Perryville Depot | Camp Phoenix | Camp Pike
Camp Prairie Springs | Pryor's Post | Camp at Purcell | Camp Quapaw | Camp Recovery
Camp Rendezvous | Camp Ross | Post at Ross' Landing | Camp Smith | Fort Spunky
Camp Steele | Camp Tiger | Three Forks Post | Cantonment Towson | Fort Towson
Verdigris River Post | Warren's Post (1) | Camp Washita | Fort Washita
Camp near Fort Washita | Camp Wattles | Fort Wayne | Western Creek Agency
Wigwam Neosho

Western Oklahoma - page 2


Last Update: 14/SEPTEMBER/2019
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - 2019 American Forts Network

NOTE: Known as Indian Territory beginning in 1824, later joining with Oklahoma Territory (the western half of Indian Territory split off in 1890) for combined statehood in 1907.

Camp Quapaw
(1863), near Quapaw ?
A CSA encampment at "Hudson's Crossing". Location undetermined, possibly a reference to a ford on the old "Texas Road" across either the Neosho or the Spring Rivers, or Hudson's Creek south of Miami.

Neosho Post (1)
(1825 - 1830's), near Miami ?
A trading post on the Neosho River built by Pierre Millicour Papin (cousin to Auguste Pierre Chouteau) and Michel Giraud. Located about 50 miles upriver from Salina. This was a subpost of the Grand River Post, being closer to the Osage villages along the Neosho River within present-day Kansas.

Fort Wayne
(1838 - 1842, 1848, 1861 - 1862), near Maysville, AR
Origionally called Camp Illinois and located at a site on the Illinois River about two miles north of Watts. The temporary post, then just a collection of hutments, was later moved about 20 miles north in 1840 due to unhealthful conditions, to a new site just outside Maysville, Arkansas, east of Jay near the state line, north of Spavinaw (Flag) Creek, and was sooned renamed. Several frame barracks within a log stockade were built. Abandoned for Fort Scott, Kansas as the post was considered by the Army as too far out of the way. In 1848 the fort was at the center of the Cherokee Nation split between John Ross and Stand Watie. Confederate Cherokee troops also used it briefly during the Civil War. No remains, private property.

Grand River Post (Memorial)
(1817 - 1837), Salina
The oldest permanent white settlement in the state (La Saline or Grand Saline), established at a group of salt springs on the Neosho (aka Grand) River by half-Osage Joseph Rivar (Revoir) and others. A trading post (aka La Saline Post or Grand Saline Post) was built by Paul Liguest Chouteau (brother to Auguste Pierre Chouteau) in cooperation with Rivar. Rivar was killed by Western Cherokee Indians in June 1821, forcing the closure of the post. Auguste Pierre Chouteau moved into Rivar's former home in September 1822 and re-established trading operations. The Salina High School is now located on the site of the Rivar/Chouteau house, and a blockhouse (built in 1840's by the Eastern Cherokees under John Ross) encloses the old spring. A marker is also located on Main Street. In 1830 the Grand Saline settlement was described as two separate parcels; one parcel of 97 acres containing three log houses 16-feet square, one double log house at 16x32 feet, two log houses 14-feet square, and a fenced orchard of 76 peach trees. The second parcel of 21 acres, below the first, contained a log trading house at 18x16 feet, a 12x12 foot log stable, a 16x13 foot log house, a 6x10 foot corn crib, a 9x10 foot hen house, and a 12x13 foot log house. There were 21 families reportedly living here at that time, those not residing in log houses living "in their Indian lodges".

Camp Wattles
(1862 - 1863), near Pryor
A CSA encampment near the mouth of Pryor Creek.

Verdigris River Post
(1795 or 1796, 1806), Nowata or Rogers Counties
The first trading post built in present-day Oklahoma, by brothers Pierre Chouteau Sr. and Auguste, located at or near the Osage villages on the Verdigris River in either present-day Nowata or Rogers Counties (undetermined location). Closed after one season, it was reopened in 1806 for another season, most likely somewhere in present-day Rogers County.

Fort Spunky
(1880 - 1883), Catoosa
A fortified farmhouse on Spunky Creek that served as a mail/stage station before the arrival of the railroad. Some ruins (brick chimney) remain. A marker is located on US/OK 66 at the old Blue Whale Park, about 0.5 mile northeast of the site.

Camp McDaniel
(1861), Owasso
A Union encampment.

Fort Arbuckle (1)
(Keystone Lake Project)
(1834), near Sand Springs
A temporary Federal post on the Arkansas River during the 1834 Leavenworth Expedition, officially called Camp Arbuckle (1) or Cedar Camp, it was abandoned after only five months. Located near where the present-day Keystone Dam now stands, it consisted of a palisaded blockhouse and several cabins. Exact site now under water, reportedly located three miles east of the old Keystone townsite. Keystone Lake was impounded in 1962 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Camp Recovery
(1834), near Clarksville
A Federal encampment (log barracks) built after the 1834 Leavenworth Expedition was completed, for three Dragoon companies. Site located about five miles south of Porter along the Arkansas River.

Col. Hugh Glenn's Post
(1820 - 1821), near Okay
A small stockaded trading post located about one mile up the Verdigris River from its mouth, on the east bank. Glenn was partnered with Charles Dennis during the summer of 1820, but left in the fall of 1821 with Jacob Fowler on a trapping expedition to the upper Arkansas River in present-day Colorado.

Nathaniel Pryor's Post
(1820 - 1831 ?), near Okay
An independent trading post located about one-half mile upriver from Glenn's Post, also on the east bank. Samuel Richards was Pryor's trading partner at the time. Pryor died at his home (here ?) in June 1831.

Joseph Bogy's Post
(1806), near Okay
A short-lived post in the "Three Forks" area, established by a Frenchman (alt. sp. Bougie) from Arkansas Post, AR, for trade with the Osage. It was attacked and destroyed by a party of Choctaws who were enemies of the Osage.

Hugh Love's Post
(1833), near Okay
An independent trading post located on the west bank of the Verdigris River, across from the (Western) Creek Agency. Destroyed by the 1833 flood soon afterwards. Love then bought out A.P. Chouteau's Three Forks Post, but was forced out by the government for not having a valid trading license.

Three Forks Post
(1820 - 1833), near Okay
Originally built and operated by Capt. Henry Barbour and George Brand (Barbour and Brand's Post), it consisted of 10 or 12 log cabins and a ferry service, located at the Falls of the Verdigris River, about four miles upriver from its junction with the Arkansas and Neosho (Grand) Rivers, about one-half mile south of town. Auguste Pierre Chouteau bought out Barbour and Brand in early 1823. Chouteau also established a barge and canoe boat yard on the west bank of the river just downstream from the ferry. Several of Chouteau's buildings on the east bank of the river were bought in 1826 by the Federal government for use as the (Western) Creek Indian Agency. The trading post and Indian Agency were destroyed by a flood in 1833. After the flood, A.P. Chouteau sold his interest in the property to Hugh Love, who soon left after he could not obtain a new trading license. The Indian Agency was then relocated west across the river to McIntosh Town until 1851.

Wigwam Neosho
(1829 - 1833), near Okay
A log cabin trading store set up by Sam Houston before he moved to Texas. Located at the junction of the old "Texas Road" and the former military road to Fort Gibson. Unmarked site located about two miles southeast of town, no remains. Also called Neosho Post (2).

Camp Neosho
(1850), Okay
A Federal Army encampment.

Fort Davis
(1861 - 1862), Bacone
A CSA base of operations for the area. Also known as Cantonment Davis. Abandoned, it was then destroyed by Union troops in December 1862. Site is near the campus of Bacone Indian College one mile east of town.

Fort Gibson (Historic Site and Military Park)
(1824 - 1901, intermittent), Fort Gibson
The first Federal fort built in Indian Territory, originally known as Cantonment Gibson until 1832. The fort was enlarged in 1831. The post was briefly abandoned in 1836 for Fort Towson during the Texan War of Independence. It was abandoned again in 1845 because of flooding, and construction of a new post was begun on a nearby hill in 1847. Only one building was completed by 1857 and the fort was abandoned again, turned over to the Cherokee Nation. The Confederates briefly used this fort early in the Civil War, but the Union reclaimed it in 1863. Union troops built a mile long 18-gun earthwork called Fort Blunt on a hill above the fort. Became a Quartermaster Depot in 1871. The post was abandoned in 1890, reoccupied in 1897 as Camp at Fort Gibson, and again in 1901. The state park includes a 1936 replica of the 1824 log fort and stockade, and original 1870 barracks and other buildings. Admission fee. The 1867 Garrett Historic Home, originally the Commanding Officer's Residence, is now private property at 504 East Coppinger Ave.. A few other buildings also still remain in private hands. See also Town of Fort Gibson Historical Sites

A temporary post called Camp Jackson was established in 1833 about one mile from the present-day town.

Camp Prairie Springs
(1863), unknown location
A CSA encampment within the Cherokee Nation, located about 15 miles from Fort Gibson.

Camp Brassie
(1863), near Tahlequah ?
A CSA encampment within the Cherokee Nation. Exact location undetermined.

Camp Ross
(1863), Park Hill
A CSA encampment near the home of Cherokee Chief John Ross.

Camp Rendezvous
(1834), Cookson ?
The starting point of Gen. Leavenworth's 1834 expedition through Indian Territory.

Fort Coffee
(1834 - 1838, 1861 - 1863), Fort Coffee
Located at Swallow Rock on the Arkansas River, it was a temporary post located in the Choctaw Nation on the Butterfield Overland Route, originally built to stop illegal whiskey shipments into Indian Territory. Named for Army General John Coffee. Abandoned when Fort Smith, AR, was built. Became Fort Coffee Academy, a school for Choctaw boys, in 1843, and was later occupied by CSA Indian troops. Union troops burned the post in 1863. No remains, site private property. Monument located near Skullyville on US 271, about five miles south of the actual site. Much of the foundation stones were later used in private homes in the area. Artifacts on display at the Spiro Historical Society Museum in Spiro at 310 South Main Street.

Camp Steele
(1862), unknown location
A temporary CSA winter encampment reportedly located in the Choctaw Nation about 20 miles west of Fort Smith, AR.

Camp Brookin
(1862), Brookin
A CSA encampment.

Camp Pike
(1863 - 1864), near Whitefield
A CSA encampment located at a spring on the south bank of the Canadian River, about one mile northeast of town. Used just after the Battle of Honey Springs (July 1863), and again just before the Battle of Cabin Creek (September 1864). A battle occurred near here in August 1863.

Camp Imochiah
(1863), near Whitefield
A CSA encampment on Machire Creek west of town. The creek was variously named "Imochiah" and "Emachaya" in older sources. This was the headquarters camp of the First Brigade Indian Troops under Brig. Gen. Douglas Cooper.
(thanks to Ronnie McBean for providing location)

Camp Jumper
(1862), near Eufaula
A CSA encampment.

Camp Cass
(1834), near Stidham
A Federal encampment during the 1834 Leavenworth Expedition, located four miles south of town.

Camp Tiger
(1909), Okmulgee or McIntosh County
A temporary military post located west of Tiger Mountain. Exact location undetermined.

Fort Holmes
(1834 - 1835), near Holdenville
Located on the east bank of the Little River at its confluence with the Canadian River, near the crossing of the Old Osage Trail. Originally called Camp Canadian and then renamed Camp Holmes (1). A blockhouse and barracks were constructed. Abandoned due to unhealthful conditions.

Fort Edwards
(1834 ? - unknown), near Holdenville
Located on the north bank of the Canadian River at its confluence with the Little River, opposite Fort Holmes. Also called James Edwards' Trading Post. Exact dates are not known, but it was in active use much longer than Fort Holmes.

Perryville Depot
(1862 - 1863), near Savanna
A CSA military post and supply depot that was attacked and burned by Union forces in August 1863.

Camp Osage
(1834), near Jesse
A Federal encampment located south of town.

Boggy Depot Camp
(Boggy Depot Park)
(1862 - 1865), near Tushka
Old Boggy Depot is located 15 miles southwest of Atoka. This was a CSA supply depot during the Civil War. After the war it later served as a stage coach station, Chickasaw headquarters, and temporary Choctaw Nation capital. The former state park is now managed by the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations since 2012. Of interest nearby is the Confederate Memorial Museum, located in Atoka.

Fort McCulloch
(1862 - 1865), near Kenefic
A CSA star-shaped earthwork (or three separate works forming a star) (18 guns total) manned by 3000 soldiers, located on the south (or west) bank of the Blue River near "Nail's Crossing". The troops were quartered in tent camps, not permanent barracks. Never attacked by the Union and abandoned after the war. Some earthworks still remain. The site is on private property. See also Civil War || Choctaw Nation School of Language

Camp Armstrong
(1862 - 1865), near Bokchito
Confederate troops occupied the Armstrong Academy (1844) and used it as a field camp and hospital. Located two and one-half miles north of town. The school burned down in 1921.

Fort Towson (Historic Site and Military Park)
(1824 - 1829, 1831 - 1854, 1861 - 1865), Fort Towson PHOTOS
Only ruins remain of this frontier fort, but the sutler's building has been reconstructed, now used as the visitor center. Originally built as a border post between the U.S. and Mexico, located on the east bank of Gates Creek six miles north of the Red River. Abandoned and burned in 1829. Rebuilt south of the creek and called Camp Phoenix briefly before being called Cantonment Towson. Renamed again in 1832. This time it was built to protect the relocated Choctaw Indians from the native Plains tribes. This post was also used as the Choctaw Indian Agency and as the Choctaw Nation capital after 1854. It was used by the Confederates during most of the Civil War as headquarters of the CSA Indian Territory Department. This was the site of the last Confederate troop surrender on June 23, 1865, by General Stand Watie's Cherokee troops.

Camp Washita
(1834), near Platter ?
A temporary Federal Dragoon blockhouse and barracks established by Col. Henry Dodge during the Leavenworth Expedition. Located on the Washita River, three miles north of the Red River, south of Rock Creek. The actual site is now under Lake Texoma.

Post at Chickasaw Indian Agency
(1834), near Lake Texoma
A Federal outpost in the Chickasaw Nation. Undetermined location somewhere along the Washita River.

Fort Washita (Historic Site and Military Park)
(1842 - 1865, intermittent), near Brown
A Federal post built east of the Washita River to protect the recently relocated Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations. The Chickasaw Indian Agency was also located here from 1842 to 1856. The post was rebuilt in 1855. Briefly abandoned in 1858. Abandoned by Union troops in 1861, and used by Confederates throughout the war. Became the CSA Indian Territory Department headquarters in 1865. It was not re-occupied by Federal troops after the war. Turned over to the Chickasaw Nation in 1870. Became a state park in 1962. There are original stone ruins and reconstructed structures, including the reconstructed 1849 barracks, which burned down in 2010, but has been rebuilt. See also Civil War

Camp Fillmore
(1851), near Brown
A temporary Federal encampment officially known as Camp near Fort Washita. Exact location undetermined.

Camp Kagi
(1864), near Milburn
A CSA encampment on the Blue River.

Camp Leavenworth
(1834), near Kingston
A temporary Federal camp during General Henry Leavenworth's 1834 expedition. State marker located about two miles south of town, the actual site may now possibly be under Lake Texoma. Leavenworth died here before completing the expedition's mission, which was then undertaken by Col. Henry Dodge.

Holland Coffee's Trading Post (3)
(1836 - 1837), near Burneyville
A civilian stockaded trading post on the Red River near Walnut Bayou.

Abel Warren's Trading Post (1)
(1837 - 1848), near Burneyville
A civilian trading post on the Red River near Walnut Bayou. Located at or near Coffee's Post (3).

Camp Frank
(1898), Ardmore
A temporary post for Regular Army (coast) artillery troops from Galveston, Texas. Located one mile southeast of town.

Fort Arbuckle (2)
(1851 - 1870), Fort Arbuckle
Originally named Fort near the Crossing of the Washita River, it was built to protect the relocated Chickasaw Indians from the native Plains tribes, and located on the site of a Kickapoo village abandoned two years earlier for Texas. Occupied by the CSA 1861 - 1865. Re-occupied by Federals in 1866. Later taken over by the Chickasaw Nation. The site is seven miles west of Davis on the south side of Wildhorse Creek, near Hoover. One lone chimney from the Officers' quarters still remains on private property. The original howitzers are on display at Fort Sill. Artifacts are on display at the Arbuckle Historical Museum in Davis at 12 Main Street.

Camp Choctaw
(1834), Stephens County
A Federal encampment. Undetermined location.

Camp Arbuckle (2)
(1850 - 1851), near Johnsonville
A temporary Federal post (tent encampment) located one mile west and one and one-half mile north of Byars, and about one mile south of the Canadian River. The garrison then moved south to Wildhorse Creek near Davis after this site was not approved (belatedly) by Army headquarters. The site was then occupied by Delaware Indians for a short time. Marker located on OK 59 one mile west of Byars. This site is sometimes referred to as Old Fort Arbuckle by some historians.

Camp at Purcell
(1889), Purcell
A temporary Army encampment, a subpost of Fort Reno, to prevent "Boomers" from entering Indian Territory.

NEED MORE INFO: Federal Fort Gaines (1849) (unknown location); Camp Smith (1834) located 25 miles west of the Washita River (location ?); Post at Ross' Landing (1836 ?) a Federal post at mouth of Ross Creek in Choctaw Nation (location ?); Cross Timbers Camp (date and location ?).

Western Oklahoma - page 2

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