American Forts: West

OREGON

Camp Alden | Camp Astoria | Fort Astoria | Astoria Post | Fort Bailey | Camp Baker
Camp Barlow | Camp Benson | Camp at Big Bend | Fort Birdseye | Fort Briggs
Cape Arago Radar Station | Cape Meares Radar Station | Cape Perpetua Radar Station
Camp Castaway | Fort Champoeg | Fort Champooick | Camp on Chetco River
Camp Clackamas | Clackamas Rifle Range | Camp Clatsop | Fort Clatsop | Camp Elliff
Fort Flournoy | Camp Galice | Fort George | Camp Gordon | Post at Grand Ronde Agency
Fort Hayes | Henry House | Fort Hill | Fort Hoskins | Humbug Mt. Radar Station
Fort Kalapuya | Fort Kitchen | Fort Lafayette | Fort Lamerick | Fort Lane | Fort Leland
McKay's Fort | Camp McKinley | Camp Medill | Fort Miner | Fort Orford | Camp Phoenix
Fort at Point Adams | Camp Rilea | Camp Rogue River | Fort Rowland | Camp Russell
Salt Camp | Siletz Blockhouse | Siletz Bay Radar Station | Fort Smith | Camp Spencer
Fort Stevens | Camp Stewart | Camp Stuart | Fort Table Rock | Tillamook Head Radar Station
Fort Umpqua (1) | Fort Umpqua (2) | Fort Vannoy | Fort Wallace | Wallace House
Willamette Post | Fort William | Camp Withycombe | Fort Yamhill | Yaquina Bay Blockhouse

Interior Oregon - page 2

FORT WIKI - OREGON

Last Update: 20/JUNE/2010
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - 2010 American Forts Network

Camp Baker
(1862 - 1865), Phoenix
Garrisoned by the OR Volunteer Cavalry to observe Confederate sympathizers in nearby Jacksonville. Located one-half mile west of town along Coleman Creek, site marked by a D.A.R. monument. Possibly also known as Camp Phoenix.

Camp Stuart
(1851), near Medford
A temporary Dragoon post southeast of town.

Camp Stewart
(1853), Jacksonville
A temporary Army camp. Replaced by Fort Lane.

Camp Alden
(1853), near White City
Located at Hailey's Ferry near Upper Table Rock, east of town. A temporary camp established after the "Battle of Evans Creek" (August 1853) that was replaced by Fort Lane after only a few weeks. Hailey's Ferry later became known as Bybee's Ferry.

Fort Table Rock
(1853 ?), near Central Point
A temporary Army post at the Rogue River and Stewarts Creek. The Treaty of Table Rock was signed here in September 1853.

Fort Lane
(1853 - 1856), near Central Point
A log stockade not far from Lower Table Rock, a place considered sacred by Indians. Site located on the south side of the Rogue River, near the mouth of Bear Creek, four miles east of town. It was built by the U.S. Army Dragoons (after the Table Rock Treaty) to protect the Rogue River Indian Agency on the north side of the river. A D.A.R. marker is located about one-quarter mile north of the old community of Tolo.

Fort (David) Birdseye
(1855), Rogue River
A settlers' stockaded log house located on the south bank of the Rogue River near the mouth of Birdseye Creek. The D.A.R. erected a monument here in 1929. The original Birdseye Cabin was restored in the 1980's, but burned down in November 1990.

Fort Vannoy
(1855 - 1856), near Grants Pass
Headquarters camp for the OR Volunteers during the Rogue River War, located on the north bank of the Rogue River four miles west of town. It consisted of a group of several log houses, possibly stockaded. Exact site undetermined.

Camp Spencer
(1855 - 1856), near Provolt
Located near the mouth of Williams Creek on the lower Applegate River, about one mile northwest of town.

Fort (George) Briggs
(1855), Josephine County
A settlers' fortified log house located in the Illinois Valley near Sucker Creek. It was later burned down. Undetermined exact location (below Cave Junction ?).
(NOTE: Two vague references: west of Grants Pass, or east of O'Brien. There is a Briggs Creek northwest of Selma.)

Fort Hayes
(1855), near Wonder ?
A settlers' fortification in the Illinois Valley southwest of Grants Pass. Undetermined exact location, possibly located nine miles north of Kerby; or possibly at the southern end of Hayes Hill at Anderson Station.

Camp Galice
(1854 - 1856), Galice
An OR Volunteers arsenal and powder magazine during the Rogue River War.

Fort Leland
(1855 - 1856), Leland
A fortified (stockaded) tavern (Grave Creek House), on Grave Creek east of Sunny Valley, occupied by the OR Volunteers for several months, after the Battle of Hungry Hill.

Camp Medill (1858), a temporary field camp, was also located somewhere on Grave Creek.

Fort Bailey
(1855), near Wolf Creek
A fortified tavern and camp occupied by OR Volunteers, located on Wolf Creek, five miles south of Cow Creek.

Fort (William) Smith
(1855 - 1856), Glendale Junction
A settlers' stockaded house used by the OR Volunteers during the Rogue River War. Located on the north side of Cow Creek four miles above Glendale.

Camp Gordon
(1856), near Azalea
An OR Volunteers camp located about eight miles above the mouth of Cow Creek, or possibly on Canyon Creek south of Canyonville.

Camp on Chetco River
(1856), near Brookings
An OR Volunteers camp at the mouth of the Chetco River.

Fort Miner
(1855 - 1856), Gold Beach
A civilian fortification located about one and one-half mile north of the mouth of the Rogue River. Actually two log cabins surrounded by earthworks. It became a refuge for 100 settlers and miners during a month-long siege by Indians.

Camp Rogue River
(1856), Gold Beach ?
An OR Volunteers camp reportedly located at the mouth of the Rogue River.

Fort Lamerick
(1856), Big Meadows
An OR Volunteers log breastwork during the Rogue River War. Abandoned after about two months. Site located in extreme northeast Curry County, upstream from Illahe. Remnants were reported in 1896 when the land was cleared for a homestead.

Camp at Big Bend
(1856 - 1857), near Illahe
An OR Volunteers post, later garrisoned by Federal units.

Fort Orford
(1851 - 1856), Port Orford
A civilian stockade with two blockhouses was originally located on Fort Point, built in July 1851, and was later destroyed by fire in 1868. The separate Regular Army post, built two months after the civilian defenses (September 1851), was abandoned in 1856, and was located a few hundred feet northwest of the civilian post.

Of interest nearby is the Historic Port Orford Lifeboat Station (1934 - 1970) at Port Orford Heads State Park, operated by the Cape Blanco Heritage Society.

Humbug Mountain Radar Station
(Humbug Mountain State Park)
(1942 - 1945), near Port Orford
A WWII early warning air defense radar station. This was also known as Station B-29 (SCR-270 radar), one of a chain of 65 stations built along the entire Pacific Coast. This was the southernmost radar station in the state.

Fort (William) Rowland
(1855), Curry County
A settlers' stockade located in the Rowland Prairie on the South Fork Coquille River.

Fort Kitchen
(1855), Myrtle Point
A settlers' stockade. Located about one mile south of town on the South Fork Coquille River near the mouth of Catching Creek. The Catching family were pioneer settlers of this area at that time, and the fort name as spelled was probably a mispronunciation of the family name.

Cape Arago Radar Station
(Cape Arago State Park)
(1942 - 1944), near Charleston
A WWII early warning air defense radar station. This was also known as Station B-28 (SCR-270 radar), one of a chain of 65 stations built along the entire Pacific Coast. It was no longer listed as operational after 1944. Concrete ruins still exist about one-third mile south of the Pack Trail trailhead from Shore Acres State Park, off of the Oregon Coast Trail. The trail is also accessible from Sunset Bay State Park.

Camp Castaway
(1852), near Coos Bay
A temporary tent camp established in January 1852 by Lt. H.W. Stanton, C Troop, 1st U.S. Dragoons, and the other survivors from the sinking of the transport ship Captain Lincoln. The ship sailed from San Francisco, CA bound for Fort Orford and was wrecked about two miles north of the entrance to Coos Bay Harbor. The camp was abandoned in May 1852 when the survivors were rescued and taken to Port Orford.

Fort Flournoy
(1855), near Lookingglass
A settlers' 18-feet square log blockhouse located in the Flournoy Valley a few miles west of town. It was reported still standing in 1883.

Camp Elliff
(1855), Douglas County
A temporary camp of the OR Mounted Volunteers located on Cow Creek.

Fort Umpqua (1)
(1832 - 1850), Elkton
A British fur trading post on the south (or west) bank of the Umpqua River, also known as (Thomas or Desportes) McKay's Fort. It was later acquired by the Hudson's Bay Co. and moved five times, although remaining in the same general area. The original location was near Calapooya Creek. The last location was opposite the mouth of Elk Creek. A reconstruction of the stockaded post was built in the summer of 2010, located at the Elkton Community Education Center at 15850 Highway 38W, about one mile downstream from the original last known site.

Fort Umpqua (2)
(1856 - 1862), near Gardiner
Built at the end of the Rogue River War from salvaged material from Fort Orford. Located on the north (or west) bank of the Umpqua River about two miles from its mouth, at what was then known as the community of Umpqua City (1851 - 1867). It was closed in 1862 after the Indian troubles died down. The old blockhouse and soldiers' barracks were later moved into town as a memorial, but no longer exist today. The U.S. Forest Service conducted an archaeological dig at the original site (Army Hill) in 2000.

Cape Perpetua Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), near Yachats
A WWII early warning air defense radar station. This was also known as Station B-27 (SCR-270 radar), one of a chain of 65 stations built along the entire Pacific Coast. A rock shelter built before the war by the C.C.C. at the top of Cape Perpetua was also used as part of the station.

Siletz Bay Radar Station
(1942 - 1944), undetermined location
A WWII early warning air defense radar station listed in Army documents. This was also known as Station B-26 (SCR-270 radar), one of a chain of 65 stations built along the entire Pacific Coast. It was no longer listed as operational after 1944. Undetermined location. Possibly Yaquina Bay ? or Yaquina Head ? or Cape Foulweather ? or Depoe Bay ?

Siletz Blockhouse
(1858 - 1866), Siletz
A two-story blockhouse built to protect the Siletz Indian Agency. It was a subpost of Fort Hoskins. Originally called Yaquina Bay Blockhouse (1856 - 1858) located at the mouth of the Yaquina River near South Beach. It was dismantled and floated upriver in 1858.

Fort Hoskins (Park)
(1856 - 1865), Hoskins
A Federal post originally located on the Luckiamute River near the mouth of Bonner Creek, it was soon relocated in 1856 to the eastern side of the Siletz River Indian Reservation, about 38 miles northwest of the original site. The second site, just west of Kings Valley, became a Benton County park in 1992, but was not opened to the public until 2002. The 1857 Post Commander's House was relocated back to the park in 2012 and has been restored. The visitor center is in a restored 1870's farmhouse. See also Fort Hoskins and the Commander's House

Fort Lafayette
(1863), Grand Ronde
Officially known as Post at Grand Ronde Indian Agency, it was a temporary outpost of Fort Yamhill built by OR Volunteers.

Fort Yamhill (State Heritage Area)
(1855 - 1866), Valley Junction
Settlers first built an otherwise unnamed blockhouse on what became known as Fort Hill, east of Cosper Creek. The Army arrived in 1856, erected a palisade and named it. A D.A.R. monument is located about one-half mile north of town. The blockhouse still exists, which was moved sometime after 1866 to the Grand Ronde Indian Agency three miles away where it was used as a jail, and then moved again in 1911 to Courthouse Square Park in Dayton. At the original site archaeological excavations and preservation efforts are underway. A surviving former Officers' Quarters was restored on site in 2012.

Cape Meares Radar Station
(1942 - 1944), Oceanside
A WWII early warning air defense radar station. This may have been Station B-25 (SCR-270 radar), one of a chain of 65 stations built along the entire Pacific Coast. It was no longer listed as operational after 1944. Located off of Meares Loop Road on Radar Road at Short Beach, just north of town. Concrete ruins still exist.

Camp Adair (State Military Reservation)
(Oregon Military Department)
(1942 - 1946/present), Adair
A WWII training center for the 70th, 91st, 96th, and 104th Infantry Divisions, and later used as an Italian POW camp. Located on 50,000 acres along the Benton - Polk county line on both sides of US 99W, north of Corvallis. Some structures and foundations still remain. A portion of the original reservation is still in use by the Oregon National Guard as the Camp Adair Weapons Firing Range. Portions of the old post are now within McDonald State Forest, and other portions are now private property.
* This entry is listed here for historical interest only. *

Camp Russell
(1864 - 1865), Salem
A state muster-in and training camp for the OR Volunteer Infantry, once located at the state fairgrounds, at present-day 17th Street and Silverton Road.

Fort Wallace
(1812 - 1814), Keizer
A Pacific Fur Company post built by William Wallace and J.C. Halsey as an outpost of Fort Astoria. Sold to the North West Co. in 1813 with the other American assets in the region and renamed Wallace House. Site probably located in River's Edge Park on the south edge of town.

William Henry House
(1813 - unknown), near Newberg
A North West Co. trading post.

Fort Champoeg
(Champoeg State Heritage Area)
(1813 - 1861 ?), near Donald
Originally Willamette Post of the North West Company, a two-room log cabin. Also known as Fort Kalapuya. Taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. in 1830 and enlarged and renamed. Also spelled Champooick. A fire and a flood in 1861 destroyed the post and nearby settlement. The Champoeg State Heritage Area was the site of the original settlement and the HBC's granary operation. The history of the HBC post is presented at the museum. Friends of Historic Champoeg.

Also of interest nearby is the Willamette Mission State Park (1834 - 1840). The Methodist mission was moved to Salem (then known as Chemeketa) in 1840.

Camp Clackamas
(1862), Oregon City
A temporary state militia post that lasted only one month. Located at the mouth of the Clackamas River about one mile north of town. Replaced Camp Barlow.

Camp Barlow
(1862), near Oregon City
A temporary recruiting camp for the OR Volunteers, located two miles north of town along the Molalla River. The post was soon afterward moved to Camp Clackamas.

Camp Withycombe (State Military Reservation)
(Oregon Military Department)
(1909 - present), Clackamas
Originally an Oregon National Guard summer training area, initially known as the Clackamas Rifle Range, located just east of town. Soon renamed Camp Benson, then renamed again in 1917 after expansion. Still in use by the state guard as the state headquarters and supply depot. Located here is the Oregon National Guard Military Museum and Research Center.

Camp McKinley
(1898), Portland
A Spanish-American War muster-in camp for state troops. Located on the racetrack grounds at Irvington Park (present-day NE 7th Ave. between NE Fremont and NE Brazee Streets). In use for only three weeks. No remains.

Fort William
(1834 - 1848 ?), Sauvie Island
A trading post built by Nathaniel Wyeth, originally located at Warrior Point on the north end of the island, but moved to the central west-side in 1835 after spring flooding. In 1837 the Hudson's Bay Company leased the post for use as a dairy farm.

Astoria Post
(1811 - 1824, 1830 - 1848), Astoria
A Pacific Fur Co. post until October 1813, when the North West Co. purchased it from John Jacob Astor. The British Royal Navy arrived in December 1813 to pull down the still-flying American flag, and renamed the post to Fort George at that time. The post was nominally transferred back to the United States in October 1818, but was still operated by the British. The Hudson's Bay Co. took over operations in 1822, but it was then abandoned for several years after Fort Vancouver was established by the HBC across the river in present-day Washington state. Reactivated in 1830 (HBC records cover 1820 - 1848), the settlement eventually developed into the present town. This was the first permanent white settlement in the state. It was also the first permanent American settlement west of the Rocky Mountains. The post was later renamed back to Fort Astoria after the British left. (NOTE: There is no historical record of the use of "Fort Astor", before or after the British period.) The present blockhouse and stockade is a reconstruction on a portion of the original site, located on Exchange Street between 14th and 15th Aves.. The Fort George Brewery is also located on site.
See also The Columbia River: A Photographic Journey by Lyn Topinka || John Jacob Astor and Fort Astoria from Astoria Oregon.com

Located near here was American Camp Astoria (1850 - 1851), a temporary Federal post which was transferred to Columbia Barracks, WA.

Fort Clatsop
(Lewis and Clark National Historical Park)
(1805 - 1806), near Warrenton
A 1955 reconstruction of the 50-foot square stockaded winter encampment of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, on the exact site. It is located about five miles southwest of the Fort Astoria site, and about three miles inland from the ocean. This was the first American-flagged military post west of the Rocky Mountains. The reconstructed fort was destroyed by fire in October 2005, later rebuilt.

Camp Rilea (State Military Reservation)
(Oregon Military Department)
(1927 - present), Camp Rilea
An Oregon National Guard training area originally named Camp Clatsop. Additional land was purchased in the 1930's, and the post was Federalized in 1940 for WWII training. Reverted back to the state in 1947. Renamed in 1959. Still in use by the state guard.

Salt Camp
(Lewis and Clark National Historical Park)
(1805 - 1806), Seaside
Several men from the Lewis and Clark Expedition stayed here during the winter to boil ocean water to produce salt. This site was added to the National Park in 1979.


HARBOR DEFENSES of the COLUMBIA RIVER (partial)
(see also Forts Canby and Columbia, WA)
Harbor Defense of the Columbia - FORT WIKI
Japanese Attack on Fort Stevens from Deano in America

Fort Stevens (State Park)
(Lewis and Clark National Historical Park)
(1863 - 1947), Hammond
Originally called Fort at Point Adams, an earthwork battery. Placed on care-taker status from 1883 to 1897. Concrete Endicott-era batteries here are Battery David Russell (1903 - 1944), Battery William Clark (1899 - 1942), Battery Lyman Mishler (1897 - 1941), on which a harbor entrance control post was built in 1941, West Battery which later became Batteries Lewis and Walker, Battery Meriwether Lewis (1897 - 1920), Battery Leverett Walker (1897 - 1920), Battery James Pratt (1902 - 1943) (currently under restoration), Battery Constant Freeman (1902 - 1920) built into the old fort - later destroyed, Battery 245 (1944 - 1947) later used by USAF as a LASHUP radar platform (Site L-36) (AN/TPS-1B radar) (1950 - 1952), Battery Elias Smur (1902 - 1920), and Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 1 (1943 - 1946) by the river jetty. Railway mortars were stored here in WWII, but not emplaced locally. An SCR-296 radar for Battery 245 was located at Point Adams. During WWII the Columbia River mine depot was located here. Battery Russell is well to the south of the rest of the batteries, and faces the ocean instead of the river. In July 1942 Fort Stevens was fired upon by a Japanese submarine, but it was not fired back upon. This made it the first and only seacoast fortification in the 48 contiguous states to be attacked by a foreign enemy vessel since the War of 1812. Fort Stevens was the headquarters post to Fort Canby and Fort Columbia in Washington. Several of the 1905 Officers' Quarters on the parade ground are now used as part of the Officers' Inn Bed and Breakfast, available by reservation.

WWII fire-control stations in Oregon were located at Columbia Beach, DeLaura Beach (two), Hammond, and Sand Island (two). Several other stations were located within the post reservation. Nothing is left of these.

Although not directly associated with Fort Stevens, an early warning air defense radar site (1942 - 1945, 1948) was located at Tillamook Head (Ecola State Park) near Cannon Beach. The Tillamook Head Radar Station, which was also known as Station J-23 (SCR-516 radar), was one of a chain of 65 sites along the entire Pacific Coast operated by the Army Signal Corps. The site was briefly re-activated by the Air Force in 1948 (AN/TPS-1B radar). Concrete ruins still exist about two miles up the Clatsop Loop Trail from Indian Beach (the former Army access road).


Of related interest near Brookings is Crissey Field State Recreation Area, a former World War II Army auxiliary airfield. Several structures (overgrown foundations ?) supposedly still remain.

Interior Oregon - page 2

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